- Paul Green (playwright)
:"For other people of the same name, see
Paul Green."Paul Green ( 17 March 1894- 4 May 1981) American Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright, best known for his depictions of life in North Carolina during the first decades of the twentieth century.
Lillington, North Carolinaand educated at Buies Creek Academy (known today as Campbell University) the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hilland Cornell University, Green first attracted attention with his 1925 one-act play "The No 'Count Boy" which was produced by the New York Theatre Club. The next year his full-length play In Abraham's Bosomwas produced by the Provincetown Playersand won the Pulitzer Prize. The play was considered remarkable for its depiction of African Americansin the South. Its hero, a man of mixed racial ancestry, finds his idealistic attempts to better the lives of the African Americans around him doomed to failure. With this success, Green quickly was recognized as one of the leading regional voices in the American theatre. His plays were often compared with the folk plays of Irish playwright John Millington Synge.
Green's tragedy of the decline of an old Southern family, "
The House of Connelly" was chosen by the newly formed Group Theatre for its inaugural production. Often compared to Anton Chekhov's " The Cherry Orchard" in its contrast of aristocratic decay and parvenu energy, "The House of Connelly" was praised by critic Joseph Wood Krutchas Green's finest play to date.
But Green had already begun to move away from the realistic style of his early work. In 1928-29 he traveled to Europe on a
Guggenheim Fellowshipand was impressed by the non-realistic productions that he saw there. He began to experiment with expressionismand the Epic theatreof Bertolt Brechtand Erwin Piscator. In the 1930s Green largely abandoned the New York theatre, whose commercialism he found distasteful. His experiments in non-realistic drama, "Tread the Green Grass" (1932) and "Shroud My Body Down" (1934) both premiered in Chapel Hill, and never were professionally produced in New York.
In 1936, Green returned to the Group Theatre with his pacifist musical play, "Johnny Johnson", with a score by
Kurt Weill. In it, Green experimented with genre, writing the first act as a comedy, the second as a tragedy, and the third as a satire. The production encountered problems of style early on: set designer Donald Oenslagerdesigned the first act in poetic realism, the second in expressionism, and the final act in an extremely distorted style, director Lee Strasbergwanted to stage it realistically, and others in the company wanted it to be staged expressionistically throughout. Reviews ranged from the enthusiastic to the dismissive, and it ran for sixty-eight performances.
Green created a new dramatic form that he called
symphonic drama. Inspired by historical events, it incorporated music and pageantry, usually for outdoor performance. His first experiment in this form was "Roll Sweet Chariot," (1934), which ran for a scant four performances on Broadway. Much more warmly received was the first and most famous of his outdoor symphonic dramas, "The Lost Colony" (1937) which is still played during the summer in an outdoor theater at Fort Raleigh National Historic Sitenear Manteo, North Carolina. "The Lost Colony" is the second oldest outdoor historical drama in the United States. Among Green's other outdoor symphonic dramas are "Faith of Our Fathers", "Wilderness Road", "The Founders", "Trumpet in the Land", which tells the story of the American massacre of Native American Moravians in Gnadenhutten, Ohio, during the American Revolution, and "The Stephen Foster Story" which continues to be played each summer in Bardstown, Kentucky.The little one room house where he did much of his writing can be seen at the North Carolina Botanical Gardens in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Other artistic endeavours
Green's output was not only confined to plays. He penned the
screenplayfor the 1932 film " The Cabin in the Cotton" and also wrote extensively on the subject of his beloved North Carolina. He also was a founder of the North Carolina Symphony Orchestraand the Institute for Outdoor Drama. He served UNESCOtravelling around the world to lecture on human rightsand drama. Green served as a professorof drama at UNC until his death in 1981.
*cite book|last=Kenny|first=Vincent S.|title=Paul Green|year=1971|publisher=Twayne|location=New York|id=ISBN 0-89197-880-1
*cite book|last=Lazenby|first=Walter S.|title=Paul Green|year=1970|publisher=Steck-Vaughan|location=Austin, Tex.|id=ISBN 0-8114-3890-2
* [http://www.lib.unc.edu/mss/inv/g/Green,Paul.html Paul Green Papers Inventory] , in the
Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
* [http://docsouth.unc.edu/sohp/B-0005-3 Oral History Interview with Paul Green] at [http://docsouth.unc.edu/sohp/ Oral Histories of the American South]
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/paulgreen/bio.html Bio at ibiblio.org]
* [http://www.thelostcolony.org/ Roanoke Island Historical Association: "The Lost Colony"]
* [http://nwda-db.wsulibs.wsu.edu/findaid/ark:/80444/xv77653 Guide to the Paul Green papers at the University of Oregon]
* [http://statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/ncawards/nca2.asp?bn=pgreen North Carolina Award citation]
* [http://library.uncg.edu/depts/archives/mss/html/Mss022.htm Finding Aid for the Paul Eliot Green Papers] at the
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
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