Jacquard loom

Jacquard loom

The Jacquard Loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, that has holes punched in pasteboard, each row of which corresponds to one row of the design. Multiple rows of holes are punched on each card and the many cards that compose the design of the textile are strung together in order. It is based on earlier inventions by the Frenchmen Basile Bouchon (1725), Jean Falcon (1728) and Jacques Vaucanson (1740) [http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin7317/students/museum/slong.html] .

Each hole in the card corresponds to a "Bolus" hook, which can either be up or down. The hook raises or lowers the harness, which carries and guides the warp thread so that the weft will either lie above or below it. The sequence of raised and lowered threads is what creates the pattern. Each hook can be connected via the harness to a number of threads, allowing more than one repeat of a pattern. A loom with a 400 hook head might have four threads connected to each hook, resulting in a fabric that is 1600 warp ends wide with four repeats of the weave going across.

The Jacquard loom was the first machine to use punch cards to control a sequence of operations. Although it did no computation based on them, it is considered an important step in the history of computing hardware [Essinger, James (2004). "Jacquard's web". Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 9780192805782] . The ability to change the pattern of the loom's weave by simply changing cards was an important conceptual precursor to the development of computer programming. Specifically, Charles Babbage planned to use cards to store programs in his Analytical engine.

The term "Jacquard loom" is a misnomer. It is the "Jacquard head" that adapts to a great many dobby looms such as the "Dornier" brand that allow the weaving machine to then create the intricate patterns often seen in Jacquard weaving.

Jacquard looms, whilst relatively common in the textile industry, are not as ubiquitous as dobby looms which are usually faster and much cheaper to operate. However unlike jacquard looms they are not capable of producing so many different weaves from one warp. Modern jacquard looms are controlled by computers in place of the original punched cards, and can have thousands of hooks.

The threading of a Jacquard loom is so labor intensive that many looms are threaded only once. Subsequent warps are then tied in to the existing warp with the help of a knotting robot which ties each new thread on individually. Even for a small loom with only a few thousand warp ends the process of re-threading can take days.

ee also

commons|Jacquard loom
*Timeline of clothing and textiles technology
*Jacquard weaving

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jacquard loom — Jacquard Jac*quard , a. Pertaining to, or invented by, Jacquard, a French mechanician, who died in 1834. [1913 Webster] {Jacquard apparatus} or {Jacquard arrangement}, a device applied to looms for weaving figured goods, consisting of mechanism… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Jacquard loom — noun a loom with an attachment for forming openings for the passage of the shuttle between the warp threads; used in weaving figured fabrics • Syn: ↑Jacquard • Hypernyms: ↑loom * * * noun see jacquard 1b * * * a loom for producing elaborate… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Jacquard loom — a loom for producing elaborate designs in an intricate weave (Jacquard weave) constructed from a variety of basic weaves. [1850 55; named after J. M. Jacquard (1757 1834), French inventor] * * * Loom incorporating a special device to control… …   Universalium

  • Jacquard loom — Jac′quard (or jac′quard) loom n. tex a loom for producing elaborate designs in an intricate weave(Jac′quard weave or jac′quard weave )constructed from a variety of basic weaves • Etymology: 1850–55; after J. M. Jacquard (1757–1834), French… …   From formal English to slang

  • JACQUARD LOOM —    a loom with an apparatus for weaving figures in textiles, such as silks, muslins, and carpets, which was the invention of an ingenious Frenchman, born in Lyons, of the name of Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752 1834) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Jacquard loom — /ˈdʒækad lum/ (say jakahd loohm) noun a pattern loom for weaving elaborate designs. {named after JM Jacquard, 1752–1834, French inventor} …   Australian English dictionary

  • Jacquard loom — noun Date: 1851 a loom designed to weave fabrics of intricate design whose control mechanism makes use of cards with holes punched in them …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Jacquard weaving — makes possible in almost any loom the programmed raising of each warp thread independently of the others. This brings much greater versatility to the weaving process, and offers the highest level of warp yarn control. This mechanism is probably… …   Wikipedia

  • Jacquard —    Jacquard is the name of an elaborate woven design found in tablecloth damask, bedspreads, and brocades. The weave gets its name from the Jacquard loom, on which flower designs or even pictures of men and women can be woven. The name Jacquard… …   Dictionary of eponyms

  • Jacquard — Jac*quard , a. Pertaining to, or invented by, Jacquard, a French mechanician, who died in 1834. [1913 Webster] {Jacquard apparatus} or {Jacquard arrangement}, a device applied to looms for weaving figured goods, consisting of mechanism controlled …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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