Mudbrick


Mudbrick
New unlaid mudbricks in the Jordan River West Bank (2011)
Mudbrick was used for the outer construction of Sumerian ziggurats—some of the world's largest and oldest constructions. Choqa Zanbil, a 13th century BC, Elamite, ziggurat in Iran is similarly constructed from clay bricks.
The Great Mosque of Djenné is a well-known Mosque that is located in Djenné, Mali. It was made with mudbrick and is the largest mudbrick structure in the world.
Mudbrick home in Pakistan

A mudbrick is a firefree brick, made of a mixture of clay, mud, sand, and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw. They use a stiff mixture and let them dry in the sun for 25 days[citation needed].

In warm regions with very little timber available to fuel a kiln, bricks were generally sun dried. This had the result that their useful lifespan is reduced to around thirty years. Once a building collapsed, new bricks would have to be made and the new structure rebuilt on top of the rubble of the decayed old brick. This phenomenon is the primary factor behind the mounds or tells on which many ancient cities stand. In some cases they extended the life of mud bricks by putting kiln dried bricks on top or covering them with stucco.

Adobe is a type of mudbrick also used today to save energy and is an environmentally safe way to insulate a house. This type of house tends to stay cool in the summer and warm in the winter.[1]

Contents

Banco

The Great Mosque of Djenné, in central Mali, is the world's largest mudbrick structure. It, like much Sahelian architecture, is built with a mudbrick called Banco: a recipe of mud and grain husks, fermented, and either formed into bricks or applied on surfaces as a plaster like paste in broad strokes. This plaster must be reapplied annually.[2]

Ancient world

The South Asian inhabitants of Mehrgarh constructed, and lived in, mud brick houses between 7000–3300 BCE.[3] Mudbricks were in use in the Near East during the aceramic Neolithic B period. The Sumerians used sun-dried bricks in their city construction;[4] typically these bricks were flat on the plano-convex mudbricks. Some bricks were formed in a square mould and rounded so that the middle was thicker than the ends.

In Minoan Crete at the Knossos site there is archaeological evidence that sun-dried bricks were used in the Neolithic period (e.g. prior to 3400 BC).[5]

Mudbricks were used to some extent in pre-Roman Egypt, and mudbrick use increased at the time of Roman influence.[6]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Modern Marvels: Bible tech" History channel
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Possehl, Gregory L. (1996)
  4. ^ Mogens Herman Hansen, A Comparative Study of Six City-state Cultures, Københavns universitet Polis centret (2002) Videnskabernes Selskab, 144 pages ISBN 87-7876-316-9
  5. ^ C. Michael Hogan, Knossos fieldnotes, Modern Antiquarian (2007)
  6. ^ Kathryn A. Bard and Steven Blake Shubert, Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, 1999, Routledge, 938 pages ISBN 0-415-18589-0

References

  • Possehl, Gregory L. (1996). Mehrgarh in Oxford Companion to Archaeology, edited by Brian Fagan. Oxford University Press.

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mudbrick —    The basic material used for construction in ancient Egypt. Nile clay mixed with sand and straw was poured into molds and dried to form bricks used in the building of most domestic buildings and palaces. Straw was used in the bricks found at… …   Ancient Egypt

  • mudbrick — noun A brick made from mud or clay mixed with straw and dried in the sun rather than being fired …   Wiktionary

  • mudbrick — /mʌdˈbrɪk/ (say mud brik) noun Also, mud brick. 1. a brick made from a slurry of mud mixed with clay, sand, and straw or similar binding material, shaped in a mould and dried in the sun. –adjective 2. of, relating to, or built using such bricks …   Australian English dictionary

  • Mudbrick stamp — The mudbrick stamp, or brick seal of Mesopotamia are impression or stamp seals made upon bricks or mudbrick. The inscribed seal is in mirror reverse on the mold , mostly with cuneiform inscriptions, and the foundation mudbricks are often part of… …   Wikipedia

  • Nineveh — Coordinates: 36°21′34″N 43°09′10″E / 36.35944°N 43.15278°E / 36.35944; 43.15278 For other uses, see Nine …   Wikipedia

  • Heuneburg — The Heuneburg is a prehistoric hillfort by the upper Danube. It is located in Hundersingen near Herbertingen, between Ulm and Sigmaringen, Baden Württemberg, Germany. It is considered one of the most important early Celtic centres in Central… …   Wikipedia

  • Banka Banka Station — is a location in the Northern Territory of Australia, 100 kilometers north of Tennant Creek along the Stuart Highway. The historic cattle station was the first operational pastoral lease in this region, and a supply camp during World War II,… …   Wikipedia

  • Greek temple — Greek temples (Ancient Greek: polytonic|ὁ ναός , gr. ho naós dwelling , semantically distinct from Latin la. templum temple ) were structures built to house the cult statues within Greek sanctuaries. The temples themselves did usually not… …   Wikipedia

  • Inventions in the modern Islamic world — [ Abdus Salam, the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics recipient, include the electroweak interaction, electroweak symmetry breaking, magnetic photon, neutral current, preon, W and Z bosons, supergeometry, supermanifold, superspace and superfield.] This… …   Wikipedia

  • Eridu — (URUNUN.KI cuneiform| #x12263;cuneiform| #x121A0;; Sumerian:eridug; Akkadian: ? ), from the Sumerian for mighty place , is modern Tell Abu Shahrain, Iraq. Eridu was the earliest city in southern Mesopotamia, founded c 5400 BCE. Located Seven… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.