- Papal election, 1292–1294
The papal election from April 5, 1292 to July 5, 1294 was the last papal election which did not take the form of a
papal conclave. After the death of Pope Nicholas IVon April 4, 1292, the eleven surviving cardinals (a twelfth died during the " sede vacante") deliberated for more than two years before electing the third of six non-cardinals to be elected pope during the Later Middle Ages, Pietro da Morrone, who took the name Pope Celestine V.Miranda, Salvator. 1998. " [http://www.fiu.edu/~mirandas/conclave-xiii.htm Election of April 5, 1292 - July 5, 1294: (Celestine V)."] ]
Contemporary sources suggest that Morrone was hesitant to accept his election when word of the cardinal's decision reached his mountain-top hermitage. His ascetic lifestyle left him largely unprepared for the day-to-day responsibilities of the papacy, and he quickly fell under the influence of the Neapolitan monarchy, to the dissatisfaction of even the pro-Angevin cardinals within the College. Within the year, on December 13, Celestine V became the last pope to voluntarily abdicate.
Twelve cardinal electors began the election, but one—
Jean Cholet—died before it was completed.
The eleven electors were relatively evenly divided between the factions of Colonna and Orsini, two powerful Roman families, [Emerton, 1917, p. 111.] [Williams, 2004, p. 37-38.] led by
Giacomo Colonnaand Matteo Orsini, respectively.Gregorovius, 1906, p. 516.] The three Orsini cardinals were pro-French and pro- Angevin, while the two Colonna cardinals supported competing Aragoneseclaims in Sicily. [Baumgartner, 2003, p. 43.] James II of Aragonhad bankrolled the Colonna faction with gold, but it is unknown whether simonyactually transpired. [Baumgartner, 2003, p. 43-44.]
After ten days of balloting in
Rome, without any candidate approaching the requisite two-thirds, the cardinals adjourned until June and changed the location of the electionBaumgartner, 2003, p. 44.] from Basilica di Santa Maria Maggioreto Santa Maria sopra Minerva. After a summer epidemic in the city, and the death of Cholet in August, they dispersed until late September. The non-Roman cardinals went to Rieti(except Caetani, who went to his native Anagni) while the Roman cardinals remained in the city.Gregorovius, 1906, p. 517.] As balloting continued into the next summer, the disorder in Rome increased dramatically (even by the standards of a " sede vacante", during which, based on the biblical example of Barabbas, all prisoners were released). The deaths of newly elected Roman Senators Agapitus Colonnaand Ursus Orsiniaround Easter1293 further exacerbated the anarchy within the city, which had been marked by the destruction of palaces, the slaying of pilgrims, and the sacking of churches. After the summer of 1293, the cardinals dispersed and agreed to reconvene in Perugiaon October 18.
The College continued to deliberate fruitlessly in Perugia, where they were addressed by
Charles II of Naplesin March 1294. By the summer of 1294, cardinals had begun to disperse, leaving only six in Perugia for their final meeting, where a letter was read aloud from a hermit, Pierro de Morrone, stating that God had revealed to him that the cardinals would be punished for any further delay. Latino Malabranca Orsini, the senior cardinal, suddenly nominated Morrone—who would have been well-known by the cardinals as a saintly figure—and the other cardinals rapidly agreed and recalled the departed electors to consent. [Toropov, 2002, p. 52.] Gregorovius, 1906, p. 518.]
Consensus was achieved by July 5, 1294, when Morrone was elected.Baumgartner, 2003, p. 45.] As with the selection of Gregory X by the
papal election, 1268–1271, the choice of an outsider, non-cardinal, in this case an "octogenarian hermit," was seen as the only way to break the stalemate between the deadlocked cardinals. [Rotberg, 2001, p. 59.] That election also could have resulted in the selection of a hermit, had Saint Philip Benizi not fled to avoid his election after he urged the cardinals to speed up their deliberations. [Baumgartner, 2003, p. 41.]
Pietro Colonna and three bishops brought the news of Morrone's election to his mountain-top hermitage. [Gregorovius, 1906, p. 520.] Contemporary sources are emphatic in noting Morrone's reluctance to accept his election; for example,
Petrarchrecounts his attempt to flee. [" Vita solitaria", ii, c. 18.]
Instead of coming to
Perugia(the site of the conclave), Celestine insisted that the cardinals join him in L'Aquila(in Neapolitan territory) for his coronation, rather than crossing into the bordering Papal States.Emerton, 1917, p. 112.] Imitating the entry of Christ into Jerusalem,Gregorovius, 1906, p. 522.] Celestine rode a donkey, led by the bridleby Charles II of Naplesand his son Charles Martel of Anjou[Gregorovius, 1906, p. 521.] to the L'Aquila basililca, which was the nearest cathedral to his hermitage. Latino Orsini died on August 10 in Perugia, but many of the other cardinals had second thoughts because of the perceived degree of Angevin control of the new pope. Because only three cardinals were present at the ceremony on August 29, it was repeated a few days later when more arrived, making Celestine the first and only pope to be coronated twice.The Angevin-Neapolitan influence of Celestine was evident in his first consistory, during which he created twelve cardinals, including seven Frenchmen and three (or five [Collins, 2005, p. 111.] ) Neapolitans. This was the first time in history where a single conclave had swung the College of Cardinalsso decidedly in one nationalist partisan direction. The cardinals who were not French or Angevin were members of Celestine's former order. Celestine also moved to the Castel Nuovoin Naples, where he continued to live much like a hermit until he resigned, as advocated by many Roman cardinals, including Benedetto Gaetani (who, a former lawyer, suggested that Celestine first publish a decree establishing the permissability of papal abdication. Gaetani, elected Pope Boniface VIIIfollowing Celestine's abdication, proceeded to have Celestine imprisoned while the legality of his abdication remained a prominent subject, and Celestine died a prisoner in 1296. [Toropov, 2002, p. 52-53.]
Before abdicating, Celestine re-enacted "
Ubi Periculum", the Apostolic Constitutionof Pope Gregory X, which has governed all subsequent papal elections under the laws of the conclave. Two subsequent papal elections may be considered possible exceptions, although they comported with the laws of the conclave to a great degree: the Council of Constance, which elected Pope Martin Vto end the Western Schismand the papal conclave, 1799-1800, for which Pope Pius VIsuspended "Ubi Periculum" due to the interference of Napoleon I of France). [Trollope, 1876, p. 87.]
Papal election, 1268–1271, during which the procedures of the conclave largely developed (the first two the seven intervening papal elections were conclaves)
*Baumgartner, Frederic J. 2003. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0312294638
*Collins, Michael. 2005. "The Fisherman's Net: The Influence of the Popes on History". Hidden Spring. ISBN 1587680335
*Emerton, Ephraim. 1917. "The Beginnings of Modern Europe (1250-1450)". Ginn & Co. ( [http://books.google.com/books/pdf/The_Beginnings_of_Modern_Europe__1250_14.pdf?id=8VUMAAAAYAAJ&output=pdf&sig=PA0UZwz2575Fddpr9Gaz0OiVYbI&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Available online] )
*Gregorovius, Ferdinand. 1906. "History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages". G. Bell & Sons. ( [http://books.google.com/books/pdf/History_of_the_City_of_Rome_in_the_Middl.pdf?id=hykLAAAAYAAJ&output=pdf&sig=I7ssgJ-kD5tjShHNouRN4XjJ6CU&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Available online] )
*Rotberg, Robert I. 2001. "Politics and political change: A Journal of Interdisciplinary History Reader". MIT Press. ISBN 0262681293
*Toropov, Brandon. 2002. "The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Popes and Papacy". Alpha Books. ISBN 0028642902
*Trollope, Thomas Adolphus. 1876. "The Papal Conclaves, as They Were and as They are". Chapman and Hall. ( [http://books.google.com/books/pdf/The_Papal_Conclaves__as_They_Were_and_as.pdf?id=u-kQAAAAIAAJ&output=pdf&sig=qGG0SUq7oJ4xmwJYLXqQ91FYVKs&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Available online] )
*Williams, George L. 2004. "Papal Genealogy: The Families And Descendants Of The Popes". McFarland. ISBN 0786420715
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Papal election, 1268–1271 — The papal election from November 1268 to September 1, 1271, following the death of Pope Clement IV, was the longest papal election in the history of the Roman Catholic Church.Wright, David. 2005, April 18. [http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/Pope/story?id … Wikipedia
Papal conclave, 2005 — Papal conclave, April 2005 Dates 18–19 April 2005 Location Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City Dean … Wikipedia
Papal conclave, 1492 — Papal conclave, August 1492 Dates August 6–August 11, 1492 Location Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Papal States … Wikipedia
Papal conclave — Conclave redirects here. For other uses, see Conclave (disambiguation). The Holy See This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the Holy See … Wikipedia
Papal conclave, October 1978 — Dates October 14–October 16, 1978 Location Sistine Chapel, Apostolic Palace, Vatican City … Wikipedia
1294 — Années : 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 Décennies : 1260 1270 1280 1290 1300 1310 1320 Siècles : XIIe siècle XIIIe … Wikipédia en Français
Papal conclave, 1903 — The Papal conclave of 1903 was caused by the death of the 93 year old Pope Leo XIII, who at that stage was the third longest reigning pope in history. (Pope John Paul II (1978 2005) passed Leo a century later.) It saw the election of Giuseppe… … Wikipedia
Papal conclave, 1878 — The Papal conclave of 1878 resulted from the death of Pope Pius IX in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican on 7 February 1878. The conclave occurred in circumstances different from those of any previous conclave. Contents 1 Unique circumstances 2… … Wikipedia
Papal conclave, 1644 — Coat of arms of the Holy See during the sede vacante … Wikipedia
List of papal elections and conclaves — This is a list of papal elections and papal conclaves since 1059. For information about papal selection prior to In Nomine Domini (1059), see papal appointment.: Elections and conclaves that elected papal claimants currently regarded by the Roman … Wikipedia