No. 75 Squadron RAF

No. 75 Squadron RAF
No. 75 (New Zealand) Squadron RAF
Active 1 October 1916 - 13 June 1919
15 March 1937 - 4 April 1940
4 April 1940 - 15 October 1945
Country United Kingdom United Kingdom
Allegiance  New Zealand
Branch Ensign of the Royal Air Force.svg Royal Air Force
Role Bomber
Nickname New Zealand
Motto Māori: Ake ake kia kaha
("For ever and ever be strong")
Battle honours
Squadron Badge In front of two mining hammers in saltire, a tiki
Squadron Codes FO Oct 1938 - Sep 1939
AA (Apr 1940 - Oct 1945)
JN (Feb 1943 - Oct 1945, 'C' Flt only)

No. 75 Squadron of the Royal Air Force operated as a bomber unit in World War II, before being transferred to the Royal New Zealand Air Force in 1945.


First World War, Royal Flying Corps, Home Defence Squadron

Established as a unit of the Royal Flying Corps for Home Defence, it was formed at Goldington on 1 October 1916 with BE2c and later BE2e aircraft, it moved to Elmswell in East Anglia in September 1917, exchanging BE2c for FE2b. Operational flying against day and night raids proved fruitless and the pilots did not engage the enemy. Late in 1917, the Squadron became part of 50 Southern Wing. Minimal records exist to show that the Squadron flew 16 interception sorties between September 1917 to August 1918. In May 1918 the squadron moved to North Weald tasked with night fighting, and it received Avro 504K and Sopwith Pups in October.

After the war, Sopwith Camels arrived (December) and finally Sopwith Snipes (March 1919). Little information has survived about the squadron's early history, however, John Rawling's Fighter Squadrons of the Royal Air Force confirms that it saw no action before being disbanded, still at North Weald, on 13 June 1919.[1]

1937, reforms as bomber squadron

The squadron reformed as No. 75 (Bomber) Squadron on 15 March 1937 as part of a planned expansion of the RAF. It used B Flight, No. 218 Squadron as cadre, forming at RAF Driffield in Yorkshire. Initial aircraft received were four Vickers Virginia night bombers and two Avro Ansons. Later more Ansons arrived from No. 215 Squadron to give six in each flight. By September Handley Page Harrow heavy bombers replaced the Virginias and the squadron became a long range bomber unit with six aircraft in each flight and four in reserve, with the squadron code of '75' painted on the fuselage. In July 1938 they moved to RAF Honington and were issued with the aircraft code of 'FO' to replace the '75'. By March 1939, 75 Sqn became the Pool for No. 3 Group, RAF Bomber Command, effectively becoming an Operational Training Unit (OTU), it moved to RAF Stradishall in July 1939 and re-equipped with Vickers Wellington Mk1's. On 4 April 1940, 75 Sqn was absorbed into No.6 (Training) Group and ceased to exist. The reformed squadron did not create, adopt or have authorised an official RAF Squadron badge.

The New Zealand Squadron

The New Zealand government had ordered 30 Vickers Wellington Mk1C bombers in 1938. RNZAF aircrew were sent to England to train on the new aircraft based at RAF Marham. The crews were to fly the aircraft to New Zealand in batches of six. RAF official records name this group of airman as "The New Zealand Squadron", and as a result of Britain delaring war against Germany, the New Zealand Government made the airman and the aircraft available to the RAF to help with the new war effort. A decision by the British Air Ministry to give them the defunct No. 75 Squadron numberplate on 4 April 1940, meant that the nucelus of The New Zealand Squadron personnel remained together as an operational unit of the RAF.

Second World War: New Zealand crews

On 4 April 1940, The New Zealand Squadron was renamed No. 75 Squadron with the letters (NZ) being added in brackets after the number. This was the first Commonwealth squadron to be so created in the Second World War. Although often referred to, then and since, as an RNZAF unit, 75 Squadron was equipped and controlled by the RAF until VJ Day. (This was not the case with most RNZAF units, as well as those from the other Dominions; technically these units were attached to the RAF under Article XV of the Empire Air Training Scheme, and were known as "Article XV squadrons".)

75 (NZ) Sqn rejoined No. 3 Group and was based initially at RAF Feltwell, then RAF Mildenhall, RAF Newmarket and RAF Mepal in Cambridgeshire. It saw action over France, Norway, Belgium, Italy, Sweden and Germany.

Its code letters of "AA" became widely recognised on both sides,[citation needed] The squadron operated with three flights after receiving Short Stirlings, and "C" Flight was given the code letters "JN" as there were insufficient codes for three flights of "AA". Avro Lancasters replaced the Stirlings in 1944 until August 1945 when after moving to RAF Spilsby the squadron began converting to Avro Lincolns as part of the new Tiger Force. The squadron had to leave their well tuned and looked-after Lancasters at Mepal and were given a squadron of rather poorly kept Lancasters at Spilsby. The personnel were now completely New Zealanders, but when Japan surrendered, the squadron had received only three Lincolns to take to the Far East, and it was soon disbanded, with the New Zealanders being slowly shipped home over a twelve-month period.

75 (Bomber) Squadron 1937-1940, and 75 (NZ) Squadron 1940-1945, was based at:[2][3]

From To Name Equipment
Mar 1937 Jul 1938 RAF Driffield Anson Mk.I, Virginia Mk.X
Jul 1938 Jul 1939 RAF Honington Anson Mk.I, Harrow Mks.I, II
Jul 1939 Sep 1939 RAF Stradishall Anson Mk.I, Wellington Mk.I
Sep 1939 Apr 1940 RAF Harwell Anson Mk.I, Wellington Mk.I
Apr 1940 Aug 1942 RAF Feltwell Wellington Mks.I, Ia, Ic
Aug 1942 Nov 1942 RAF Mildenhall Vickers Wellington Mks.Ia, Ic Short Stirling Mk.I
Nov 1942 Jun 1943 RAF Newmarket Short Stirling Mk.I
Jun 1943 Jul 1945 RAF Mepal Short Stirling Mks.I, III Lancaster Mks.I, III
Jul 1945 Oct 1945 RAF Spilsby Lancaster Mks.I, III Lincoln Mk.II

Transfer to the Royal New Zealand Air Force

In October 1946, in gratitude for the work done and sacrifices made by its New Zealand aircrew, Britain transferred the squadron number, badge and colours to the Royal New Zealand Air Force. No. 2 Squadron RNZAF was disposing of its Ventura bombers at RNZAF Base Ohakea at the time, and so was disbanded and renumbered as No. 75 Squadron RNZAF. It formed up as a Fighter/Bomber unit and requiped with 50 ex-RAF de Havilland Mosquitos, which they flew out from Britain.

The RAF were to never again have a No. 75 Squadron, and it is the only RAF Squadron to be given to a Commonwealth country by Britain. The squadron badge was also transferred and maintained its RAF format but with the Royal New Zealand Air Force title. This is also a unique aspect ,being the only RAF format badge among all the RNZAF Commonwealth format badges.


75 Squadron claims to be the only squadron engaged constantly against Germany from 1939 to VE day. The squadron flew more sorties than any other Allied heavy bomber squadron, suffered more casualties than any other Allied squadron, and dropped the second largest weight of bombs of any Allied squadron. The squadron won a single Victoria Cross, awarded to Sgt J A Ward for climbing along the wing of a Wellington, in flight, to put out an engine fire.

A Lancaster in 75 Squadron colours is preserved at the Museum of Transport and Technology at Auckland, New Zealand. The National Archives schools web-site features an interview with Gordon Ford, a British wireless operator who served with 75 Squadron in World War II.[4]



  1. ^ Rawlings 1978, p. 191.
  2. ^ Halley 1988, p. 144.
  3. ^ Jefford 2001, p. 51.
  4. ^ Gordon Ford's Story—What was it like to be an airman in World War Two?, The National Archvies. Retrieved on 30 October 2009.


  • Franks, Norman. Forever Strong: the Story of 75 Squadron RNZAF 1916-1990. Auckland, New Zealand: Random Century Ltd., 1991 ISBN 1-86941-102-1.
  • Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth, 1918-1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
  • Jefford, Wing Commander C.G., MBE,BA,RAF (Retd). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
  • Rawlings, John D.R. Fighter Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishers) Ltd., 1969 (new edition 1976, reprinted 1978). ISBN 0-354-01028-X.
  • Saunders, Hilary Aidan St George. Return at dawn: the official story of the New Zealand Bomber Squadron of the R.A.F. from June 1939 to July 1942 (1942; Director of Publicity, Wellington NZ, 50 pp)

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Squadron RAF No. 298 — Le Squadron RAF No. 298 fut un squadron de la Royal Air Force pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, de 1942 à 1946. Sa devise était Silent We Strike (en français : Nous frappons en silence) Histoire 1942. Le 24 août, le squadron No. 298 est… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Squadron RAF No. 138 — Le Squadron RAF No. 138 fut un squadron[1] de la Royal Air Force, consacré à des missions aériennes de chasse, d’opérations spéciales et de bombardement, créé en 1918 et définitivement démantelé en 1962. Sa devise était : ‘’For freedom’’.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Squadron RAF No. 299 — Le Squadron RAF No. 299 fut un squadron de la Royal Air Force, pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, à partir de novembre 1943.. Histoire 1943. Le 4 novembre, le squadron RAF No. 299 est formé au terrain RAF de Stoney Cross, Angleterre, en tant que …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Squadron RAF No. 90 — Le Squadron RAF No. 90 (aussi connu sous l appellation Escadron XC) est d abord un escadron de chasse de la Royal Flying Corps, lors de sa création le 17 octobre 1917, bien qu il n ait jamais participé aux opérations militaires. Il est dissous en …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Squadron RAF No. 161 — Le Squadron RAF No. 161 fut pendant la Première Guerre mondiale une unité de bombardement de jour de la Royal Air Force, et fut utilisé pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale pour acheminer dans les pays d Europe occupée, à partir du terrain RAF de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • No. 144 Squadron RAF — Squadron 144 RAF crest No. 144 Squadron, RAF, was a British aviation and missle squadron during World War I, World War II, and the Cold War. Contents 1 World War I …   Wikipedia

  • No. 16 Squadron RAF — Active 10 February 1915 – Present Role Elementary Flying Training …   Wikipedia

  • No. 41 Squadron RAF — Official Squadron Badge of No. 41 Squadron RAF Active 14 July 1916 Country …   Wikipedia

  • No. 46 Squadron RAF — No. 46 Squadron Active 19 April 1916 31 August 1975 Country United Kingdom Branch Royal Air Force Size squadron No. 46 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps …   Wikipedia

  • No. 233 Squadron RAF — Active 31 August 1918 15 May 1919 18 May 1937 – 15 December 1945 1952 1957 1 September 1960 – 31 January 1964 Country …   Wikipedia

  • No. 269 Squadron RAF — The official No. 269 Squadron badge Active 6 October 1918 – 15 November 1919 7 December 1936 – 10 March 1946 1 January 1952 – 24 M …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.