Diffractometer


Diffractometer

A diffractometer (pronunciation: di-"frak-'tä-m&-t&r) is a measuring instrument for analyzing the structure of a material from the scattering pattern produced when a beam of radiation or particles (such as X-rays or neutrons) interacts with it.

In principle

Because it is relatively easy to use electrons or neutrons having wavelengths smaller than a nanometer, electrons and neutrons may be used to study crystal structure in a manner very similar to X-ray diffraction. Electrons do not penetrate as deeply into matter as X-rays, hence electron diffraction reveals structure near the surface; neutrons do penetrate easily and have an advantage that they possess an intrinsic magnetic moment that causes them to interact differently with atoms having different alignments of their magnetic moments.

The detector end of a simple x-ray diffractometer with an area detector. The direction of the x rays is indicated with the red arrow.

A typical diffractometer consists of a source of radiation, a monochromator to choose the wavelength, slits to adjust the shape of the beam, a sample and a detector. In a more complicated apparatus also a goniometer can be used for fine adjustment of the sample and the detector positions. When an area detector is used to monitor the diffracted radiation a beamstop is usually needed to stop the intense primary beam that has not been diffracted by the sample. Otherwise the detector might be damaged. Usually the beamstop can be completely impenetrable to the x rays or it may be semitransparent. The use of semitransparent beamstop allows the possibility to determine how much the sample absorbs the radiation using the intensity observed through the beamstop.

See also

External links


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  • diffractometer — difraktometras statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Difragavusių dalelių ar spinduliuotės intensyvumo ir krypties matuoklis. atitikmenys: angl. diffractometer vok. Beugungsmesser, m; Diffraktometer, n rus. дифрактометр, m… …   Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas

  • diffractometer — difraktometras statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Tiriamajame objekte difragavusios rentgeno spinduliuotės, elektronų, neutronų ar kt. bangų intensyvumo ir jų sklidimo krypties matuoklis. atitikmenys: angl. diffractometer …   Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas

  • diffractometer — difraktometras statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Difragavusių dalelių ar spinduliuotės intensyvumo ir krypties matuoklis. atitikmenys: angl. diffractometer rus. дифрактометр …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • diffractometer — difraktometras statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. diffractometer vok. Beugungsmesser, m; Diffraktometer, n rus. дифрактометр, m; дифракционный прибор, m pranc. appareil à diffraction, m; diffractomètre, m …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • diffractometer — noun Date: circa 1909 an instrument for analyzing the structure of a usually crystalline substance from the scattering pattern produced when a beam of radiation or particles (as X rays or neutrons) strikes it • diffractometric adjective •… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • diffractometer — /di frak tom i teuhr, dif rak /, n. Physics. an instrument that is used to study atomic crystal structure by measuring the angles at which x rays, neutrons, or electrons are diffracted by matter. [1905 10; DIFFRACT + o + METER] * * * …   Universalium

  • diffractometer — noun A device that uses diffraction (especially X ray diffraction) to investigate the structure of matter See Also: diffractogram, diffractometry …   Wiktionary

  • diffractometer — instrument for determining structure of crystal through light diffraction Scientific Instruments …   Phrontistery dictionary

  • diffractometer — [ˌdɪfrak tɒmɪtə] noun an instrument for detecting and measuring diffracted radiation, especially in crystallography …   English new terms dictionary

  • diffractometer — dif·frac·tom·e·ter …   English syllables