July 21


July 21

Events

*356 BC - Herostratus sets fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
*285 - Diocletian appoints Maximian as Caesar, co-ruler.
*1403 - Battle of Shrewsbury: King Henry IV of England defeats rebels to the north of the county town of Shropshire, England.
*1545 - The first landing of French troops onto the coast of the Isle of Wight during the French invasion of the Isle of Wight occurs.
*1568 - Eighty Years' War: Battle of Jemmingen - Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva defeats Louis of Nassau.
*1718 - The Treaty of Passarowitz between the Ottoman Empire, Austria and the Republic of Venice is signed.
*1774 - Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774: Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji ending the war.
*1831 - Inauguration of Léopold I of Belgium, first king of the Belgians.
*1861 - American Civil War: First Battle of Bull Run - at Manassas Junction, Virginia, the first major battle of the war begins. The Confederate won.
*1865 - In the market square of Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok shoots and kills Davis Tutt in what is regarded as the first true western showdown.
*1873 - At Adair, Iowa, Jesse James and the James-Younger gang pull off the first successful train robbery in the American West.
*1877 - After rioting by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad workers and the deaths of nine rail workers at the hands of the Maryland militia, workers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania stage a sympathy strike that is met with an assault by the state militia.
*1918 - U-156 shells Nauset Beach, in Orleans, Massachusetts. This is the first time that the United States is shelled since the War of 1812.
*1919 - The dirigible "Wingfoot Air Express" crashes into the Illinois Trust and Savings Building in Chicago, killing 12 people.
*1925 - Scopes Trial: In Dayton, Tennessee, high school biology teacher John T. Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution in class and fined $100.
*1944 - World War II: Battle of Guam - American troops land on Guam starting the battle. It would end on August 10.
*1949 - The United States Senate ratifies the North Atlantic Treaty.
*1954 - First Indochina War: The Geneva Conference partitions Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
*1960 - Sirimavo Bandaranaike is elected prime minister of Sri Lanka and becomes the first woman prime minister in the world.
*1961 - Mercury program: Mercury-Redstone 4 Mission - Gus Grissom piloting" Liberty Bell 7" becomes the second American to go into space (in a suborbital mission).
*1964 - Singapore Race Riot - every year since then, Racial Harmony Day is celebrated on this day.
*1969 - Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin become the first men to walk on the Moon, during the Apollo 11 mission.
*1970 - After 11 years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt is completed.
*1972 - Bloody Friday bombing by the Provisional Irish Republican Army around Belfast, Northern Ireland - 22 bomb explosions, 9 people killed and 130 people seriously injured.
*1973 - In the Lillehammer affair in Norway, Israeli Mossad agents kill a waiter whom they mistakenly thought was involved in 1972's Munich Olympics Massacre.
*1976 - Christopher Ewart-Biggs British ambassador to the Republic of Ireland is assassinated by the Provisional IRA.
*1977 - The start of a four day long Libyan-Egyptian War takes place.
*1983 - The world's lowest temperature is recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at −89.2°C (−129°F).
*1994 - Tony Blair is declared the winner of the leadership election of the British Labour Party, paving the way for him to become Prime Minister in 1997.
*1995 - Third Taiwan Strait Crisis: The People's Liberation Army begins firing missiles into the waters north of Taiwan.
*1997 - The fully restored USS Constitution (aka "Old Ironsides") celebrates her 200th birthday by setting sail for the first time in 116 years.
*2002 - Telecom giant WorldCom files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the largest such filing in United States history.
*2004 - The United Kingdom government publishes "Delivering Security in a Changing World," a paper detailing wide-ranging reform of the country's armed forces.
*2005 - Four terrorist bombings, occurring exactly two weeks after the similar July 7 bombings, target London's public transportation system. All four bombs fail to detonate and all four suspected suicide bombers are captured and later convicted and imprisoned for long terms.
*2007 - Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, the final book in the bestselling Harry Potter series is released.
*2008 - Bosnian-Serb war criminal Radovan Karadžić is arrested in Serbia and is indicted by the UN's ICTY tribunal.

Births

*810 - Imam Bukhari, Islamic scholar (d. 870)
*1515 - Philip Neri, Italian churchman (d. 1595)
*1620 - Jean Picard, French astronomer (d. 1682)
*1664 - Matthew Prior, English poet and diplomat (d. 1721)
*1693 - Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1768)
*1710 - Paul Möhring, German physician (d. 1792)
*1808 - Simion Bărnuţiu, Romanian philosopher and politician (d. 1864)
*1810 - Henri Victor Regnault, French chemist (d. 1878)
*1816 - Paul Reuter, German-born British journalist and media owner (Reuters) (d. 1899)
*1858 - Lovis Corinth, German painter (d. 1925)
* 1858 - Maria Christina of Austria, queen of Spain (d. 1929)
* 1858 - Alfred Henry O'Keeffe, New Zealand artist (d. 1941)
*1863 - Aubrey Smith, English cricketer and actor (d. 1948)
*1870 - Emil Orlik, Czech painter (d. 1932)
*1880 - Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Slovak politician, French general and astronomer (d. 1919)
*1882 - David Burliuk, Ukrainian artist (d. 1967)
*1893 - Hans Fallada, German writer (d. 1947)
*1899 - Hart Crane, American poet (d. 1932)
* 1899 - Ernest Hemingway, American writer, Nobel laureate (d. 1961)
*1903 - Roy Neuberger, American financier
*1908 - Harold "Jug" McSpaden, American professional golfer (d. 1996)
*1911 - Marshall McLuhan, Canadian author (d. 1980)
*1920 - Constance Dowling, American actress (d. 1969)
* 1920 - Isaac Stern, Ukrainian-born violinist (d. 2001)
*1923 - Rudolph A. Marcus, Canadian chemist, Nobel laureate
*1922 - Kay Starr, American singer
*1922 - Mollie Sugden, British comedic actress
*1924 - Don Knotts, American actor (d. 2006)
*1925 - Anne Meacham, American actress
*1926 - Paul Burke, American actor
* 1926 - Norman Jewison, Canadian film director
* 1926 - Rahimuddin Khan, Pakistani general
* 1926 - Karel Reisz, British film director (d. 2002)
* 1926 - Queenie Watts, English actress (d. 1980)
*1928 - Marcel Gauthier, Canadian wrestler (d. 1998)
*1929 - Bob Orton, American wrestler (d. 2006)
*1930 - Anand Bakshi, Indian lyricist (d. 2002)
*1932 - Ernie Warlick, American football player
*1933 - John Gardner, American author (d. 1982)
*1934 - Chandu Borde, Former Indian cricketer
*1935 - Norbert Blüm, German politician
* 1935 - Moe Drabowsky, baseball player (d. 2006)
*1938 - Les Aspin, American politician (d. 1995)
* 1938 - Anton Kuerti, Canadian pianist, composer and conductor
* 1938 - Janet Reno, 79th United States Attorney General
*1939 - John Negroponte, 1st United States Director of National Intelligence
*1943 - Edward Herrmann, American actor
*1944 - Tony Scott, British film director
* 1944 - Paul Wellstone, American politician (d. 2002)
*1945 - John Lowe, English darts player
* 1945 - Lydia Shum, Hong Kong comedian and actress (d. 2008)
* 1945 - Barry Richards, Former South African cricketer
* 1945 - Geoff Dymock, Former Australian cricketer
*1946 - Kenneth Starr, American lawyer
* 1946 - Barry Whitwam, British musician (Herman's Hermits)
*1947 - Chetan Chauhan, Former Indian cricketer
*1948 - Ed Hinton, American sportswriter
* 1948 - Yusuf Islam, stage name was "Cat Stevens", English singer/songwriter
* 1948 - Garry Trudeau, American cartoonist
*1949 - Al Hrabosky, baseball player
*1950 - Ubaldo Fillol, Argentinian footballer
*1951 - Robin Williams, American comedian/actor
*1952 - John Barrasso, American politician, junior senator from Wyoming
*1953 - Brian Talbot, British footballer
* 1953 - Jeff Fatt, Chinese Australian actor
*1955 - Howie Epstein, American musician (d. 2003)
* 1955 - Taco Ockerse, Indonesian singer
*1956 - Michael Connelly, American author
*1957 - Jon Lovitz, American comedian
* 1957 - George Landress, American songwriter and music producer
*1959 - Paul "Fatty" Vautin, Australian rugby league player
*1960 - Lance Guest, American actor
* 1960 - Fritz Walter, German footballer
*1961 - Amar Singh Chamkila, Punjabi folk singer
* 1961 - Jim Martin, American musician (Faith No More)
*1963 - Kevin Poole, English footballer
* 1963 - Paulo Silva, Brazilian mixed martial artist and professional wrestler
*1964 - Jens Weißflog, German ski jumper
*1965 - Gudni Bergsson, Icelandic footballer
* 1965 - Mike Bordick, American baseball player
* 1965 - Jovy Marcelo, Filipino racing driver (d. 1992)
*1966 - Arija Bareikis, American actress
*1968 - Johnnie Barnes, American football player
* 1968 - Brandi Chastain, American soccer player
* 1968 - Lyle Odelein, Canadian hockey player
*1969 - Emerson Hart, American musician (Tonic)
* 1969 - Klaus Graf, German racing driver
*1970 - Shawn Stasiak, American professional wrestler
*1971 - Emmanuel Bangué, French long jumper
* 1971 - Charlotte Gainsbourg, French actress and singer
* 1971 - Nuno Markl, Portuguese comedian and radio host
*1972 - Shinjiro Otani, Japanese professional wrestler
*1973 - Ali Landry, American model and actress
*1974 - Geoff Jenkins, American baseball player
*1975 - Mike Sellers, National Football League fullback
* 1975 - Ravindra Pushpakumara, Former Sri Lankan cricketer
*1977 - Paul Casey, English golfer
* 1977 - Jaime Murray, British actress
*1978 - Josh Hartnett, American actor
* 1978 - Justin Bartha, American actor
* 1978 - Damian Marley, Jamaican musician
* 1978 - Gary Teale, Scottish football player
*1979 - David Carr, American football player
* 1979 - Tamika Catchings, American basketball player
*1980 - Tailor James, Canadian model
* 1980 - CC Sabathia, American baseball player
*1981 - Titus Bramble, English footballer
* 1981 - Stefan Schumacher, German cyclist
* 1981 - Joaquín Sánchez, Spanish footballer
* 1981 - Chrishell Stause, American actress
* 1981 - Blake Lewis, American musician
*1983 - Eivør Pálsdóttir, Faroese singer
* 1983 - Kellen Winslow II, American football player
*1984 - Paul Davis, American basketball player
* 1984 - Liam Ridgewell, English footballer
*1985 - Von Wafer, American basketball player
*1987 - AnnaLynne McCord, American actress
*1988 - Chris Mitchell, Scottish footballer
*1989 - Jamie Waylett, British actor
* 1989 - Rory Culkin, American actor
* 1989 - Chris Gunter, Welsh footballer
*1992 - Rachael Flatt, American figure skater

Deaths

*1403 - Henry Percy, English nobleman and soldier (b. ca.1364)
*1425 - Manuel II Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (b. 1350)
*1688 - James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, English statesman and soldier (b. 1610)
*1793 - Bruni d'Entrecasteaux, French explorer (b. 1739)
*1796 - Robert Burns, Scottish poet (b. 1759)
*1798 - François Sebastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt, Austrian field marshal (b. 1733)
*1880 - Hiram Walden, American politician (b. 1800)
*1889 - Nelson Dewey, American politician, 1st Governor of Wisconsin (b. 1813)
*1899 - Robert G. Ingersoll, American politician and military officer (b. 1833)
*1932 - Bill Gleason, late 19th century baseball player
*1938 - Owen Wister, American author (b. 1860)
*1941 - Bohdan Lepky, Ukrainian writer and poet (b. 1872)
*1943 - Charlie Paddock, American athlete (b. 1900)
*1944 - Claus von Stauffenberg, German, leader of failed plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, by execution (b. 1907)
* 1944 - Ludwig Beck, German Chief of Staff (b. 1880)
*1946 - Gualberto Villarroel, President of Bolivia (b. 1908)
*1948 - Arshile Gorky, Armenian-born American artist (b. 1904)
*1967 - Jimmie Foxx, baseball player (b. 1907)
* 1967 - Albert Lutuli, South African politician, Nobel Peace Prize laureate
* 1967 - Basil Rathbone, English actor (b. 1892)
*1968 - Ruth St. Denis, dancer and choreographer (b. 1878)
*1970 - Mikhail Gerasimov, Russian anthropologist and sculptor (b. 1907)
* 1970 - Bob Kalsu, American football player (b. 1945)
*1972 - Ralph Craig, American athlete (b. 1889)
*1982 - Dave Garroway, American television host (b. 1913)
*1986 - Ernest Maas, American screenwriter (b. 1892)
*1991 - Paul Warwick, English racing driver (b. 1969)
*1998 - Alan Shepard, astronaut (b. 1923)
* 1998 - Robert Young, American actor (b. 1907)
*2001 - Steve Barton, American actor (b. 1954)
* 2001 - Sivaji Ganesan, South Indian Tamil actor (b. 1927)
*2003 - John Davies, New Zealand Olympic Committee president (b. 1938)
* 2003 - Walter M. "Matt" Jefferies, American film art director (b. 1921)
*2004 - Jerry Goldsmith, American composer (b. 1929)
* 2004 - Edward B. Lewis, American geneticist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate (b. 1918)
* 2005 - Long John Baldry, British blues musician (b. 1941)
* 2005 - Lord Alfred Hayes, British Wrestling Announcer for WWE (b. 1928)
*2006 - Mako, Japanese-born American actor (b. 1933)
* 2006 - Ta Mok, "The Khmer Rouge Butcher", war criminal in Democratic Kampuchea (b. 1926)

Holidays and observances

*Belgium: National holiday (1831 - inauguration of Léopold I, first king of the Belgians)
*Guam: Liberation Day (1944)
*Russia: summer Kazanskaya
*Singapore: Racial Harmony Day

Roman Catholic
*Saint Arbogastus, bishop of Strasburg, confessor [Basel, Constance, Strassburg]
*Saint Daniel
*Saint Lawrence of Brindisi, priest, Doctor of the Church
*Saint Praxedes (Praxidis)
*Saint Victor of Marseilles, and companions, martyrs [Trier, southern France; Paris]

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/21 BBC: On This Day]
* [http://www1.sympatico.ca/cgi-bin/on_this_day?mth=Jul&day=21 On This Day in Canada]
*NYT On this day|month=07|day=21----


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