- Jack Kemp
name = Jack Kemp, Jr.
imagesize = 200px
order = 1996 Republican Vice Presidential nominee
term_start =August 16, 1996
term_end =November 5, 1996
Bill Clinton/ Al Gore
order2 = 9th
United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
term_start2 =February 13, 1989
term_end2 =January 19, 1993
George H. W. Bush
district3 = 31st
state3 = New York
term_start3 = January 3, 1983
term_end3 = January 3, 1989
Donald J. Mitchell
district4 = 38th
state4 = New York
term_start4 = January 3, 1973
term_end4 = January 3, 1983
James F. Hastings
successor4 = District 38 eliminated
district5 = 39th
state5 = New York
term_start5 = January 3, 1971
term_end5 = January 3, 1973
Richard D. McCarthy
James F. Hastings
birth_date=Birth date and age|1935|7|13|mf=y
children=Jeff (birth date and age|mf=yes|1959|7|11)
Jennifer (b. c. 1961)
Judith (b. c. 1963)
Jimmy (birth date and age|mf=yes|1971|6|27)
profession=Professional American football player; Politician
Jack French Kemp, Jr. (born July 13, 1935) is an American politician and former professional
American footballplayer. In the 1996 election, Kemp was Republican presidential nominee Bob Dole's running mate for Vice President. He had previously contended for the presidential nomination in the 1988 Republican primaries. Kemp began his political career with nine terms as a Congressman for Western New York, from 1971 to 1989. He also served as Housing Secretary in the George H. W. Bushadministration.
Before politics, Kemp was a professional
quarterbackfor 13 years in the National Football League(NFL), Canadian Football League(CFL), and American Football League(AFL). He served as captain of both the San Diego Chargersand Buffalo Billsand earned the AFL Most Valuable Player award in 1965 after leading the Bills to a second consecutive AFL championship. He played in the AFL for all ten years of its existence, appeared in its All-star game seven times, played its championship game five times, and set many of the AFL career-passing statistical records. Kemp also co-founded the AFL Players Association, for which he served five terms as president. Kemp served in the United States Army Reserveduring his early football years.
Kemp is an economic conservative, advocating low taxes, and
supply-sidepolicies. Kemp's positions span the social spectrum, ranging from his conservative opposition of abortionto his more liberal stances advocating immigration reform. As a proponent of both Chicago school and supply-side economics, he is notable as both the molder of the Reagan agenda and the architect of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981(known as the Kemp–Roth tax cut).
Since his days in political office, Kemp has remained active as a political advocate and commentator as well as served on corporate and
non-profit organizationboards. He has promoted American football and advocated for retired professional football players. Kemp is the benefactorof Pepperdine University's Jack F. Kemp Institute of Political Economy. He has authored, co-authored, and edited several books.
Kemp, who was born, raised, and educated in city-state|Los Angeles|California, is the third of Paul and Frances Kemp's four sons. Paul turned his
motorcycle messenger serviceinto a trucking company that grew from one to fourteen trucks.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEEDA1238F933A15751C1A96E948260|title= Man in the News; Theorist With a Heart; Jack French Kemp|accessdate=2008-03-15|date= 1988-12-20|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=May, Clifford D.] Frances was a well-educated social workeras well as a Spanish teacher. Jack grew up in the heavily JewishWilshire district of West Los Angeles, but his tight-knit middle classfamily practiced in the Church of Christ, Scientist. In his youth, sports consumed Kemp, who once chose the forward passas the subject of a school essay on important inventions, although his mother attempted to broaden his horizons with piano lessons and trips to the Hollywood Bowl.
Kemp attended Fairfax High School, which is known both for its historically high concentration of Jewish students and for its high number of celebrities. Over 95 percent of Kemp's classmates were Jewish and he became a supporter of Jewish causes.cite web|url=http://www.usc.edu/uscnews/stories/2740.html|title=114th Commencement Speaker and Honorary Degree Recipient Doctor of Laws, Honoris Causa|accessdate=2008-04-01|date=
1997-05-05|publisher= University of Southern California|work=USC News|author=Payton, Melissa] Fairfax boasts an alumni of notable actors, athletes, and musicians. Herb Alpert, Larry Sherry, and Judith A. Reismanare among the 1935-born alumni of this school, which is located on Melrose Avenue. [cite web|url=http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/moore/348031_moore19.html|title=Go 2 Guy: L.A. phenom to test Franklin|accessdate=2008-04-01|date= 2008-01-19|publisher= Seattle Post-Intelligencer|work=SeattlePI.com|author=Moore, Jim] cite web|url=http://www.pbs.org/kcet/senioryear/fairfax/facts.html|title=Fairfax Facts|accessdate=2008-04-01|publisher=Public Broadcasting Service] Kemp learned to embrace diversity and hard work while working with his brothers at his father's trucking company in downtown Los Angeles. Kemp's habit of rigorous reading, which would become important later, showed in high school where he read history and philosophy books.
After graduating high school in 1953, [cite web|url=http://www.elections.state.ak.us/96oep/kemp.htm|title=U.S. Vice President: Jack Kemp, Republican|accessdate=2008-05-01|date=1996|publisher=Alaska Division of Elections] he attended
Occidental College, a founding member of NCAA Division III Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. [cite web|url=http://www.thesciac.org/information/about/index|title=About the SCIAC|accessdate=2008-03-31|publisher=Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference] Kemp selected Occidental because its football team used professional formations and plays, which would help him to aspire to be a professional quarterback. At height|ft=5|in=10|wiki=yes|abbr=mos and convert|175|lb|kg|1, he considered himself too small to play for the major Southern California college footballprograms (USC Trojans and UCLA Bruins).
At Occidental, Kemp was a record-setting
javelinhurler and played several positions on the football team: quarterback, defensive back, place kicker, and punter. During his years as starting quarterback the team posted 6–2 and 3–6 records. Kemp was named a Little All-American one year and threw for over 1,100 yards in a season. Kemp and close friend Jim Mora, who would become an NFL head coach, were members of the Alpha Tau Omegafraternity.cite web|url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/KEMP+SUCCESS+BEGAN+AT+OXY-a083966485|title=Kemp Success Began At Oxy|accessdate=2008-03-31|date= 1996-09-08|publisher=Farlex, Inc.|work= Los Angeles Daily News|author=Martinez, Michael] Kemp declined to become involved in student government.
Although he was
near-sighted, Kemp was tenacious on the field. In a game against Pomona College, his team trailed by a large margin before he led them to three scoring drives. After kicking an extra pointfollowing the final scoring drive, he turned to his teammate and said, "I guess we won." However, he could not see the scoreboardand did not realize that they had not. Kemp performed post-graduate study at Long Beach State University and California Western University, and he served in the military from 1958–1962. Kemp, who earned a degree in physical educationfrom Occidental, took graduate economics classes at the two schools in an effort to improve himself.
Marriage and family
Kemp graduated from Occidental in 1957 and married Joanne Main, his college sweetheart, after she graduated from Occidental in 1958. Joanne had grown up in city-state|Fillmore|California and attended
Fillmore High Schoolin Ventura County. [cite web|url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/KEMP'S+WIFE+PREPARED+FOR+ROLE%2c+MOM+SAYS.(NEWS)-a083959339|title=Kemp's Wife Prepared For Role, Mom Says|accessdate=2008-03-31|date= 1996-08-11|publisher=Farlex, Inc.|work= Los Angeles Daily News|author=Gonzalez, Virginia] Her father was a teacher and football coach in the Fillmore Unified School District before becoming vice principal and eventually superintendent of the district.cite web|url=http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/election/august96/joanne_kemp_8-15.html|title=Second Lady Hopeful|accessdate=2008-09-03|date=1996-08-15|publisher=MacNeil/Lehrer Productions|author=Farnsworth, Elizabeth] Kemp's Biblical Literature professor, Keith Beebe, presided over the wedding, and after the marriage, Kemp became a Presbyterian, which was Joanne's faith.
They have two sons, both of whom were professional football quarterbacks:
Jeff Kempplayed in the NFL from 1981 to 1991, [cite web|url=http://www.nfl.com/players/jeffkemp/profile?id=KEM184574|title=All-Time Players: Jeff Kemp|accessdate=2008-03-31|publisher=NFL Enterprises LLC.] and Jimmy Kempplayed in the CFL from 1994 to 2002. They also have two daughters: Jennifer and Judith. [cite web|url=http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/bio/kemp_bio.html|title=Biography Of Jack Kemp|accessdate=2008-02-24|publisher=MacNeil/Lehrer Productions|work=pbs.org] Jeff, Jennifer and Judith are each two years apart, and Jimmy is eight years younger than Judith. As of June 2006, the Kemps had 16 grandchildren.cite web|url=http://www.townhall.com/columnists/column.aspx?UrlTitle=what_i_really_think_about_soccer&ns=JackKemp&dt=06/19/2006&page=full&comments=true|title=What I really think about soccer|accessdate=2008-02-24|date= 2006-06-19|author=Kemp, Jack|publisher=Salem Web Network|work=Townhall.com] Kemp's opposition to abortion is partially affected by his wife's miscarriage, which caused him to revalue the sanctity of human life.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE2DB1E3EF932A2575BC0A960958260|title= In His Own Words: Jack Kemp and the Issues|accessdate=2008-03-08|date= 1996-08-11|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times]
birthdate=birth date and age|mf=yes|1935|7|13
* 7x AFL All Star (1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1969)
* 5x TSN All-AFL (1960, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1966)
* AFL Champion (1964, 1965)
* Buffalo Bills Wall of Fame
* AFL MVP (AP, 1965)
* AFL Championship Game MVP (1965)Records and Leaderships
* AFL career regular season passing attempts
* AFL career regular season passing completions
* AFL career regular season passing yards
* AFL career championship game passing attempts
* AFL career championship game passing completions
* AFL career championship game passing yards
* AFL yards per attempt (1960, 1964)
HOF=Kemp, a 17th round
1957 NFL Draftchoice by the Detroit Lions, was cut from the team before the 1957 NFL seasonbegan. He spent 1957 with the Pittsburgh Steelersand 1958 on the taxi squadof the New York Giantsand San Francisco 49ers. During his taxi squad tenure, he was third-string quarterback, never taking the field, for the New York Giants who lost the first overtime NFL playoff game, the 1958 NFL Championship Game against the Baltimore Colts at Yankee Stadium. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B03EEDD123FF934A15752C0A9679C8B63|title= A Giant in '58|accessdate=2008-03-06|date= 2001-01-27|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Kemp, Jack]
After his time in the NFL, Kemp served a year as a private in the
United States Army Reserve. During this time, he played one game for the Calgary Stampedersof the Canadian Football League, which made him ineligible for the NFL in 1959. Kemp had been cut by five professional teams (Lions, Steelers, Giants, 49ers, and Stampeders). According to his older brother Tom, the family attempted to encourage him to get on with his life after he bounced around the NFL and his parents drove him from California to city-state|Calgary|Alberta only to see him get cut. On February 9 and February 11, 1960, the newly-formed AFL agreed to a "no tampering" policy with the NFL and CFL respectively to keep from stealing star players. Thus, players like Kemp with modest NFL experience were common AFL signees at the time. [Gruver, p. 44.] Kemp signed as a free agentwith the AFL's Los Angeles Chargers.
id Gillman era (1960–1962)
In 1960, Kemp led the Los Angeles Chargers to a Western Division championship with a 10–4 record. [Gruver, p. 55.] Kemp finished second to
Frank Tripuckain the major passing statistics (attempts, completions, and yards), led the AFL in yards per completion as well as times sacked and finished one rushing touchdown short of the league lead in the eight-team AFL.cite web|url=http://www.pro-football-reference.com/years/1960_AFL/leaders.htm|title=1960 AFL Leaders and Leaderboards|publisher=Sports Reference, LLC|work=Pro-Football-Reference.com |accessdate=2008-03-31] Kemp and Tripucka became the AFL's first 3,000-yard passers in the inaugural 14-game schedule 1960 season. Kemp led an offense that averaged 46 points over its last four games and scored over 41 points in five of their last nine games. [Gruver, p. 56.] In the 1960 AFL Championship game, Kemp led the team to field goals on their first two possessions, but after the Houston Oilersposted a touchdownin the second quarter for a 7–6 lead, the Chargers never regained the lead. [Gruver, pp. 58–59.]
In 1961, "
San Diego Union" editor Jack Murphy convinced Barron Hiltonto move the Chargers from Los Angeles to San Diego. [Gruver, p. 61.] Kemp led the relocated Chargers to a 12–2 record and a repeat Western Division championship.Gruver, p. 71.] Kemp again finished second in passing yards (this time to George Blanda).cite web|url=http://www.pro-football-reference.com/years/1961_AFL/leaders.htm|title=1961 AFL Leaders and Leaderboards|publisher=Sports Reference, LLC|work=Pro-Football-Reference.com |accessdate=2008-03-31] The team earned an AFL championship game rematch against the Oilers. However, this time the Chargers were unable to score until a fourth quarter field goal in a 10–3 loss. [Gruver, p. 266.]
Berlin Wallwas erected in August 1961. On October 15, 1961, President John F. Kennedyactivated Kemp's San Diego-based 977th Transportation Company reserves unit for duty in response. In September, the right-handed Kemp had injured his left shoulder while playing football. Medical examiners found swelling and muscle spasms in his left shoulder and described his voluntary range of motionat 80 percent. The Surgeon General of the United States Armyreviewed recommendation by Army doctors that Kemp be excused from service. Kemp underwent a second physical at a San Francisco Army hospital. Kemp's 1961 Chargers roommate and Pro Football Hall of Famer, Ron Mix, was denied a deferment but sympathized with Kemp. Kemp led the 1961 Chargers to a division title, passing for 2,686 yards and 15 touchdowns.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0DE0DB1630F93BA2575BC0A960958260|title= Army Allowed Kemp to Skip Army Call-Up For an Injury|accessdate=2008-03-03|date= 1996-08-18|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Frantz, Douglas]
The Chargers drafted
Lance Alworthand John Hadlin the 1962 AFL Draft. [Gruver, p. 80.] Kemp won two AFL Western Division championships with the Chargers, but in a rare blunder by head coach Sid Gillman, Kemp was put on waivers to try to "hide" him when he was unable to play due to a broken middle finger after two games in 1962. [Gruver, pp. 82–83.]
Lou Saban era (1962–1965)
Buffalo Billscoach Lou Sabannoticed Kemp was available on waivers and claimed him for the $100 waiver fee on September 25, 1962,Maiorana (1994), p. 86.] one of the biggest bargains in pro football history.cite book|title=Legends of the Buffalo Bills|author=Schultz, Randy|publisher=Sports Publishing LLC|date=2003|isbn=1582616876] The AFL commissioner, Joe Foss, awarded Kemp to the Bills, who along with the Dallas Texans and Denver Broncosattempted to claim Kemp. [Gruver, p. 83.] The signing solved the Bills' quarterback problem according to Billy Shaw. According to Van Miller, Kemp was not excited about coming to Buffalo: "Jack's a skier, and he wanted to go to Denver and play for the Broncos. He hated the thought of coming to Buffalo."cite book|title=The American Football League: A Year-by-Year History, 1960-1969|author=Gruver, Ed|publisher=McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers|date=1997] During his football career at Buffalo, he would become known for his love of reading a broad range of books including those by Henry Thoreau, which led to chidings from Saban.
Injuries, including a broken finger, kept Kemp from playing for most of the 1962 season. That season, Kemp received a
military draftnotice for service in the Vietnam Warand received a draft waiverbecause of a knee problem. The injuries healed, and Kemp debuted for Buffalo on November 18, 1962 by directing the only touchdown drive in a 10–6 win over the Oakland Raiders. He played only four games for Buffalo in 1962, but he still made the AFL All-Star team. The Bills won three of their last four games to finish 7–6–1. [Maiorana (1994), p. 93–94.]
On December 14, 1962, the Bills outbid the
Green Bay Packersfor Notre Dame quarterback Daryle Lamonica. In 1963, a four-season starting quarterback battle began that continued until Lamonica left for the Raiders. Lamonica felt he "... learned a lot from Jack about quarterbacking. And I truly believe that we were a great one-two punch at the position for the Bills." Saban suspected Al Davisof spying on the 0–3–1 Bills and made his team practice using false numbers. That week, the Bills went on to win their first game of the season over the Raiders.Maiorana (1994), p. 96.] In 1963, Kemp led the Bills from a slow start to a tie for the AFL Eastern Division lead with a 7–6–1 record. [Maiorana (1994), p. 104.] Kemp again placed second in passing attempts, completions, and yards, and he also finished second to teammate Cookie Gilchristin rushing touchdowns.cite web|url=http://www.pro-football-reference.com/years/1963_AFL/leaders.htm|title=1963 AFL Leaders and Leaderboards|publisher=Sports Reference, LLC|work=Pro-Football-Reference.com |accessdate=2008-03-31] The Bills played the Boston Patriots in an Eastern Division playoff game to determine the division title on December 28, 1963 at War Memorial Stadium in city-state|Buffalo|New York in convert|10|°F|°C|sigfig=2|lk=on weather. During the game, the Bills replaced Kemp with Lamonica after falling behind 16–0. [Gruver, p. 115.] The Bills lost 26–8.
Kemp was said to be the "clubhouse lawyer" for the Bills, and he kept the peace. In 1964, he managed personalities such as Gilchrist, who walked off the field when plays were not being called for him, and Saban, who Kemp kept from cutting Gilchrist the following week. The negotiated apology was an early sign of his political abilities. Kemp also managed the politics of the quarterback battle with Lamonica, who engineered four winning touchdown drives in the Bills' first seven games. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,876407,00.html|title=Any Time, Any Place|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher=
Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1964-11-06] The 1964 team relied on a running game of convert|250|lb|kg|1|adj=on Gilchrist and convert|220|lb|kg|1|adj=on Wray Carltonas well as a defense that set records for rushing yards, rushing TDs, and quarterback sacks. The team won its first nine games and went 12–2 for the regular season. The team won the Eastern division with a final game victory over the Patriots at Fenway Park. Kemp led the league in yards per attempt and finished one rushing touchdown short of the league lead, which was shared by Gilchrist and Sid Blanks. In the 1964 championship game, he scored the final touchdown with just over nine minutes left in the 20–7 victory. [Maiorana (1994), p. 116.]
According to Lamonica, the 1965 team had a different emphasis: "In '64 we had depended a lot on Gilchrist and our running attack to carry us. . .But that all changed in '65. The Bills had traded Gilchrist in the off season to the Denver Broncos. So we went to a pass-oriented game more that season than we ever had before. We not only went to our receivers, but we threw a lot to our
running backs. And I really think it brought out the best in Jack that year." In 1965, the Bills finished with a 10–3–1 record. [Maiorana (1994), p. 125.] Kemp finished the season second in the league in pass completions.cite web|url=http://www.pro-football-reference.com/years/1965_AFL/leaders.htm|title=1965 AFL Leaders and Leaderboards|publisher=Sports Reference, LLC|work=Pro-Football-Reference.com |accessdate=2008-03-31] Kemp felt the 1965 AFL Championship game victory was special because it came against his former team, the Chargers. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,834954,00.html|title=The Game Nobody Saw|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1966-01-07]
Kemp led the Bills to a repeat league championship in 1965 without the 1964 AFL leader in rushing attempts, yards, and touchdowns, Gilchrist, (who had been traded to the Broncos) and with the 1964 yards per reception leader,
Elbert Dubenion, only playing three games.cite web|url=http://www.pro-football-reference.com/years/1964_AFL/leaders.htm|title=1964 AFL Leaders and Leaderboards|publisher=Sports Reference, LLC|work=Pro-Football-Reference.com |accessdate=2008-03-31] [cite web|url=http://www.pro-football-reference.com/teams/buf/1965.htm|title=1965 Buffalo Bills|publisher=Sports Reference, LLC|work=Pro-Football-Reference.com |accessdate=2008-03-31] This earned him a share of the AFL MVP awards that he split with former Charger teammate, Paul Lowe. Kemp earned the Associated Pressaward, [Maiorana (1994), p. 126.] while Lowe won " The Sporting News" and United Press Internationalawards. [cite web|url=http://www.remembertheafl.com/AFLMVPs.htm|title=Most Valuable Players 1960 - 1969|accessdate=2008-04-22|publisher=American Football League Hall of Fame |work=AFL Internet Network] Kemp also earned the AFL Championship Game MVP. [Gruver, p. 151.]
Joe Collier era (1966–1968)
Saban resigned to coach the Maryland Terrapins and
defensive coordinator Joe Collierwas promoted to head coach for the 1966 AFL season. [Maiorana (1994), p. 127.] In 1966, Kemp led the Bills to their third consecutive division title with a 9–4–1 record. However, in the 1966 AFL Championship Game, which was played for the right to represent the AFL in Super Bowl I, the Bills lost to the Kansas City Chiefs31–7. [Maiorana (1994), pp. 136–37.] Kemp was named as an AFL All-Star for the sixth consecutive year in 1966.cref|acite web|url=http://www.pro-football-reference.com/players/K/KempJa00.htm|title=Jack Kemp|accessdate=2008-03-31|publisher=Sports Reference, LLC|work=Pro-Football-Reference.com] The 1967 Bills endured a 4–10 1967 AFL season. [Maiorana (1994), p. 147.] Kemp was not named to the All-Star game for the first time in his AFL career. [cite web|url=http://www.pro-football-reference.com/players/K/KempJa00.htm|title=Jack Kemp|accessdate=2008-04-08|publisher=Sports Reference, LLC|work=Pro-Football-Reference.com]
The Bills suffered a
blowoutpre-season loss to the Houston Oilerson August 23, 1968. On August 26, Collier put the Bills through a 40-play scrimmage. During the scrimmage, Ron McDolefell on Kemp's right knee and Kemp suffered an injury, which forced him to sit out the entire season. [Maiorana (1994), p. 148.] The Bills went 1–12–1 without Kemp for the 1968 AFL season. [Maiorana (1994), p. 157.]
John Rauch era (1969)
The Bills drafted and signed
O.J. Simpson, and although Kemp returned from a year of injury, they only compiled a 4–10 record during the 1969 AFL seasonunder new coach John Rauch. [Maiorana (1994), pp. 158–66.] Kemp was named as an AFL All-Star in 1969 for the seventh time in the league's ten years. He advocated recognition of the league, and in its last year, 1969, lobbied Pete Rozelleto have AFL teams wear an AFL patch to honor it. In 1969, Kemp had a four-year no-cut contract, but the Erie County Republican Party approached him about running for the United States Congress. After the January 17, 1970 AFL All-star game, Kemp returned home and talked to his wife before deciding to run for Congress. [Maiorana (2000), p. 174.] Kemp said "I had a four-year no-cut contract with the Bills at the time. ... I figured that if I lost I could always come back and play. But the fans had their say and I was elected to Congress."
He led Buffalo to three straight Eastern Division titles as well as both the 1964 and the 1965 AFL championships.cite web|url=http://www.packers.com/news/releases/2003/03/25/3/|title=Jack Kemp To Chair USA Football|accessdate=2008-02-23|publisher=Green Bay Packers, Inc. ] Kemp had the most career passes attempted, most completions, and most yards gained passing in the history of the AFL.cite book|title=Official History American Football League - 1960-1969|publisher=
The Sporting News|editor=Rosenthal, Harold (compiled by the Elias Sports Bureau)|year=1970|pages=68–69] Kemp played in five of the ten AFL Championship games. He holds these same career-passing attempts, yards, and completion records for the AFL Championship Game and is listed second for many other championship game statistics including career and single game passer rating. A " Sporting News" All-League selection at quarterback in 1960 and 1965, he was the only AFL quarterback to be listed as a starter all ten years of the league's existence. Kemp co-founded the AFL Players Association with Tom Addisonof the Boston Patriots, and was elected its president five times. His founding of and involvement in the player's union contributed to his frequent siding with the Democrats on labor issues later in his career. He was one of only twenty players who were in the AFL for its entire ten-year existence.
Kemp twice led the AFL in yards per attempt and played all fourteen games in his final six AFL seasons (excluding 1968). However, despite his success and important AFL records, he is most prominently listed in the NFL record book for less flattering accomplishments, including his place as a former record holder for most
quarterback sacks in a game. [cite web|url=http://www.nfl.com/history/randf/records/indiv/passing|title=Individual Records: Passing|accessdate=2008-02-23|publisher=NFL Enterprises LLC.|work=NFL Record & Fact Book] [cite web|url=http://www.nfl.com/history/randf/records/indiv/fumbles|title=Individual Records: Fumbles|accessdate=2008-02-23|publisher=NFL Enterprises LLC.|work=NFL Record & Fact Book] Kemp set many AFL records, but Joe Namathand Len Dawsonwere selected as the quarterbacks for the All-time AFL team. His number 15 was retired by the Bills in 1984. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,923772,00.html|title=untitled|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1984-12-03|author=Garcia, Guy D.]
quote = "Pro football gave me a good perspective. When I entered the political arena, I had already been booed, cheered, cut, sold, traded, and hung in
source = —Jack Kemp [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9502E4DC113EF932A2575BC0A960958260&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss|title= A Quarterback Who Doesn't Like Warming the Bench|accessdate=2008-04-01|date=
1996-08-11|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Berkow, Ira]
width = 30%
align = rightKemp's political career began long before his 1970 campaign. In 1960 and 1961, Kemp was an editorial assistant to "
San Diego Union" editor and future Richard Nixon aide, Herb Klein. Subsequently, Kemp became a volunteer in both Barry Goldwater's 1964 Presidential campaign and Ronald Reagan's successful 1966 California Gubernatorial campaign. In the 1967 football off-season, Kemp worked on Governor Reagan's staff in Sacramento. In 1969, he was special assistant to the Republican National Committeechairman. Kemp is a voracious reader, and his foundation came from early readings of Goldwater's " The Conscience of a Conservative", Ayn Randlibertarian novels, such as " The Fountainhead", and Friedrich von Hayek's " The Constitution of Liberty". Kemp's ability to work with blacks and his stands on racial equality came from playing football with black teammates: Kemp said "I wasn't there with Rosa Parksor Dr. King or John Lewis. But I am here now, and I am going to yell from the rooftops about what we need to do." Kemp's football colleagues confirmed this influence: John Mackey explained that "The huddleis colorblind." [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/971208/archive_008431.htm|title=Sweating to the Oldies: Toiling together will do as much for race relations as talking together |accessdate=2008-04-13|date= 1997-11-30|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Waldman, Steven] Kemp felt that he was a representative of his football compatriots. [cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/125982|title=Sports, Race And Politics: What Jack Kemp And Bill Bradley Learned From Playing Pro Ball With Black Teammates|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-08-17|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek|author=Waldman, Steven and Clara Bingham]
Kemp, a self-described "bleeding-heart conservative", represented a part of the Buffalo region that is known as the
southtownsand that traditionally voted Democratic in the United States House of Representativesfrom 1971 to 1989. The city-state|Erie County|New York Republicans had drafted Kemp after incumbent congressman, Richard D. McCarthy, decided to run for the United States Senate. During his political birth, his district was in economic malaise, and The " New York Times" described him as a John F. Kennedythrowback who campaigned on family values, patriotism, sports and defense. Upon his election to the congress in a class of sixty-two freshman, he was one of six interesting newcomers (along with Ronald Dellums, Bella Abzug, Louise Day Hicks, Robert Drinan, and Pete du Pont) discussed in "Time". The article described him as a football fan (like United States President Richard Nixon), and as a having been advised by White House Adviser Robert Finchas well as former Kemp boss Herb Klein, Nixon's Director of Communications. The Nixon aides helped Kemp firm up his military support by encouraging Kemp to endorse the Cambodian invasion and to oppose criticism of Nixon's war policies. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,904463-2,00.html|title=Newcomers in the House|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1970-11-16]
Kemp championed several Chicago school and
supply-side economicsissues: economic growth, free markets, free trade, tax simplificationand lower tax rates on both work and investment. He was a long-time proponent of the flat tax.cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,5606,00.html|title=The New 12 Steps to Recovery|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-01-17] Kemp also defended the use of anti-Communistforces in Central America, supported the gold standard, spoke for civil rightslegislation, opposed abortion, and was the first lawmaker to popularize enterprise zones, which he supported to foster entrepreneurship and job creationand expand homeownership among public housingtenants. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,7154,00.html|title=Babbitt: Think Small|accessdate=2008-03-01|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-08-26] During his career, he sometimes sounded like a liberal Democrat: he supported affirmative action, and he supported rights for illegal immigrants. The "New York Times" described Kemp as the most proactive war on poverty combatant since Robert Kennedy. Kemp differed from Rockefeller Republicansand earlier combatants such as Lyndon Johnson, since Kemp supported incentive-based systems instead of traditional social programs. For his commitment to inner city concerns from within the Republican party, David Gergenheralded him as a "courageous voice in the wilderness." [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/articles/960909/archive_034577.htm|title=A Bridge to Nowhere|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-09-01|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Gergen, David] Although he is liberal on many social issues, he is not on gay rights. Kemp at times felt his role was as a "freewheeling, entrepreneurial, wildcatting backbencher." [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/960826/archive_034435.htm|title='Born for the Job': The Kemp interview|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-08-18|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Borger, Gloria, and Michael Barone]
"Time" magazine identified 38 year-old second-term congressman Kemp as a future leader in its 1974 "Faces for the Future." [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,981959,00.html|title=Where Are They Now?|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher=
Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1994-12-05|author=Collins, James] An early-career notable magazine appearances was in a 1978 issue of "Esquire". The article explained allegations of 1967 Sacramento office Reagan staffer homosexualactivity, which apparently did not refer to Kemp. Hugh Sideymentioned him as a contender to unseat Jimmy Carterin the 1980 presidential election.cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,919701,00.html|title=Roses with a Touch of Ragweed|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1978-05-29|author=Sidey, Hugh] Kemp was a front runner for the vice presidency at the 1980 Republican National Convention, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,923950,00.html|title=Where Did He Get Those Figures?|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1980-04-14] and he received 43 votes from conservative George H. W. Bush detractors. After being reelected for a sixth term in 1980, his Republican peers elected him to a party leadership position, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,924598,00.html|title=Final Payments|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1980-12-22] and he served seven years as chairman of the House Republican Conference. This promotion occurred immediately after Kemp and David Stockmanurged Reagan by memorandum to dedicate his first 100 days to working with Congress an economic package. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,924590,00.html|title=Eight for the Cabinet|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1980-12-22|author=Church, George J.] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,922279,00.html|title=Outlook '81: Recession|accessdate=2008-03-22|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1980-12-29|author=Byron, Christopher] By 1984, many viewed Kemp as Reagan's heir apparent.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DEED81138F93BA15755C0A961948260|title= Is Jack Kemp Mr. Right?|accessdate=2008-03-08|date= 1987-06-28|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Dowd, Maureen] He is as fondly remembered for his good hair and handsome looks as for his athletic prowess and political savvy, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1704390,00.html|title=Can the Economy Save Mitt Romney?|accessdate=2008-03-01|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 2008-01-17|author=Duffy, Michael; Tumulty, Karen ] and he is described as having the charisma of the earlier J.F.K.cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,984991,00.html|title=Jack Be Nimble|accessdate=2008-03-02|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-08-19|author=Stengel, Richard] David Rosenbaumdescribed Kemp as an independent politician who often legislated outside his committees' jurisdictions and often spoke in favor of ideals and principles rather than his party's political platforms.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE7DB1E3EF932A2575BC0A960958260|title= A Passion for Ideas: Jack French Kemp|accessdate=2008-03-02|date= 1996-08-11|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Rosenbaum, David E.] As a supply-sider, he was not a proponent of balanced budgeting and trivialized it while speaking of growth as the solution. [cite web|url=http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/198112/david-stockman|title=The Education of David Stockman|accessdate=2008-04-15|date=December 1981|author=Greider, William|publisher=The Atlantic.com|work= Atlantic Monthly]
Kemp's original encounter with supply-side economics came in 1976 when
Jude Wanniski, an editorial writer from " The Wall Street Journal", interviewed at Kemp's Congressional office. Kemp picked Wanniski's brain all day (all the way to Kemp's home in city-state|Bethesda|Maryland, at midnight) until Kemp was converted to University of Southern California professor Arthur Laffer's supply-side discipline. Thereafter, Kemp espoused supply-side economics freely, and in 1978 he and William V. Roth, Jr.proposed tax-cutting legislation. Kemp was chiefly responsible for supply-side economics' inclusion in President Reagan's economic plan,cite web|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/23/books/review/Lowenstein-t.html|title=Deep Voodoo|accessdate=2008-03-01|date= 2007-09-23|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Lowenstein, Roger] although at the time of Robert Mundell's Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics recognition some attributed much of the credit to Mundell, Arthur Laffer, Robert Bartley, and Jude Wanniski. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/991025/archive_002169.htm|title=Supply-Side Godfather: The influential and controversial Robert Mundell wins the Nobel in economics|accessdate=2008-04-13|date= 1999-10-17|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Egan, Jack] Although the realization of early 1980s tax cuts are attributed to Reagan, Kemp and Roth, through their Kemp-Roth Tax Cutlegislation, initiated these cuts in 1981. Reagan's budget based on this legislation passed over the objection of United States House Committee on Ways and MeansChairman Dan Rostenkowski. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,954786,00.html|title=A Less Than Perfect "10-10-10"|accessdate=2008-03-22|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1981-06-01|author=Isaacson, Walter] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,924746,00.html|title=Act II, Scene 1, Form 1040|accessdate=2008-03-22|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1981-05-25|author=Wallis, Claudia] At this time, Kemp wrote "An American Renaissance" (ISBN 0-06-012283-8), to deliver his message that "A rising tide lifts all boats."cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DE0DD1139F934A35756C0A96F948260|title= Jack Kemp Faces Reality|accessdate=2008-03-08|date= 1989-05-09|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Traub, James]
Kemp and his followers spent the Reagan years ignoring budget balancing while promoting both tax cuts and economic growth. [cite web|url=http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/budget/rauchf.htm|title=Is the Deficit Really So Bad?|accessdate=2008-04-15|date=February 1989|author=Rauch, Jonathan|publisher=The Atlantic.com|work=
Atlantic Monthly] [cite web|url=http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/polibig/schnnew.htm|title=The New Shape of American Politics|accessdate=2008-04-15|date=January 1987|author=Schneider, William|publisher=The Atlantic.com|work= Atlantic Monthly] These tax cuts have been credited by Conservatives for the economic growth from 1983 to 1990, [cite web|url=http://www.heritage.org/research/taxes/BG1086.cfm|title=The Historical Lessons of Lower Tax Rates|accessdate=2008-04-04|date= 1996-07-19|publisher=The Heritage Foundation|author=Mitchell, Daniel J.] which by 1996 had become one of the longest expansions in American history.cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/961021/archive_034794.htm|title=Major Growing Pains: The economy's rosy, but people aren't. So what's going on here? |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-10-13|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Rowe, Jonathan] Kemp notes that Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volcker's success at stemming inflationand the favorable regulatory environment were also major factors. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/blogs/capital-commerce/2007/12/21/a-chat-with-jack-kemp.html|title=A Chat With Jack Kemp|accessdate=2008-04-13|date= 2007-12-21|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Pethokoukis, James] Detractors note that the expansion was in undesirable sectors like gaming, prisons, medical treatment, and credit carduse.
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caption1 = Jack, Joanne and Judith Kemp
width2 = 180
caption2 = Kemp and Naval OfficersIn 1980, he considered opposing Republican
United States Senator Jacob Javitzand was a potential Reagan running mate. An early Kemp tax reform attempt was an unsuccessful 1979 proposal to index tax brackets for cost of livingfluctuations. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,920349,00.html|title=Budget Battle|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1979-05-21] However, the 1980 Reagan campaign economic package included indexing along with three consecutive ten-percent annual tax cuts.cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,952730,00.html|title=Conservative Conservatism|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1980-09-22|author=Church, George J.] Kemp co-sponsored a legislative attempt at enterprise zones in 1980. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,948901,00.html|title=Free Enterprise Oases|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1980-07-14] One of Kemp's more trying times as a congressman came in 1982 when Reagan decided to reverse the tax cuts and promote tax increases. The reversal was controversial and stimulated opposition by Kemp. Nonetheless, the revised taxes passed.cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,950722,00.html|title=Thunder on the Right|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1982-08-16|author=Andersen, Kurt] cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,921247,00.html|title=Scoring on a Reverse|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1982-08-30|author=Isaacson, Walter] In 1983, Kemp opposed the policies of Chairman Volcker on multiple occasions. The debates included domestic monetary involvement and roles in funding the International Monetary Fund. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,954012,00.html|title=Paul Volcker Superstar|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1983-07-25|author=Greenwald, John] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,955187,00.html|title=Short of Cash|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1983-08-08]
Kemp delivered several speeches at the
Republican National Convention. He addressed the convention on July 15 at the 1980 Republican National Convention in city-state|Detroit|Michigan and on August 21 at the 1984 Republican National Conventionin city-state|Dallas|Texas. [Kemp, Jack, "An American Idea: Ending Limits to Growth", Goodrich, 1985] During the 1984 Convention, with Trent Lottas Republican Party Platform Committee Chairman, Congressmen Kemp and Newt Gingrichclaimed control of the party platform to the consternation of G.O.P. senators Bob Doleand Howard Baker.cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,951272,00.html|title=Struggling for a Party's Soul|accessdate=2008-03-19|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1984-09-03|author=Thomas, Evan] Kemp's official role was as the chairman of the platform subcommittee on foreign policy. However, the three platform planks that he proposed involved tax hikes, the gold standard and the role of the Federal Reserve. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,926802,00.html|title=Coronation in Prime Time|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1984-08-20|author=Tifft, Susan] Despite Kemp's official role, his real influence as a draftsmanwas on the grammatical structure of the plank on tax hikes. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,926802,00.html|title=Rallying Round a Comma Cause|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1984-08-27] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,926800,00.html|title=Party Time in Dallas|accessdate=2008-03-21|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1984-08-27|author=Doemer, William] By 1985, Kemp was a leading contender for the 1988 Presidential nomination. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,959618,00.html|title=Already Jockeying for Position|accessdate=2008-03-19|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1985-07-15|author=Kelly, James] He also delivered remarks on free enterprise zones at the 1992 Republican National Conventionin city-state|Houston|Texas. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CEEDE133AF93AA2575BC0A964958260|title= In Their Own Words; Excerpts From the Remarks By Housing Secretary Kemp|accessdate=2008-03-15|date= 1992-08-19|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times] Despite efforts and considerations of expanding his political domain, Kemp never held a fundraiser outside of his suburban Western New York district until well into his eighth term in congress. [cite web|url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10D11F93F5C0C708CDDA80994DD484D81|title=The Region; Jack Kemp's War Chest Grows|accessdate=2008-03-08|date= 1985-11-03|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Scardino, Albert and Alan Finder]
Kemp has been a critic of the version of football known in the United States as
soccer. [cite web|url=http://hprsite.squarespace.com/kemp-ten-years-later-062006/|title=Jack Kemp, Ten Years Later|accessdate=2008-03-27|date= 2006-09-05|publisher=Harvard Political Review|author=Prabhakar, Rahul] In 1986, during House floor debate concerning whether the United States should host the 1994 World Cup, Kemp proclaimed "I think it is important for all those young out there — who someday hope to play real football, where you throw it and kick it and run with it and put it in your hands — [that] a distinction should be made that football is democratic capitalism, whereas soccer is a European socialist sport."cite web|url=http://www.slate.com/id/2103170/|title=The Capitalism of Soccer|accessdate=2008-03-27|date= 2004-06-30|author=Gross, Daniel|publisher=Washington Post.Newsweek Interactive Co. LLC|work=Slate] Kemp has compared his speech to George Carlin's 1984 comedy routine on the differences between baseballand American football and has written that his "tongue was firmly planted in cheek" when making the speech. Despite the levity of the speech, it garners backlash to this day.cite web|url=http://www.shns.com/shns/g_index2.cfm?action=detail&pk=FAITH-FAITH-07-12-06|title=Jack Kemp is wrong; soccer is very democratic|accessdate=2008-03-27|date= 2006-07-12|publisher= Scripps Howard News Service |author=Waters, David] However, he continues to insist that soccer's main problem is "it doesn't have a quarterback". Kemp notes that about half of his grandchildren play or have played organized soccer and claims to have since 'changed' his position on soccer. He even attended the 1994 FIFA World Cupwith long time soccer fan Henry Kissinger, although he wrote during the 2006 World Cupthat soccer can be interesting to watch but it is still a "boring game".
Presidential bid (1988)
In 1988, if Kemp had succeeded when he surrendered his congressional seat to run for
President of the United States, it would have made him the first person to move from the United States House of Representatives to the White House since James Garfield. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,963738,00.html|title=The High Jumper from St. Louis Missouri|accessdate=2008-03-17|date= 1987-03-09|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|author=Demott, John S.] When he formed his exploratory committee, he signed Ed Rollins, Reagan's 1984 re-election political director, as an advisor. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1582843,00.html|title=American Notes|accessdate=2008-03-17|date= 1986-12-15|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time] From the outset, Kemp clearly had failed to position himself as the primary alternative to Vice President Bush.cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,963997,00.html|title=Campaign Portrait|accessdate=2008-03-17|date= 1987-04-13|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|author=Stanley, Alessandra] Except for a select few cognoscenti, the general public did not recognize Kemp's leadership ability, although he was a successful man of ideas. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,963279,00.html|title=Rushing to An Early Kickoff|accessdate=2008-03-17|date= 1987-01-19|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|author=Barrett, Laurence I.] In fact, most of the Republican electorate found themselves unfamiliar with Kemp early in his campaign.cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,963270,00.html|title=Iranscam's|accessdate=2008-03-17|date= 1987-01-19|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time] Political pundits recognized him, however, as a visionary idea man. [cite news |author=Schneider, William |title=The Republicans in '88 |url=http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/policamp/repub88.htm |format= |publisher=Atlantic Online|work= Atlantic Monthly|location= |id= |pages=58-82 |page= |date= July 1987 |accessdate=2008-04-15 |quote= |archiveurl= |archivedate= ] In addition, he was quickly perceived as a verbose speaker, who sometimes lost contact with his audience. Although Kemp tried to appeal to the conservatives, his libertarianphilosophies of tolerance and individual rights clashed with conservative voters' social and religious values, and he committed to supporting minorities, women, blue-collarworkers and organized labor. To Democrats, Kemp's free-market philosophies were a form of laissez-faireanarchy. [cite web|url=http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/policamp/demo88.htm|title=The Democrats in '88|publisher=Atlantic Online|work= Atlantic Monthly|author=Schneider, William |accessdate=2008-04-15|date=April 1987] However, as much as Kemp wanted to minimize government's role, he acknowledged that moves toward a more laissez-faire system should be well-thought out. [cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/127497|title=The Right's War On Poverty: Conservatives Offer New Solutions To Old Problems|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1990-06-04|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek|publisher=Clift, Eleanor]
After the May 1987
Gary Hart/ Donna Ricescandal, a " New York Times" questionnairerequested things such as psychiatric records and access to FBIfiles from all 14 presidential candidates. Candidates from each party expressed opinions on both sides of the personal privacy issue, and Kemp rejected the Times inquiry as "beneath the dignity of a presidential candidate". [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,964724,00.html|title=Full Disclosure, Semi-Outrage|accessdate=2008-03-17|date= 1987-06-22|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|author=Zuckerman, Laurence] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,964431,00.html|title=Sounds of the Righteous Brothers|accessdate=2008-03-17|date= 1987-05-25|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|author=Barrett, Laurence I.] His campaign was on an early positive course with many key early endorsements in New Hampshire, but Bush held the support of much of the Republican establishment in New York. Although he had an eclectic mix of supporters, Kemp's campaign began borrowing against anticipated Federal matching funds because it was quickly in the red, which may have been due to the use of expensive direct mailfundraising technique. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,965008,00.html|title=But Mike's Raking In Money|accessdate=2008-03-16|date= 1987-07-20|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|author=Barrett, Laurence I.] To offset his socially moderate stances, Kemp clarified his opposition to abortion, his support of the Strategic Defense Initiative(SDI) and his support for a stronger military than that favored by Secretary of State George Shultz. In attempt to position himself as Reagan's successor, Kemp called for Shultz's resignation based on claims that Shultz had neglected freedom fightersin Afghanistanand Nicaraguaand had waffled on SDI. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,963662,00.html|title=Tacking Further to the Right|accessdate=2008-03-17|date= 1987-03-02|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|author=Barrett, Laurence I.] Despite a platform covering the full range of political subjects, Kemp's primary campaign weapon was a fiscal policy based on tax cuts. As part of his fiscal policy, he opposed a Social Security benefits freeze and endorsed a freeze on government spending. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,966610,00.html|title=Yes, There Are Issues|accessdate=2008-03-11|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1988-08-08|author=Shapiro, Walter] Some viewed Kemp's supply-side stance as an attempt to ignore the national budget deficit. In the fall of 1987, political pundits clearly saw that Kemp needed to gain support from the far right on non-social issues. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,965457,00.html|title=The Unreal Campaign|accessdate=2008-03-14|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1987-09-14|author=Shapiro, Walter] Kemp was among the majority of Republican candidates in opposition to Reagan's INF Treatyagreement with the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachevdespite general Republican voter approval of the treaty. With aspirations of support from the right-wing voters, all candidates with low levels of poll support for the nomination took this same "sabre-rattling" stand. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,966229,00.html|title=An Offer They Can Refuse|accessdate=2008-03-14|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1987-12-14|author=Griffith, Thomas] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,965949,00.html|title=Yapping From The Right|accessdate=2008-03-14|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1987-11-09|author=Shapiro, Walter] By early 1988, the moderates (Bush and Dole) were clearly the front-runners and Kemp was battling with Pat Robertsonas the conservative alternative to the moderates. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE0D7173BF935A25751C0A96E948260|title= Three Candidates in 2 Parties Bracing for the Battle of Their Political Lives; Jack F. Kemp: The Congressman Has to Finish Third to Remain Credible|accessdate=2008-03-15|date= 1988-02-16|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=May, Clifford D.]
He used a somewhat negative advertising campaign that seemed to have the intended initial effect of boosting him to serious contention. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,966574,00.html|title=Campaign Journal|accessdate=2008-03-11|publisher=
Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1988-08-08|author=Stanley, Alessandra] His 1988 campaign was based on the platform of supply-side economics and inner-city enterprise zones. In "Bare Knuckles and Back Rooms: My Life in American Politics", campaign chairman Rollins described Kemp as a candidate with foibles. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE3D61338F930A3575AC0A960958260|title= Kemp Tries to Rein In His Words|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-09-03|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Bruni, Frank] Kemp's campaign managers say he was unmanageable: he ignored timers on his speeches, refused to call contributors, and refused to practice for debates. A humbling Super Tuesdayin which his 39 delegate total was fewer than eventual nominee and President Bush as well as both Dole and Pat Robertson ended his campaign. After withdrawing from the race, he was still considered a contender for the Vice-President nomination. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,968078,00.html|title=The Great G.O.P. Veepstakes Scoreboard|accessdate=2008-03-11|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1988-08-08|author=Lamar, Jacob V.] In 1989, the Kemps switched their official residence from city-state|Hamburg|New York to city-state|Bethesda|Maryland, [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F06E5D61631F930A2575BC0A960958260|title= Of Knishes, Soulfulness and Kemp|accessdate=2008-03-03|date= 1996-08-13|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Firestone, David] where they now reside. In 1994, Kemp's 1988 campaign reached a settlement with the Federal Election Commissionby agreeing to pay $120,000 in civil penalties for 1988 campaign election law violations for, among other things, excessive contributions, improper direct corporate donations, press overbilling, exceeded spending limits in Iowaand in New Hampshire, and for failure to reimburse corporations for providing air transportation. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9901EEDB103DF931A15755C0A962958260|title=Kemp Agrees to Pay Campaign Penalties|accessdate=2008-03-08|date= 1994-06-22|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times]
As a bleeding-heart conservative, Kemp was a logical choice for Bush as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,956576,00.html|title=A Clean Bill of Health|accessdate=2008-03-10|publisher=
Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1988-12-26|author=Lamar, Jacob V.] whose job would be to foster public sectorand private sectormethods to meet the demands of public housing. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEEDD123CF932A15751C1A96E948260|title= New Supply Side for Jack Kemp|accessdate=2008-03-10|date= 1988-12-21|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times] However, the scandals of Samuel Pierceand the neglect of the president were obstacles from the start, and Kemp was unsuccessful at either of his major initiatives: enacting enterprise zones and promoting public housing tenant ownership. The goal of these two plans was to transition public housing into tenant owned residences and to lure both industry and business into inner cities with federal incentives. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,975501,00.html|title=The Political Interest|accessdate=2008-03-05|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1992-05-11|author=Kramer, Michael] Although Kemp did not affect much policy as HUD's director, he cleaned up HUD's reputation,cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F04E4D71430F933A1575BC0A960958260|title=Kemp's Legacy as Housing Secretary: One of Ideas, Not Accomplishments|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-08-20|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Holmes, Steven A.] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,958199,00.html|title=Jack Be Nimble, Jack Be Quick|accessdate=2008-03-06|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1989-07-24|author=Magnuson, Ed] and he developed a plan to salvage the troubled Federal Housing Administration. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,970380,00.html|title=Business Notes Mortgage Insurance|accessdate=2008-03-06|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1990-06-18] He halted or revamped corrupt programs and developed an antidrug offensive, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,957690,00.html|title=American Notes Housing|accessdate=2008-03-10|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1989-05-22] which enabled him to collaborate with Bill Bennett. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,956800,00.html|title=Back in the Bully Pulpit|accessdate=2008-03-10|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1989-01-23|author=Sidey, Hugh] He supported "Operation Clean Sweep" and similar movements to prohibit firearm possession in public housing. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,973185,00.html|title=Firearms: Chicago's Uphill Battle|accessdate=2008-03-06|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1991-06-17|author=Prudhomme, Alex] cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,957564,00.html|title=Evicting The Drug Dealers|accessdate=2008-03-10|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1989-05-01|author=Prudhomme, Alex]
Although Kemp coaxed Bush to support a $4 billion housing program that encouraged
public housingtenants to buy their own apartments, the Democratic Congress only allocated $361 million to the plan. In addition to opposition in Congress, Kemp fought White House Budget Director Richard Darman, who opposed Kemp's pet project HOPE (Homeownership and Opportunity for People Everywhere), which planned to sell public housing units to their tenants, as well as his proposed welfare adjustment of government offsets.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CEFDC1E39F93BA15751C0A965958260|title= How Jack Kemp Lost the War on Poverty|accessdate=2008-03-02|date= 1993-02-28|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Deparle, Jason] HOPE was first proposed to White House chief of staff, John Sununu, in June 1989 to not only create enterprise zones, but also to expand subsidies for low-income renters, social services for the homeless and elderly, and enacting tax changes to help first-time home buyers. Sununu opposed it at first as did most of the cabinet, but in August 1990 Sununu, at the urging of United States Attorney General Dick Thornburgh, encouraged President Bush to endorse Kemp's Economic Empowerment Task Force. However, the Persian Gulf War and the budget negotiations overshadowed Kemp's new project. Darman battled Kemp and his allies such as Gingrich, James Pinkerton, and Vin Weber. The budget left him with $256 million for his plan, which Kemp increased during some appropriations battles. Soon after Clayton Yeutterwas appointed chief White House domestic policy advisor, Kemp's Economic Empowerment Task Force was abolished.
President Bush avoided federal antipoverty issues, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,975516,00.html|title=Bleeding-Heart Conservatives|accessdate=2008-03-05|publisher=
Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1992-05-18|author=Goodgame, Dan] and he instead used Kemp as a mouthpiece to speak on the administration's low priority conservative activist agenda. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,975550,00.html|title=Smoldering Embers, Scared Politicians|accessdate=2008-03-05|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1992-05-18] [cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/125292/page/5|title=Decoding Bush|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-02-10|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek] Bush's contribution to the urban agenda had been volunteerismthrough his "Points of Light" theme, [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/920518/archive_017716.htm|title='They Are Not Our Issues': White House maneuvers |accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-05-10|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S.News & World Report|author=Walsh, Kenneth T., and Joseph P. Shapiro] and Kemp received stronger support for his ideas from Presidential candidate Bill Clinton. [cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/124011|title=Tough Love From The Dems: Looking For A New Way To Stress Family Values|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1991-12-23|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek] By the time of the Los Angeles riots of 1992, Bush was a bit late in supporting enterprise zones, tenant ownership and welfare reform: Mort Zuckermancompared Bush's vision on racial issues to that of a man riding backwards in a railroad car. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/articles/920525/archive_017775.htm|title=The New Realism|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-05-17|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S.News & World Report|author=Zuckerman, Mortimer B.] Nonetheless, the riots made Kemp a focal point of the administration, [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE4D8163CF934A35756C0A964958260|title= After The Riots; As Los Angeles Smoke Lifts, Bush Can See Kemp Clearly|accessdate=2008-03-08|date= 1992-05-07|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Deparle, Jason] [cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/125770|title=Filling The Political Void|accessdate=2008-04-15|date 1992-05-18|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek|author=Fineman, Howard] even though at first, Kemp had been overlooked. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/920511/archive_017670.htm|title=Kemp Followers; Don't Move; The Third Man; Sure Thing; Together Again; Blackballed: Kemp should have been sent on L.A. riot duty, friends say; Pero is almost certain to be in on fall presidential debates; Carl Sagan snubbed by prestigious science organization |accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-05-03|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S.News & World Report|author=Fenyvesi, Charles] However, Charles E. Schumerhad probably summarized the prospects of Kemp's success in advance best when he said in 1989 "Good ideas with money can do a whole lot. Good ideas without money aren't probably going to do a whole lot," and the issue here was the decision not to fund Kemp's ideas. Although Kemp was unable to procure money for his visions, he was among the administration's leading users of first-class corporate jets. [cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/128213|title=Addicted To Perks: How America's Elites Rationalize Their Problem|accessdate=2008-04-15|date 1991-07-08|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek|author=Alter, Jonathan]
Generally, his time as Housing Secretary was considered unsuccessful. However, although he could not get federal funding for empowerment zones passed during his tenure, by 1992 38 states had created empowerment zones, [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/920518/archive_017714.htm|title=Requiem for the Cities?: A new fight over urban policy has begun. The key will be to focus on the right problems and to avoid overselling chances for success |accessdate=2008-04-15|date=
1992-05-10|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Rainie, Harrison, Matthew Cooper, Joseph P. Shapiro, Scott Minerbrook, Paul Glastris, Jeannye Thornton and Dorian Friedman] and in 1994 $3.5 billion was approved for them under President Clinton. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2656,00.html|title=Clinton . . . $3.5 Billion for Empowerment Zones|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1994-12-21] A free market Kemp initiative to allow homeowners to subdivide their houses for the purpose of creating rental units without inordinate bureaucracy did not get executed under the Clinton administration, however. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/961230/archive_035186.htm|title=20 Silver Bullets: 7. How to Make Housing Affordable: Let People Subdivide Their Homes|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-12-22|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S.News & World Report|author=Maass, Peter] In 1992, with H. Ross Perotmounting a formidable campaign, Kemp was again considered a Vice Presidential candidate. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,975946,00.html|title=Spelling Out The Job Specs|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1992-07-06|author=Shapiro, Walter] [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/920720/archive_018053.htm|title=Waiting Game; Charmed By Perot; Under the Volcano; Sigh of Relief; One and the Same; Out of Time: Perot will name veep choice after GOP convention; Cheney says Pentagon still probing 109 POW sightings; Worst taste of the year: sending Ice-T's album in body bag |accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-07-12|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Fenyvesi, Charles] He cited lingering effects from a knee injury as the reason he had to fly first-class at Government expense as the Housing Secretary.
Kemp was partly at fault for not achieving either of his primary goals because he did not get along with the rest of the Cabinet. At one point, Kemp told
James Baker, White House Chief of Staff, that Bush's best chance to win re-election was to dump his economic advisors in dramatic fashion. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/921019/archive_018503.htm|title=Darmanophobia; Travel Plans; In the Middle; Ego Tripped; Safe Deposit; Amazing Grace: Darman role in debate strategy angers GOP conservatives; Gates mission to Moscow mystifies Kremlin leadership; Storm over Norm: Does Schwarzkopf take too much credit? |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1992-10-11|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Fenyvesi, Charles] Before the 1992 Republican National Convention, Kemp and six prominent Republican conservatives prepared a controversial memo urging Bush to revise his economic policy. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/920817/archive_018200.htm|title=Take a Memo; Home, Sweet Home; All's Not Lost; Lost Cause; Wrong Numbers: Kemp and allies to challenge Bush on economy at convention; Nixon to the president: There is still hope for your campaign; 'Pro-choice' Republicans give up fight over platform plank |accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-08-09|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Fenyvesi, Charles] Contemporaneously, moderate Republicans in office and in the media such as William F. Buckley, Jr.and George Willfelt Dan Quayleshould be ousted in favor of Kemp. [cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/125883|title=The Quayle Question|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-08-03|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek|author=Morganthau, Tom and Ann McDaniel] This followed Kemp's reference to parts of the President's economic policy as "gimmicks" after the 1992 State of the Union Address. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CEFDD103FF931A35751C0A964958260|title= Kemp Says Parts of Bush's Plan for the Economy Are Gimmicks|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-02-02|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times] Kemp was respected within the party for oppositing Bush, and towards the end of Bush's administration insiders recognized his value.cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/127392|title=Does Kemp Want Out?|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1991-11-25|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek|author=Zeman, Ned and Lucy Howard] In late 1991, 81 of the 166 Republican Congressmen signed a letter co-authored by Curt Weldonand Dan Burtonrequesting Bush cede some domestic authority to Kemp as a "domestic policy czar."cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE5D7113BF935A15752C1A967958260|title= Washington Memo; For Bush, the Kemp Thing Reappears|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1991-11-26|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Dowd, Maureen] The letter highlighting Kemp's "energy, enthusiasm and national clout" insulted Bush. [cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/123992/page/3|title=No Happy Warriors Here|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1991-12-16|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek|author=Will, George F.] Kemp was a bit of a surprise to stay in the for the duration of his presidency, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,971572,00.html|title=Who's Next Out the Door?|accessdate=2008-03-06|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1990-11-05|author=Ellis, David] and he was described as one of the few Bush Administration members who would take tough stands. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,958265,00.html|title=A Loose Cannon's Parting Shot|accessdate=2008-03-06|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1989-08-07|author=Shannon, Elaine] Kemp did not expect to be retained if the Republicans were reelected in 1992, [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/920824/archive_018238.htm|title=Ultimatum to Iraq; The Doctor Is Back; Moving On; Turnaround; Debating the Debates; Roger Redux: Saddam Hussein will be probable target of U.S. move in Iraq; Baker: The master of spin control is back at the old game; Ailes may rejoin the Bush campaign |accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-08-16|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Fenyvesi, Charles] and the pundits agreed with him. He cited lingering effects from a knee injury as the reason he had to fly first-class at Government expense as the Housing Secretary.
Post-HUD years (1993–1996)
Kemp gave public speeches for $35,000 apiece between his time as Housing Secretary and his Vice Presidential nomination. By 1994, Kemp had embarked on 241 fund-raising dinners to raise $35 million for a 1996 Presidential bid and to pay off his 1988 campaign debts. After stepping down from his $189,000 Secretary of Housing and Urban Development job, Kemp personally earned $6.9 million in the next three years, primarily for speaking on behalf of local Republican candidates.cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,984990,00.html|title=In From the Cold|accessdate=2008-03-02|publisher=
Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-08-19|author=Kramer, Michael] [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0CE2D6163BF935A3575AC0A960958260|title=Kemp Earned $6.9 Million, Mostly as Speaker, Since '92|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-09-06|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Fritsch, Jane] One of Kemp's most storied fundraisers occurred during the Super Bowl XXVIIIfestivities. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/940207/archive_012361.htm|title=Back to Strength; Thinking the Unthinkable; Kemp Followers; The Wrong Fields; Past Prime Time; Backing Up Bill: Saddam Hussein's military is almost back to prewar potency; Rostenkowski could lose March 15 primary, insiders say; Clinton's speech insurance: Seven floppy disks, two paper copies |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1994-01-30|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Fenyvesi, Charles]
Kemp was considered the star of the 1992 Republican National Convention. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/920831/archive_018267.htm|title=The GOP: Four Years from Now|accessdate=2008-04-15|date=
1992-08-23|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Roberts, Steven V.] In 1992 and 1993, Kemp was considered the favorite or co-favorite for the 1996 Presidential nomination. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/930719/archive_015472.htm|title=Refuge for Abdel Rahman?; Double Standard; Still No. 1; Second Thoughts; Getting the Jump; Clinton's Bush League: Shiek Abdel Rahman secretly offered asylum by Afghanistan; First lady to keep administration health reform portfolio; Clinton foreign policy getting Bush-like look |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1993-07-11|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Fenyvesi, Charles] [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/930510/archive_015086.htm|title=Surveying the Field; Picking Up Speed; Getting Out; Co-Portraits: As Clinton slips, Republicans savor prospects for 1996; Bosnians blame foreign Muslim volunteers for atrocities; Official presidential photo becomes double exposure |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1993-05-02|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Fenyvesi, Charles] [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/921109/archive_018602.htm|title=Early Line; Promises, Promises; On Its Way; The Real Hillary?; Poor Perot: Kemp rates as early favorite in '96 GOP sweepstakes; North Korea sends another Scud cargo to Iran, Syria; Perot's campaign: Is his $60 million ad blitz tax deductible? |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1992-11-01|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Fenyvesi, Charles] At the time of the 1994 mid-term elections, Kemp was widely anticipated to announce his candidacy for 1996, [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/941107/archive_013620.htm|title=Rising Specter?; Political Capital; Central Casting; Peace--At Last; Price War; FBI to Congress: Just Say No|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1994-10-30|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Stanglin, Douglas, Gordon Witkin, David Fischer, Gary Cohen, Kathryn Bushkin, Steven V. Roberts, Charles Fenyvesi and Tim Zimmermann] and his supporters wanted a formal announcement by the end of the year. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/940801/archive_013205.htm|title=Hot Footprints; How Washington Works; Snubbing Harvard; Kemp's Followers; Beating Bush; Taking Ames: Pentagon traces mystery plutonium to Russian atomic ministry; Democrats gave seed money to new group battling religious right; Jim Baker tops Bush in Texas fund-raising league |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1994-07-24|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Fenyvesi, Charles] In January 1995, Kemp's stated reason for not entering the 1996 Republican Party presidential primaries was that his personal beliefs were out of balance with the contemporary Republican political landscape: Kemp opposed term limits, he always preferred tax cuts to anything resembling a balanced budget amendmentand, unlike the most Republicans, favored federal incentives to combat urban poverty. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2941,00.html|title=Kemp . . . Not Republican Enough|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1995-01-30] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,982490,00.html|title=Eyes on the Prize|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1995-02-13|Kramer, Michael] In 1995, Gloria Borgernoted Kemp was not in step with the 1994 Contract with America. Kemp also noted a distaste for the vast fundraising necessary for a Presidential campaign. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CEEDE163DF932A05752C0A963958260|title= Kemp Rejects Presidential Bid, Citing Dislike of Fund Raising|accessdate=2008-03-08|date= 1995-01-31|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Lewis, Neil A.] Gergen stated that by 1996 the selection process had become so expensive, mean and personally invasive that it discouraged several top Republicans from running. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/articles/960304/archive_034073.htm|title=Republican Wreckage|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-02-25|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Gergen, David] In 1995, while the world awaited the campaign decision announcement by Colin Powell, Kemp had positive thoughts on the prospect of such a campaign. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,983490,00.html|title=Can He Stay on the Pedestal?|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1995-09-25|author=Birnbaum, Jeffrey H.] Senate Majority LeaderDole and Gingrich appointed Kemp to head a tax reform commission in response to voter concern that the tax codehad become too complicated. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/950417/archive_010885.htm|title=Sweating the Details: The House passes tax cuts, but trimming deficits will be a tougher exercise |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1995-04-09|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Hage, David, and David Fischer] Kemp championed many issues including the flat tax, which he formally proposed after he was appointed. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,3492,00.html|title=Back in the Pocket|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1995-04-03] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,4786,00.html|title=Quayle in Dole Country|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1995-09-21] cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,983936,00.html|title=Secrets of the Kemp Commission|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-01-08|author=Birnbaum, Jeffrey H.] The proposal included some politically popular income tax deductions, such as mortgage interest, [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/960212/archive_009276.htm|title=Arrest Him, He Stole My Flat Tax!|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-02-04|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Dentzer, Susan] but it remained fairly general. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/960129/archive_033954.htm|title=Unfriendly Fire on the Rising Star: As he climbs in the polls, Steve Forbes is accused of violating a cardinal rule of his trade |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-01-21|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Marks, John, and Michael Barone] Among the 1996 Republican Party candidates, both Steve Forbesand Phil Grammproposed the flat tax. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,5591,00.html|title=Who's the Flattest of Them All?|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-01-16]
During the campaign, Kemp's endorsement was highly coveted. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B02E6DE1739F932A05752C0A960958260|title= Politics: The Endorsements;Hopefuls Go a-Courtin' And Kemp Is the Prize|accessdate=2008-03-08|date=
1996-01-31|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Berke, Richard L.] [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9402E4DD1739F932A35751C0A960958260|title= Politics;Kemp Keeps His Neutrality|accessdate=2008-03-08|date= 1996-02-01|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times] Forbes had tried to get Kemp to run in the 1996 campaign, but Kemp declined and in fact endorsed Forbes just as Dole was closing in on the nomination, and just after Dole gained the endorsements of former contenders Lamar Alexanderand Richard Lugar. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,5997,00.html|title=Kemp Backs Forbes|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-03-06] Some feel the primary reason for the endorsement was to keep the flat tax idea and other supply-side views alive. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/960318/archive_009992.htm|title=What, Exactly, Does Forbes Want?|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-03-10|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Marks, John] [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940CE3DB1F39F934A35750C0A960958260|title= Politics: Endorsement;Kemp Supports Forbes in Bid to Salvage Flat-Tax Plan as an Issue in the Campaign|accessdate=2008-03-08|date= 1996-03-07|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Tollerson, Ernest] Many thought Kemp had destroyed his own political future with the endorsement, and Kemp profusely apologized to Dole's campaign offices. After it became clear Dole would be the nominee, Kemp attempted to form a bipartisanseminar with Felix Rohatynto produce a fiscal plan that could be endorsed by both parties. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/960715/archive_034137.htm|title=Can the Middle East Bank on Bibi?; The Name Game; Unkindest Cuts; Joining Forces; Speaking Out; Star Search|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-07-07|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Stanglin, Douglas, David Makovsky, David Fischer, Tim Zimmermann, Richard J. Newman, Jim Impoco, Ted Gest, Josh Chetwynd and Gary Cohen]
Kemp was also outspoken on immigration on around this time: according to Kemp and a scientific index he and Bennett support, "immigrants are a blessing, not a curse." [cite web|url=http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/immigrat/miles2f.htm|title=The Coming Immigration Debate|accessdate=2008-04-15|date=April 1995|author=Miles, Jack|publisher=The Atlantic.com|work=
Atlantic Monthly] In 1994, Kemp and Bennett made waves by opposing California ballot Proposition 187, a measure to bar illegal immigrants from obtaining public services, in direct opposition to first-term Republican California Governor Pete Wilson, one of its endorsers who was running for re-election. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,981724,00.html|title=The Week October 16-22|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1994-10-31|Adams, Kathleen, et al.] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,981713,00.html|title=Public Eye Alienable Rights|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1994-10-31|Carlson, Margaret] Republican Senate candidate Michael Huffingtonhad also endorsed the proposition. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/941114/archive_013668.htm|title=Revenge of the Centrists: As voters tire of partisan squabbles, moderates in both parties seek to lead from the middle |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1994-11-06|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Roberts, Steven V., Kenneth T. Walsh and Dorian Friedman] Kemp supported rights for illegal immigrants, but opposed Lamar Smithand Alan Simpson's proposed restrictions on legal immigration. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/950925/archive_032937.htm|title=Closing the Golden Door: The immigration battle |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1995-09-15|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Bowermaster, David]
Vice Presidential nomination (1996)
Kemp had a reputation as the highest-profile progressive Republican. When Dole declined an invitation to speak to the
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, he suggested Kemp as a substitute even before Kemp had become the Vice Presidential nominee. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,6884,00.html|title=How about Never?|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-07-09] On August 5, 1996, Dole announced a 15% flat tax in response to both the Forbes campaign and Kemp's tax reform commission. Several of Dole's other campaign ideas came from Kemp and Bill Bennett's Empower America, which had Jeane Kirkpatrick, Weber, Forbes and Alexander as principals. For example, Dole borrowed Kirkpatrick's tough foreign policy, Bennett's "right conduct" and even Alexander's school choice interest. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/articles/960826/archive_034438.htm|title=A Conservatism of the Head|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-08-18|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Barone, Michael] Bennett declined the offer to be Dole's running mate, but suggested Kemp, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985111,00.html|title=The Chairman of Virtue|accessdate=2008-03-01|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-09-16|author=Goodgame, Dan] a man described as Dole's antagonist. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,984989,00.html|title=Punching Up The Ticket|accessdate=2008-03-02|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-08-19|author=Lacayo, Richard and Michael Duffy] On August 16, 1996, the Republican Party chose Kemp as its 1996 vice presidential , running alongside former Senator Dole. Kemp was seen as a means to attract conservative and libertarian-minded voters like those of tough nomination-challengers Forbes and Pat Buchanan. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E04E4D91331F936A2575BC0A960958260|title=In New Role, Kemp Fights With His Past Over Ideology|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-08-15|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Ayers, B. Drummond, Jr.] Kemp was chosen over Connie Mack, John McCain, and Carroll Campbell, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,7061,00.html|title=Gipper Junior On Deck?|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-08-08] and it is assumed that this was partly because Kemp had several former staffers in influential positions as senior advisors to Dole. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B00E6DD1E3EF932A2575BC0A960958260|title=Kemp Will See Familiar Faces in the Dole Camp|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-08-11|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Nagourney, Adam] Dole had had a long history of representing the budget-balancing faction of the Party, while Kemp had had a long history of representing the tax-cutting advocates,cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/960826/archive_034436.htm|title=Off to the Races: The GOP's long-distance runner isn't lonely any more. But can he catch Bill Clinton? |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-08-18|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Borger, Gloria, Steven V. Roberts, Bruce B. Auster, Michael Barone, Kathryn Bushkin, Cornelia Carter, Jerelyn Eddings, Mel Elfin, David Fischer, Barbrar s7ray, Kenneth T. Walsh and Warren Cohen] and Kemp's tax-cutting fiscal track record was seen as the perfect fit for the ticket. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F02E6DD1E3EF932A2575BC0A960958260|title= Kemp Fiscal Views Win Party's Heart|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-08-11|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Stevenson, Richard W.] When Kemp became Dole's running mate in 1996, they appeared on the cover of the August 19, 1996 issue of "Time" magazine, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19960819,00.html|title=Bob Dole, Jack Kemp / Time Cover|accessdate=2008-02-24|date= 1996-08-19|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time Covers] however the pair barely edged out the story of the discovery of extraterrestrial lifeon Mars, which was so close to being the cover story that "Time" inset it on the cover and wrote about how difficult their decision was. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985008,00.html|title=To Our Readers|accessdate=2008-03-02|date= 1996-08-19|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|author=Issacson, Walter]
The two politicians had a storied history stemming from alternative perspectives and objectives. Dole was a longstanding conservative deficit-hawk who had even voted against
John F. Kennedy's tax cuts, while Kemp was an outspoken supply-sider. In the early 1980s, according to David Stockman, Kemp convinced Reagan to make a 30 percent across-the-board tax cut a central 1980 presidential campaign feature. Once Reagan was elected, Dole was the Senate Finance CommitteeChairman who Kemp claims resisted the plan every step of the way. Dole concedes he expressed reservations about the 1981 plan. The big confrontation came after the tax plan was approved and after Dole subsequently proposed tax increases (that he referred to as reforms). Kemp was vocal in his opposition to the reforms and even penned a " New York Times" op-edpiece, which enraged Dole. Dole convinced Reagan to support the reforms, causing Kemp to summon allies to meetings to stop the act, which eventually passed in 1982. At the 1984 Republican National Convention, Kemp, along with allies such as Gingrich and Lott, added a plank to the party platform that put President Reagan on record as ruling out tax increases. Gingrich called this action "Dole-proofing" the platform, and the plank passed over Dole's opposition. Then, in 1985, Dole proposed an austere budget that barely passed in the senate with appendectomypatient Pete Wilsoncasting the tieing vote and Vice President Bush casting the deciding vote. In meetings with the President that excluded Dole, Kemp reworked the budget to exclude crucial social securitycutbacks. This is said to have been Dole's most crushing political defeat and to have contributed to the Republican loss of control of the Senate. During the 1988 Presidential election, the two antagonized each other. After Bush won and Kemp left Congress for the Cabinet, the two did not really cross paths again until 1996 when Kemp endorsed Dole's opponent Forbes on the eve of the New York Primary in March.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940CE4DE103CF93AA1575AC0A960958260|title= Dole, in Choosing Kemp, Buried A Bitter Past Rooted in Doctrine|accessdate=2008-03-02|date= 1996-09-29|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Kolbert, Elizabeth]
Dole despised Kemp's economic theories,cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985559,00.html|title=The Endless Campaign|accessdate=2008-03-01|publisher=
Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-11-18|author=Trillin, Calvin] but he felt Kemp-like tax cuts offered his best chance at electoral success. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985017,00.html|title=A Spoonful of Sugar Helps the Medicine Go Down|accessdate=2008-03-02|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-08-26|author=Gibbs, Nancy and Michael Duffy] For his part, Kemp had to make concessions as well: he had to back expelling the children of illegal immigrants from public schools despite his longstanding opposition to Proposition 187as well as mute his opposition to abolishing affirmative-action programs in California. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B06E1DF1231F936A2575BC0A960958260|title= The Jack Kemp Reverse|accessdate=2008-03-02|date= 1996-08-15|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times] cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=980CE5DB1E31F935A2575BC0A960958260|title= Kemp Gives Early Look At Strategy|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-08-16|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Nagourney, Adam] Some derided Kemp for his compromise and referred to him as a " con artist."cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/960909/archive_034501_4.htm|title=Lookin' Good: Ahead in the polls, Clinton and Gore try building a bridge to re-election |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-09-01|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Roberts, Steven V., Michael Barone, Gloria Borger, Cornelia Carter, Warren Cohen, Jerelyn Eddings, David Fischer, Linda Kulman and Kenneth T. Walsh] From the outset of their campaign, Dole-Kemp trailed, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,7103,00.html|title=On The Road Again|accessdate=2008-03-02|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-08-16] and they faced skeptics even from within the party. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,7220,00.html|title=Dole Tries To Pep Up Terrified Troops|accessdate=2008-03-01|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-09-11] However, Kemp was able to use the nomination to promote his opposition to Clinton's partial birth abortion ban veto. During the campaign, Kemp and Forbes advocated for a stronger stand on tax cutting than Dole used. [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985542,00.html|title=The Next Act|accessdate=2008-03-01|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-11-18|author=Lacayo, Richard] [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/960812/archive_034385.htm|title=Bob Dole in the Carnival of Tax Cuts|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-08-04|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Dentzer, Susan] However, in general, the opinion was that Kemp was helpful to the ticket's chances of catching Bill Clinton,cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0DE6DB1F3EF931A2575BC0A960958260|title= Kemp Brings Sense of Relief And Hope for Ohio's G.O.P.|accessdate=2008-03-02|date= 1996-08-12|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Winerip, Michael] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985101,00.html|title=Dole, Kemp and the G.O.P.|accessdate=2008-03-02|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-09-09] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,7076,00.html|title=The Odd Couple|accessdate=2008-03-02|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-08-12] and Kemp's advocacy gave a clear picture of the tax reforms that would likely occur on the condition of a successful campaign. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/articles/960923/archive_034625.htm|title=What a New Crew Might Do|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-09-15|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Barone, Michael] Kemp was seen as likely to influence several types of swing voters, especially those of his native state of California, and even the Democrats feared Kemp might lure voters.
After receiving the nomination, Kemp became the ticket’s spokesman for minorities and the inner-city. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE0D81E39F93AA1575BC0A960958260|title= Kemp Stumps For the Votes Of Minorities|accessdate=2008-03-04|date=
1996-08-29|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Bruni, Frank] [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D06EED7143BF934A3575AC0A960958260|title= Kemp Courts Harlem Voters With Open Arms, Little Hope|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-09-07|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Gray, Jerry] [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A07E7DE1138F937A3575AC0A960958260|title= In Inner-City Chicago, Kemp Makes Pitch for Black Votes|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-09-04|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Gray, Jerry] Due to agreement on the self-help policy that Louis Farrakhanhas endorsed in many fora including the Million Man March, Kemp in a sense aligned himself with Farrakhan. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9906E4DA1631F936A25753C1A960958260|title= Kemp and Farrakhan|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-10-15|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Rosenthal, A. M.] cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C00E3DE1E3BF932A2575AC0A960958260|title= Kemp Lines Up Solidly Behind Netanyahu|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-09-11|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Gray, Jerry] However, Farrakhan is perceived as being anti-Semitic, and Kemp is considered an ally of Republican Jews. [cite web|url=http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/4287/edition_id/77/format/html/displaystory.html|title=Can GOP ticket overcome rightist platform? Kemp seen as ally on Jewish causes|accessdate=2008-04-01|date= 1996-08-16|publisher=San Francisco Jewish Community Publications Inc.,|author=Dorf, Matthew|work=J. the Jewish news weekly of Northern California] This issue necessitated some political sidestepping. As the nominee, Kemp at times overshadowed Dole.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9406E0DF1430F93AA2575BC0A960958260|title= Kemp Attacks Clinton's Abortion Veto|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-08-19|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Nagourney, Adam] In fact, more than once, Kemp was described as if he was the Presidential nominee. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04E6DB1031F93BA25753C1A960958260|title= Gore, Kemp and No Politics for Dinner|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-10-18|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Firestone, David] In addition to having overshadowed Dole, despite the negative ad campaigns that the ticket used, Kemp was a very positive running mate who relied on a pep rallytype campaign tour full of football-related metaphors and hyperbole.cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/articles/961014/archive_034747.htm|title=On the Good Shepherd's Trail|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-10-06|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Borger, Gloria] Although some enjoyed Kemp's style, referring to him as the Good Shepherd, others grew tired of the overemphasis on recounting stories of passing balls and underemphasis on stories of passing bills. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/960902/archive_034458.htm|title=Training an Ear to the Sounds of Silence|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-08-25|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Roberts, Steven V.] During the campaign, Kemp expressed the opinion that the Republican party leaders did not stand behind the ticket wholeheartedly. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9807E0DE1F30F935A15753C1A960958260|title= Kemp Hits Back at Republicans Who Despair|accessdate=2008-03-08|date= 1996-10-26|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Gray, Jerry] Despite Kemp's voice on minority issues, Colin Powell's support and polls that showed about 30% of blacks identified themselves as conservatives on issues such as school prayer, school vouchers and criminal justice, the Republicans were unable to improve upon historical support levels from African-American voters. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/961104/archive_034891.htm|title=Voices from the Gallery: Fearful and eager, voters are talking up a storm of worries and wishes |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-10-27|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Eddings, Jerelyn, Jeannye Thornton, Dorian Friedman, Josh Chetwynd, Kevin Whitelaw and Victoria Pope]
Both Gore and Kemp had Presidential aspirations, which induced pursuit of debate on a higher plane. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/961014/archive_034720.htm|title=Clintonomics: Going Once, Going Twice; Tough Talks; Last-Minute Squeals; Eyes on the Prize?; Body Fake?|accessdate=2008-04-14|date=
1996-10-06|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Stanglin, Douglas, Bruce B. Auster, Tim Zimmermann, David Makovsky, Paul Glastris and Kenneth T. Walsh] In addition, Gore and Kemp were long-time friends unlike Gore and his previous Vice-Presidential opponent Quayle. Thus, as debaters they avoided personal attacks. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9905E3DD143EF93AA35753C1A960958260|title= Gore and Kemp Practice Jabs for Tonight's Encounter|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-10-09|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Gray, Jerry] However, some felt Kemp failed to counter substantive attacks. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/961021/archive_034781.htm|title=Should Dole Swing Away?: Allies urge him to hammer Clinton, but Dole hates the idea and isn't very good at it, anyway |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-10-27|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Borger, Gloria, David Fischer, Linda Kulman, Kenneth T. Walsh and Jason Vest] In the final October 9, 1996 Vice Presidential Debate against Al Gore(with the Dole-Kemp ticket trailing badly in the national polls), Kemp was soundly beaten, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985370,00.html|title=A Case of Mud Lust|accessdate=2008-03-01|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-10-28|author=Carlson, Margaret] [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985331,00.html|title=From Savior to Scapegoat|accessdate=2008-03-01|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-10-21|author=Goodgame, Dan] and Al Gore's performance is considered one of the best modern debate performances. [cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/71708|title=President of the Debate Team|accessdate=2008-04-13|date= 2007-11-23|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek] The debate topics ranged broadly from the usual such as abortion and foreign policy to the unusual such as an incident preceding the then-current baseballplayoffs, in which Roberto Alomar, the Baltimore Orioles' second baseman, cursed and spat on an umpire. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C00E5DF123EF933A25753C1A960958260|title= Economy Dominates Kemp-Gore Debate|accessdate=2008-03-02|date= 1996-10-10|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Clines, Francis X.] [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9806E4D9133EF933A25753C1A960958260|title= Excerpts From Debate Between Vice President Gore and Jack Kemp|accessdate=2008-03-02|date= 1996-10-10|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times] The Mexico policy debate was one of the more interesting topics for critical review. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D05E6D8133EF932A25753C1A960958260|title= Both Kemp and Gore Erred in Debate Over Policy on Mexico|accessdate=2008-03-04|date= 1996-10-11|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=DePalma, Anthony] The Gore victory was not a surprise since Kemp had been outmatched by Gore in previous encounters,cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,985175,00.html|title=Campaign 2000|accessdate=2008-03-01|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1996-09-23|author=Kramer, Michael] and Gore has a reputation as an experienced and vaunted debater.cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9400E0DA1331F934A1575BC0A9669C8B63|title= The Nation; Surprise! Debates May Matter. And Help Bush|accessdate=2008-03-15|date= 2000-08-27|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Berke, Richard L.]
His legacy includes the
Kemp-Roth Tax Cutof the 1980s, also known as the first of two "Reagan tax cuts". These served as the foundation of supply-side economics known as Reaganomics. Many Republicans have endorsed this Laffer Curveview that the key to cutting taxes spurs economic growth and reduces deficits. Although George H. W. Bush called this philosophy voodoo economics, George W. Bushand his Treasury Secretary, John W. Snow, are believers. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9504E6D7163EF93BA25756C0A9659C8B63|title= Economic View; Name That Tune About Tax Cuts|accessdate=2008-03-17|date= 2003-05-18|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Rosenbaum, David E.] Kemp is also remembered alongside George Wallaceand William Jennings Bryanfor influencing history by changing the direction of presidential elections despite their defeats. [cite web|url=http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/97nov/gephardt.htm|title=A Democrat Who Admits It|accessdate=2008-04-15|date=November 1997|author=Fallows, James|publisher=The Atlantic.com|work= Atlantic Monthly]
In the early 21st century, Kemp continued to be considered along with Reagan as the politician most responsible for the implementation of supply-side tax cuts and along with
Steve Forbesas the political figure most responsible for their continued place in the marketplace of political ideas. [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9407E5D71E3EF933A25757C0A9679C8B63|title= Back in Business; Supply-Side Economists Regain Influence Under Bush|accessdate=2008-03-15|date= 2001-04-10|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Leonhardt, David] He has been described as a beacon of economic conservatism and a hero for his urban agenda. [cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/articles/950213/archive_011365.htm|title=Jack Kemp; Henry Foster Jr.; Eileen Collins; Donald Pleasence; Alexander the Great|accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1995-02-05|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report] [cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/125863|title=The Great Scott Syndrome: Were Our Leaders Really Dumbstruck By The Existence Of A Crisis In Our Cities? C'mon|accessdate=2008-04-15|date= 1992-05-25|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek] Today, he continues to be described as a hero to fiscal conservatives (believer that free markets and low taxes work better than government bureaucracies).cite web|url=http://www.newsweek.com/id/109695|title=So Much for a Warm Welcome|accessdate=2008-04-13|date= 2008-02-18|publisher=Newsweek, Inc.|work= Newsweek|author=Conant, Eve, Holly Bailey and Michael Hirsh] cite web|url=http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/961209/archive_035121.htm|title=Divided Against Itself: The Republican Party: Can its five factions ever find happiness again? |accessdate=2008-04-14|date= 1996-12-01|publisher=U.S. News & World Report, L.P.|work= U.S. News & World Report|author=Barone, Michael] Kemp was considered the leader of the progressive conservatives who adhere to the hard right on social issues, but avoid protectionist fiscal and trade policy.cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977006-2,00.html|title=Divided They Fall (page 2)|accessdate=2008-03-04|publisher= Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 1992-11-16|author=Duffy, Michael]
In addition to Roth, he has had numerous political allies. At times, he collaborated with Gingrich and Lott on deregulation and tax cuts, [cite web|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,998544,00.html|title=The Prickly Pragmatist|accessdate=2008-03-01|publisher=
Time Inc.|work=Time|date= 2000-11-20|author=Goldstein, Andrew] collaborated with McCain and Phil Grammon tax cuts and spending restraints, [cite web|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/26/us/politics/26mccain.html|title=McCain’s Fiscal Mantra Becomes Less Is More|accessdate=2008-03-01|date= 2008-01-26|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Leonhardt, David] legislated with and campaigned for Joseph Lieberman, [cite web|url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9401E7D8113EF933A0575BC0A9609C8B63|title= Lieberman Gains G.O.P. Ally But Loses a Democratic One|accessdate=2008-03-02|date= 2006-08-30|publisher= The New York Times Company|work= The New York Times|author=Medina, Jennifer] and fought poverty with James Pinkerton. Pete du Pontwas a progressive conservative ally. After retiring from Congress and serving in the Cabinet, Kemp remained close to Gingrich, Lott, Weber and Mack. [