- Filipino women writers
The history of Filipino women writers is an account of how Philippine women became literary “mistresses of the ink” and “lady pen-pushers” who created works of
fictionor factual and historical storybooks, poetry, novels, short stories, essays, biographies, autobiographiesand other known writing genres. Writing in English, Spanish, Filipino and other local languages and native dialects, female writers from the Philippine archipelagoutilized literature, in contrast with the oral traditionof the past, as the living voices of their personal experiences, thoughts, consciousness, concepts of themselves, society, politics, Philippine and world history. They employed the “power of the pen” and the printed word in order to shatter the so-called "Great Grand Silence of the Centuries" of Filipino female members, participants, and contributors to the progress and development of the Philippine Republic, and consequently the rest of the world. Filipino women authors have “put pen to paper” to present, express, and describe their own image and culture to the world, as they see themselves.Vartti, Riitta (editor). [http://www.filippiinit-seura.fi/preface.html Preface to the Finnish anthology Tulikärpänen - filippiiniläisiä novelleja (Firefly - Filipino Short Stories), Kääntöpiiri] : Helsinki, Finland 2001/2007] [http://www.filippiinit-seura.fi/firefly.html The History of Filipino Women's Writings] , an article from Firefly - Filipino Short Stories (Tulikärpänen - filippiiniläisiä novelleja), 2001 / 2007, retrieved on: April 14, 2008]
Image and influence
Women in the Philippinesand History of the Philippines."
Among the principal influences to the Filipina image of herself and to her writings include four women in Philippine history, namely:
Gabriela Silang, Leonor Rivera, Imelda Marcosand Corazon Aquino. Often mentioned in Philippine literature, these four represents the struggle, perception and character of how it is to be a woman in Philippine society. Gabriela Silang was a "katipunera" or a revolutionary – a representation of female bravery – who fought against the Spanish colonialismin the 1700s. Silang was a contrast to the chaste and religiously devout image of the Filipino lady as portrayed by Jose Rizal through his Spanish-language novels, "Noli Me Tangere" and " El Filibusterismo". Within the pages of these novels of the 1800s, Rizal depicted Leonor Rivera - a girlfriend of his - through the fictional character of "Maria Clara" as the epitome of virtue, the ideal Filipina. Then there was the arrival of Imelda Marcos– the “beauty queen… dictator’s wife… the power-seeking kind of a woman…” – and then there was the advent and the rise of Corazon C. Aquino, the first woman president in Asiaand the Philippines – the elected 1986 replacement of a male despot, Ferdinand Marcos. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, after two male presidents ( Fidel V. Ramosand Joseph Estrada, respectively), followed the footsteps of Corazon Aquino into becoming a leader and political figure of an Asian nation.
In later years of modern-day Philippine literature, from the 1960s to the 1980s,
feminismbecame the focus of Philippine women writers – first in poetry and then prose – in order to break away from what is termed as the “Great Grand Silence of the Centuries”. The creation of an image unique to themselves – through their own individual efforts – became the norm. There were criticisms against the "Maria Clara" image portrayed by the Philippine paladin, José Rizal, as well as critiques and female disapproval of how Filipino men writers wrote about women. Contemporary feminist female writers were also inclined towards breaking away from the traditional, idealized and typecast image of Filipino women of the past, being matriarchal mystics, and figures that perform sacrifices, undergo suffrage and works of martyrdom which were expected from their pious upbringing. Women writers also passed judgment against the typical portrayal of women as sex symbols. Among the first lady writers to break away from the old style and genre exemplified in the works of past female writers such as Paz Latorena's traditional "teachings" about the ideal Filipina was the feminist poet, Marjorie Evasco. Other women writers like Kerima Polotan Tuvera, Rosario Cruz Lucero, Ligaya Victorio-Reyes and Jessica Zafraeven stepped forward to boldly make it a “fashion” to discuss aspects of womanhoodthat were previously regarded as tabooin Philippine society, such as subjects about female anatomy, erotica, divorceor separation from former husbands, abortion, premarital affairs, and childless marriages. An example is the 1992 publication of "Forbidden Fruit", a bilingual volume combining Filipino and English language works of women.
Language and education
Philippine languagesand Education in the Philippines"
Contrary to the treatment received by Filipinos during the Spanish colonialists’ period, education of the Philippine citizenry was prioritized during the times of American occupation, such as the activities of the
Thomasitesand U.S. military personnel in the islands beginning the early 1900s. Thus, only the elite class of society – those known as the Ilustrados– preferred the use of Spanish rather than enhance and develop the native ancient scripts (" baybayin"), languages and dialects. Filipinos of both genders were able to obtain school and learning opportunites resulting to being educated in the English-language and a high literacy rating for a developing country like the Philippines. However, despite of this advantage, grants and similar forms of funding were not immediately available to Philippine writers, for both men and women. But in turn, in contrast to this lack of pecuniary support for writers, many works in the Filipinianastyle proliferated and were written dominantly in Philippine English, but fewer however in the local maternal languages.
During the four-year
Japanese occupation of the Philippinesduring the Second World War, the Japanese delivered the concept of “Asia to Asians,” an idea that halted the proliferation of English as the language of literature in the Philippines, because it sparked the publication and media broadcasts by means of the exclusive use of the vernacular or the “childhood languages” of Filipinos. This Japanese contribution to the Filipino’s linguistic enlightenment reawakened the already existing move towards uplifting the status of the local languages as forms of literary expression prior to the introduction and propagation of English in the Filipino archipelago. The common “languages of childhood” of the Filipinos, in general, include Tagalog, Visayan, Hiligaynon, Cebuano and Ilocano, among others.
Still, despite of the Filipino’s reawakening to their “languages of childhood”, the status of the English language returned and elevated. This rejuvenation was due in part to the spread of English-based Philippine magazines, in conjunction with the publication of serial “romantic and
melodramatic” novels by women writers who wrote in their “mother tongue” through the pages of comics and magazines such as " Liwayway", " Bannawag", "Bulaklak", "Aliwan" and "Tagumpay".
The competition between the use of English and Filipino as main modes of communication was unrelenting even after the end of World War II, the proclamation of Philippine Independence in 1946, and the official adoption of Filipino as a second official language other than English in 1987. The persistence of this competitive phenomenon had been accounted for the economic, military and cultural association of the Philippines to the United States, the encouragement of the use of English in combination with the dialects in schools and universities, and also the need to gain a larger audience of readership. As a result,
bilingualism- and even multilingualism- became the linguistic style and norm.
Themes, character, and genre
Literature penned by women authors in the Philippines embark upon the many realities and faces of Filipino society: the gap and the friction between the rich and the peasantry, personal experiences and dilemmas, love stories, their formative years, married life, employment; culture, beliefs, religion, rituals and tradition, womanhood, livelihood, family and motherhood, the duties of a female spouse; periods in history such as the
Second World War, the war for Vietnam, the presence of the American military bases, nationalistic ideals and questions of cultural identity, the Marcos despotism, the EDSA revolutionof 1986; poverty, prostitution, the effects of globalizationand pollution, volunteer work, and the need to migratefor economic survival.
Women in the Philippinesand History of the Philippines."
Precolonial to Spanish colonization
Prior to the surge of Spanish conquerors and colonizers, Filipino women were already creating and recording poetry using perishable materials such as banana leaves. Indigenous Filipino women were also singing tribal songs, at a time when they were of equal status to their male counterparts. They can own property, become rulers themselves in place of the men, act as ritual leaders or "babaylans", and had the right to divorce husbands. But this ancient social image of Filipino female changed upon the arrival of the Spaniards. Through this transition and foreign intervention, the liberal women of ancient Filipino society were silenced and confined to the home. They were trained, based on the “European model”, to become passive and obedient members of society, performers of domestic tasks, preservers of personal attractiveness, and to prepare for married life. The nunnery and the teaching occupation became their only careers outside the home. Therefore, their literature became either centered on religion or “reproductions of stories” derived from Spanish models, with the exception of a few brave women such as
Leona Florentino, a female poet who refused to be silenced during the final moments of the 19th century, thus now regarded as the "founder of women's literature" in the Philippines.
Revolution against Spain
During the final stages of the 19th century, Filipino women participated in the nationwide revolt against the governing Spaniards, although less prominently than their male counterparts. Among their role and contributions were “to influence” the state of affairs of an “emerging republic” and to claim equal opportunity in education, which includes learning the Spanish-language. An inspiring group of women who debated against and pushed for the eradication of discriminatory laws, particularly the right to be educated in schools, was the so-called “21 women from Malolos,
Bulacan". Another would be Leona Florentino(1849-1884), who eventually became “the mother of Philippine women's literature”, and who was also regarded as the conduit from “oral to literary tradition”. Born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur, Florentino was a poetessof Ilustradobackground who wrote in Ilocano and Spanish. Her poems were recognized in Europein 1889 following her untimely death.
From the onset of the early years of the "benevolent" American occupation of the Philippine archipelago – after Spain lost control of the islands through war and opted to sell its Asian colony to the U.S. – the ambience was approving to the publication of vernacular literature which included the abundance of local magazines. Parallel to this, the United States of America established an English-based
public education system. Both men and women were able to study in schools, colleges, universities such as the University of the Philippines. Women were gradually beginning to regain equal footing with men, as it was during precolonial times. Both genders were able to publish works in their newly adopted language. During this European-Hispanic to Anglo-American linguistic transition, among the women who became active in creating Philippine literature in English were Paz Marquez Benitez, Paz M. Latorena, Estrella Alfon, Angela Manalang-Gloria, Genoveva Edroza-Matute, Loreto Paras-Sulit, Lilledeshan Bose, Cristina Pantoja-Hidalgo, and Lina Espina-Moore. Most of these literary pioneers also wrote simultaneously in the vernacular, although there were also those who became defiant and wrote exclusively in their mother tongue. An example of which was Magdalena Jalandoni, a Hiligaynon-language writer who was able to produce volumes of manuscripts. Among Jalandoni’s 24 Hiligaynon novels, two were translated into English. Those who excelled in both English and their local lingua franca was Lina Espina Moore, who became known as a forefront promoter of Cebuano literature. Moore's 1968 novel, "Heart of the Lotus" was the first Cebuano novel in the English language. Filipino women authors also became active pariticipants in the development of Philippine media.
As discussed, during World War II, the Japanese were able to influence and encourage the Philippine literati in developing the vernacular literature, in parallel existence with the English language introduced by the Americans through public education. The impact of this fellow-Asian intervention lingered through and survived after the Philippines achieved the status of a freely governing Republic. Exemplars are the Philippine-language works written by
Lualhati Bautistaand Liwayway Arceo. There were also published manuscripts that confer personal familiarity with events that occurred during the four-year long Japanese period such as those achieved by Estrella Alfon, Maria Luna Lopez, and Rosa Henson. [http://cpcabrisbane.org/Kasama/1997/V11n3/Henson.htm Comfort Woman: Slave of Destiny, Maria Rosa Luna Henson: Woman of Courage] , KASAMA Vol. 11 No. 3, Solidarity Philippines Australia Network, Cpcabrisbane.org, July–August–September 1997 and Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, Manila] , retrieved on: April 16, 2008] [http://rizal.lib.admu.edu.ph/aliww/splprg_rosahenson.html Maria Rosa Luna Henson (1927 - 1997)] , Ateneo Library of Women's Writings (ALIWW), Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines and Rizal.Lib.Admu.edu.ph] , retrieved on: April 16, 2008]
Marcos and Martial Law years
The 20-year authoritarian rule of Ferdinand Marcos in the 1970s brought forth literary themes of cultural revolution, social awakening and political consciousness, reinvigorated nationalism, opinionated movements and protests, disapproval of the patriarchal society, and mass migration. Women writers began writing about the situations of female domestic helpers and slum dwellers employing their skills in both the vernacular and English. The purpose of writing also in the native language was to stimulate, educate and awaken consciousness of the citizenry. Many writers were either “detained, tortured,” or “killed.” Among the women who became writers of this societal, political and activist genre were
Gilda Cordero-Fernandoand Ninotchka Rosca. Anti-Marcos movements, the “fiery texts” of writers, the People Powermovement or the 1986 Edsa Revolution dislodged the despot from the seat of power, and was replaced by an elected first woman president, Corazon C. Aquino.
Modern-day challenges and status
Filipino women have been receiving recognition and support from non-governmental organizations, libraries, and other publishers, but despite the efforts of these organizations and the writers themselves there are challenges that still confront Filipino women’s literary career. These include literary commercialism that prevents women writers from becoming parallel with so-called "esteemed authors", the struggle for additional acknowledgment of their status as writers, and obstacles related to economics.
Migratory trends and movements
One aspect of Filipino women writings includes the production of the so-called “migratory literature,” an account of how and why women had to leave their country in order to excel and express themselves through pen and print. In the 1930s, Philippine women authors opted to travel after obtaining the liberty to do so, and for other reasons such as the lack of a grant system within the confines of a developing country and the “resistance of a patriarchal society”. But the exodus of Filipino female writers during the 1970s differs in purpose from that of the 1930s, because they left the country to survive economically and escape government persecution. One of the first voyager-writer was Paz Latorena. The destinations of journeying migrant settlers were
North America- primarily the United States– and Europe, Australia, Arab nations, Japan, Singaporeand other Asian countries. In general, this “Great Migration” of Filipinos created “films, novels, short stories, poetry and comics” in the Philippines that portrayed wayfarers as economic heroes and heroines of the country.
Yet there were still some of those who chose to remain, instead of abandoning the Philippines, as in the case of Lilledeshan Bose; and there were also home-comers who, after traveling and staying abroad, returned to stay permanently such as Cristina Pantoja-Hidalgo. Other authors of “migrant literature” are Marianne Villanueva, Nadine Sarreal and Edessa Ramos.
In addition, the Filipino settlers who founded Filipino communities in the United States of America triggered the generation of
Filipino-Americanliterature such as the works of female novelist, Jessica Hagedorn. Migrant Filipino writers Linda Ty-Casperand Cecilia Manguerra Brainardresided in the U.S. to publish for both Philippine and American readers.
Recognition and support
Present-day associations that support, endorse, publish and collect works of Filipino women writers include the Ateneo Library of Women’s Writings (ALIWW) of the
Ateneo de Manila University, and the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, among other non-governmental organizations(NGOs) in the Philippines. Outside the country, there is the Philippine-Finnish Society in Helsinki, Finland. [http://rizal.lib.admu.edu.ph/aliww/aliww.html Ateneo Library of Women's Writings (ALIWW), Admu.edu.ph/ALIWW.html] , retrieved on: April 16, 2008] Samples of published Filipino women literature are "Comfort Woman: Slave of Destiny" by Rosa Hensonpublished by the Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism, and "Tulikärpänen - filippiiniläisiä novelleja" or "Firefly: Writings by Various Authors" ("Firefly: Filipino Short Stories") by Riitta Vartti sponsored by the Philippine-Finnish Society. Another non-governmental human rights organization publication is "She Said No!", an anthologyof stories.
The Ateneo Library of Women’s Writings - a part of the Rizal Library at the Ateneo de Manila University and the first of its kind in Philippines - facilitates the collection, archiving, preservation, and promotion of Filipino women literature about and written by Filipino women. The program includes the acquisition of related photographic material, and literary promotion are held through lectures, exhibitions, publications and book launchings. ALIWW holds the annual "Paz Marquez-Benitez Memorial Lectures", a series of lectures established to honor
Paz Marquez-Benitezwho is considered as the “matriarch of Filipino writers in English”. This special program also assists in bringing to light Filipino women who excel in vernacular writings.
* [http://www.filippiinit-seura.fi/firefly.html The History of Filipino Women's Writings, an article from Firefly - Filipino Short Stories (Tulikärpänen - filippiiniläisiä novelleja), 2001 / 2007]
* [http://www.filippiinit-seura.fi/preface.html Vartti, Riitta (editor). Preface of the anthology Firefly, Tulikärpänen - filippiiniläisiä novelleja (Firefly - Filipino Short Stories), Kääntöpiiri: Helsinki, Finland 2001/2007]
* [http://www.filippiinit-seura.fi/julkaisut.html Vartti, Riitta (editor). Filippiinit-seuran julkaisut] (Finnish)
* [http://www.kepa.fi/kumppani/1781/ Vartti, Riitta (editor). Tulikärpänen filippiiniläisiä novelleja] (Finnish)
* [http://rizal.lib.admu.edu.ph/aliww/aliww.html Ateneo Library of Women's Writings (ALIWW) website, main page]
* [http://rizal.lib.admu.edu.ph/aliww/writers_english.html Filipino Women Writers in English] at Ateneo Library of Women's Writings (ALIWW)
* [http://rizal.lib.admu.edu.ph/aliww/writers_filipino.html Filipino Women Writers in Filipino (the language)] at Ateneo Library of Women's Writings (ALIWW)
Women in the Philippines
Literature of the Philippines
History of the Philippines
Timeline of Philippine history
Philippine literature in English
List of countries where English is an official language
List of countries by English-speaking population
* [http://www.filippiinit-seura.fi/index.html Filippiinit-seura ry Finnish-Philippine Society] (official website, navigation page)
* [http://www.filippiinit-seura.fi/society.html Finnish-Philippine Society] (official website, main page)
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