- Karol Świerczewski
Karol Świerczewski (callsign "Walter") (born on
22 February 1897in Warsaw, died on 28 March 1947at Jabłonki, near Baligród) was a military officerin Bolshevist Russia, and later a generalin the service of the Soviet Union, Republican Spainand the Polish post-War government.
Karol Świerczewski grew up in a poor working class family. In his youth he worked at a factory in Warsaw until 1915 when, during the
First World War, he was evacuated to Moscow. In 1918 he joined the Bolshevik Party, fought in the Russian Civil Waras a soldier of the Red Army, and was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. During the Polish-Soviet Warhe applied for transfer to the western front in order to fight against PolandFact|date=February 2007 where he was wounded.
From 1921 Świerczewski taught in the
Polish School of Red Communars. In 1928 he graduated from Frunze Military Academyin Moscow and worked in the Red Army General Staff.
In 1936, under the name General Walter, he went to
Spain; General Walter won the reputation of being a brave and very competent military commander as he led the XIV International Brigade, and later the 35th International Division, during the Spanish Civil War.
Following the outbreak of the
Second World WarŚwierczewski was first a general of the Soviet army, but in 1943 became one of the generals charged with the creation of the Soviet-controlled Polish Armed Forces in the East, the 1st Polish Army. In 1944 he became one of the leaders of the Polish Workers' Partyand the government of People's Republic of Poland. In the winter of 1944 and the spring of 1945 he led the Polish Second Armyduring the fighting for western Poland and the Battle of Berlin.
In February 1946 Świerczewski became the Deputy Defence Minister of Poland. He was involved in the persecution of the independence movement in Poland, and signed many death sentences, while establishing a communist regime in Poland. [ [http://www.ipn.gov.pl/portal.php?serwis=pl&dzial=62&id=947 Instytut Pamięci Narodowej ] ]
Death and legacy
His controversial death as he went on inspection of his troops without an escort, in an ambush organized by the
Ukrainian Insurgent Armynear Baligród, was used as the direct pretext for the pre-planned forcible transfer of the Ukrainian population ( Operation Wisła) from the territories in the eastern part of the post-war Poland to the " Recovered Territories" (the areas Poland gained from Germany after the war).
After 1989, as Poland regained independence from Soviet rule with the end of the
Warsaw pactand the coming to power of Solidarity, many his monuments were removed and streets renamed because of his role in implementing the communist regime in Poland.
May 21, 2003, the Polish organization of former veterans and independence fighters applied to the Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) to investigate crimes against the Polish nation committed by Karol Świerczewski. In a letter, they recall that he was "one of the people who consciously worked towards [the] enslavement of Polish nation, through enforced communist regime that was [a] vassal towards Moscow". Among crimes that are not subject to expiry and should be investigated by the IPN are 29 death sentences on Polish soldiers and officers, which were signed by Świerczewski during his command of the Soviet-controlled 2nd Polish Army. [http://www.republika.pl/antinazi2/maj%203.htm]
General Walter was a keen amateur photographer. [http://www.alba-valb.org/volpdf/v27n4_december2005.pdf "The Volunteer", December 2005, p 10.] His daughter donated 333 of his photographs to the "Asociación de Amigos de las Brigadas Internacionales" in Albacete, Spain, to form a permanent part of their archive.
*I. Pidkova, R. M. Shust, K. Bondarenko, " [http://history.franko.lviv.ua/dovidnyk.htm Dovidnyk z istoriï Ukraïny] " (A hand-book on the History of Ukraine), 3-Volumes, Article " [http://history.franko.lviv.ua/IIIs_1.htm Сверчевський Кароль] " (t. 3), Kiev, 1993-1999, ISBN 5-7707-5190-8 (t. 1), ISBN 5-7707-8552-7 (t. 2), ISBN 966-504-237-8 (t. 3).
*ru icon [http://sovsekretno.ru/2000/07/10.html Пан Вальтер] in "Совершенно секретно", a monthly in Russia
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