Chāraṇ (plural Charans; Hindi:चारण; Gujarati:ચારણ) is the term for a caste living in the Gujarat and Rajasthan states of India. According to Shrimada Bhagwata Skand (3.a.10 Slok 728) Charans were created along with other divine forms such as Yaksha, Gandharvas, Kinnara, Sidhdhas, Apsara, etc. and lived with them in Heaven. Members of this caste are known for their high literary sense, deep loyalty towards the society and cleverness and unflinching readiness for martyrdom in war. Sircar, Sanja (2006). "Narrative "Lore" and Legend from Saurashtra (India) Gems Waiting to be polished" (PDF). Asian Folklore Studies 65: 323–337. 

The caste is also identified with the surnames "Adha", "Gadan", Kaviraj, Barhath / Barhat and Gadhavi / Gadhvi. Members of this caste are considered to be divine by a large section of society.[1] Women of the caste are adored as mother goddesses by other major communities of this region including Rajput kings.[1][2] The goddesses Karani, Bahuchra, Hinglaj (whose main temple is now in Baluchistan), Khodiyar and Sonal are well-known examples of Charan deities. In the medieval era, it was considered a matter of prestige and pride for a rajput king to keep a charan in his court.They were good poets and better soldiers.[3] Kings and landlords gave them grants of villages, and various kings also gave them Lakh Pasavs, large gifts equivalent to 100,000 rupees that usually consisted of elephants, money, and ornaments. The kings would also invite them to occupy a place in the Royal Courts. Indeed, a Rajput's regard for a Charan was uppermost. Because of their ability to compose poems instantaneously, another popular way of addressing members of the Charan caste is "Kaviraj", which literally means "king among poets". Charans are considered to be the only thakurs other than the rajputs. Charans were always posted in the front lines of attacks in the armies.

In between social order of the Rajputs and the status of the Brahmans there is a caste of Charans which is well known for their Loyalty towards the society. Charnas have the martial traits similar to Rajputs and scholarly traits similar to Brahmins.

G. N. Sharma in Social life in medieval Rajasthan[4]


Social structure

The word Charan and Charans have diffrent meaning. According to Adhyatmic the Charan represent the foot of Saint aur God. If we say Charan Kamal the word kamal means the softness of God"s foot, but the Charans' caste system is based on written genealogy. A Charan will accept all the other Charans as equals even if they do not know each other and have radically different economic or geographic status.[5] They are divided into four sections. Each section has several sub-sections and subsections have several stocks. Males and females of the same stock are considered brothers and sisters, and thus marriage within a stock is strictly forbidden. Similarly, marriages outside the Charan community are not allowed. Instead of four sections, many authors consider 23 divisions a more fundamental way division comprising four [Pahada]s which literally means mount peaks, sixteen sakhas and three chals. The four sections mentioned before are just based on geographical identity and may overlap with many of the divisions under 23 divisions. As per 23 divisions the four Pahadas are (1) Nara (2) Chorada (3) Chuva and (4) Tumbel, three chals are (1) Ausura (also spelled Avsura), (2) Maru and (3) baati. Charan of one Pahad are considered brothers and sisters and cannot intermarry. As per these divisions Nara charan usually mary with Ausura, Chorada with Maru and Chuva with Baati. Tumbel don't have exclusive chaal to marry from and hence they are referred as half-Pahada. Tumel usually marry from any of the other three Pahadas and Chaals. Rest of the community is divided into sixteen sakhas (known as Sakhiyas), which literally means sections. They usually marry with other sections as well as three Chaals and three and half Pahadas. Large part of the 16 sakhiyas is living in Rajasthan. As per Bombay Gazetteer[2] four sections and their sub-sections are mentioned below.

  • Tumbel[Tumer]:The Tumer (also spelled Tumbel) are believed to originate from Sindh. The clans of Tumers are:
  1. Mudhuda
  2. Seda
  3. Sindhiya
  4. Gelwa
  5. Rudach
  6. Bhan
  • Kachhelas
Also called Parajias, from the Kachchh district of Gujarat, the Kachhelas have three clans:
  1. Chanwas (72)
  2. Choradas (52)
  3. Naras (66)
  4. Kesariya [This surname belongs to 16 sakhiyas]
  5. Aalgya [This is a surname of Chunva pahada]
  6. Paaliya [This is a surname of Nara pahada]
  7. Soya [This is a surname of 16 sakhiya]
  8. Keedia [This is a surname of Nara pahada]
  • Maru
The Marus are from Marwar in Rajasthan. They have 20 clans and more than 300 stocks:
1 Ashiya
2 Adha (Arha, this is a clan of Sandu)
3 Barhat(includes Roharia, Bithu as brothers)
4 Badhva (19)
5 Baratrohdia (12)
6 Bati (13)[ This is Chaal of Chunva pahada]
7 Boxa
8 Budhda
9 Bitu
12 Detha (brothers of Souda / Sauda Barhat, Descendents of Maa Barvadi ji from Gujarat)
13Dhadhania (11)
14Dadhvadia (19)
15Gelva (6)
18Jula (Zula) (31)
21Khadia/Khidia(khiria)(36) [This is the surname of Chorada pahada]
22Kharol (2)
23Kiniya (The members of this sub-caste are known as the descendants of goddess Karni Mata)
27Mahud/ Muhad
28Mishan(The Renowned poet of this surname was shri Surmallji Mishan, born in Rajashthan who wrote a huge epic named "VANSH BHASKAR"incarnation of the Sun and his heirs)
  1. Mahiya
  2. Mada (2)
  3. Mahiyaria (11)[This is the surname of Nathu Singh Mahiyaria a great poet.who said "Andaagal Chetak Rayoo Andagal Hindbhaan Yoh toh Votaa me
                 Daagal huyoo Maharana.."when Maharana Bhagwat Singh ji came out after voting for thefirst time and asked Kavivar to comment]                 
  1. Mahedu [This is the surname of 16 sakhiya and also brother to Kesariya]
  2. Nadhu (29)
  3. Pandarsinga
  4. Ratnu (1)
  5. Rohadiya
  6. Samor
  7. sindiayach (bhacharliyaand Bhada inclusive in 16 sakhiya]
  8. Sandu (8)
  9. Sau
  10. Siyal (0)
  11. Silga
  12. Soda (33)
  13. Tapariya
  14. Ujjwal (clan of Sindayach)
  15. Vacha (they are brother to Adha & mahiya)
  16. Vija (1)
  17. Varasda [This is the surname of charan and also brother to Zula ]
  18. Vithu
  19. Mod
  20. Hada(10)
  • Gujjar
Gujjar are apparently a remnant of the great tribe that gave Gujarat its name.

Values and belief

Charans respect loyalty and cleverness. Their respectful word is "Jay Mataji" ("Hail the mother goddess"), which is also a phrase used by male members of the Charan community to greet each other. Since female Charans are actually regarded as Mataji (mother goddesses), they use blessings to greet each other, so as to avoid hailing themselves.


The Charans are highly feared by other communities for their readiness to self-immolate known as tragu. It was believed that anyone who shed the blood of a Charan would meet with ruin.[2] Self-immolation, known as tragu, was practiced by Charans whose demands had not been met. Tragu consisted of shedding blood of some member of one's family and calling down the vengeance of heaven upon the offender whose obstinacy necessitated the sacrifice.

Self immolations were performed for a variety of reasons. One Gadhavi woman practised self-immolation to save a wild hare. Her name was Punai Mata. There is a temple of her near a small village named Zarpara in the Kachchh district of Gujarat. While she was collecting fodder for her livestock, a wild hare came running from a huntsman and leaped into her lap. The huntsman demanded that she give it back. Punai Mata refused, telling him that the hare was seeking refuge and that she now provided it and would honor that responsibility until death. The huntsman overpowered her, and so she performed self-immolation.

This type of sacrifice was greatly respected. The mother goddess Bahuchara Ma (one the three most important mother goddesses worshipped in Gujarat) was a Charan woman who cut off one of her breasts when attacked by members of the Koli caste. Near the entrance of almost every village in western Gujarat stand guardian stones (known as paliyas), which were set up to perpetuate the memory of Charan men and women who performed tragu to prevent robbers from carrying off the cattle of the village.[6] Hence, even robbers came under the religious sanctions of Charans. The British government in India put a ban on performing tragu from 1808 onward; nevertheless, incidents of it kept occurring during a large part of the later period.[2] However, in post-independent India, one encounters almost no instances of tragu.

Many times Mahatma Gandhi announced that he would fast until death in order to change the opinions of those who opposed him. This closely resembles the practice of tragu; however, tragu performed by Charans used to be much more violent, and the reasons for it were not as broad and far reaching as those of Mahatma Gandhi. It is worth noting, however, that Mahatma Gandhi was born and brought up in the part of India where the Charan population is dominant.[7]

Food and Drink

Their food and drink habits resemble those of warrior community "The Rajputs". Few Charans used to enjoy eating opium and drinking liquor. Opium and liquor are also widely used substances in the Rajputs of this region.[8][citation needed]. Charans do not eat the flesh of cows and hold those who do in utter disregard. Cows are respected like mothers. A husband and wife will not drink milk from the same cow, or milk soiled by their counterpart. Drinking milk from one mother (cow) symbolizes that those who do so should be considered as siblings. Before Indian independence in 1947, a sacrifice of a male buffalo constituted a major part of the celebration of Navratri.[9] Such celebrations quite often used to be presided over by Charan woman.[10] Animal sacrifice is illegal now in India, and modern day Charans no longer perform animal sacrifices as part of religious rituals, nor do they encourage drinking of opium or liquor as a social value. On the contrary, vegetarianism has become a highly valued lifestyle. The social movement of the mid nineteen-sixties led by aai (mother goddess) Sonal Ma, Limbdi Kaviraaj Shankardanji Detha and his son Haridanji Detha,the poet Dula Bhaya Kag, Merubha.Meghanand.Gadhavi, Pinglshin Bapu and others focused on stopping animal sacrifice, discouraging drinking of liquor and opium, and encouraging modern education. This movement had great success for socio-economic reform of this community[citation needed].

Charani literature

Literature and poems are an integral part of the identity of Charans. A whole genre of literature is known as Charani literature.[11] The Dingal literature and Dingal language exist largely due to this caste.[4][12] It is generally agreed that modern Rajasthani literature began with the works of Suryamal Misran, who was of the Charan caste.[13] Zaverchand Meghani divides Charani sahitya (literature) into thirteen sub genres[11]:

  1. Songs in praise of gods and goddesses (stavan)
  2. Songs in praise of heroes, saints and patrons (birdavalo)
  3. Descriptions of war (varanno)
  4. Rebukes of wavering great kings and men who use their power for evil (upalambho)
  5. Mockery of a standing treachery of heroism (thekadi)
  6. Love stories
  7. Laments for dead warriors, patrons and friends (marasiya or vilap kavya)
  8. Praise of natural beauty, seasonal beauty and festivals
  9. Descriptions of weapons
  10. Songs in praise of lions, horses, camels, and buffalo
  11. Sayings about didactic and practical cleverness
  12. Ancient epics
  13. Songs describing the anguish of people in times of famine and adversity

Other classifications of Charani sahitya are Khyatas (chronicles), Vartas and Vatas (stories), Raso (martial epics), Veli - Veli Krishan Rukman ri, Doha-Chhand (verses).[4][12] Dursa Adha, Keshavdas, Karanidan, Virbhan, Ishwar Dan, sayaji zula kuvava, etc.sayaji zula was the saint he was the part of lord krishna . hold dignified positions in the literary field of mediaeval India. Rajrupak by Virbhan, Surajprakash by Karanidan, and Hariras by Ishwar Dan are examples of verses. Another form Charani literature is thecharaj, or song of mother's worship. Other minor forms are aaraniyu and zilaniyu, which are also songs for worship. Other eminent poets are Hinglajdan Kavia, Baldevdan Kavia and Dr.Omendra singh Kavia of Sevapura, Jaipur,who have contributed to charan literature in recent times .

Relationship with other communities

Charan enjoyed very cordial relationship with most of the other communities. Charans had great influence with the Rajputs (a community of warriors). The historian Qanungo describes the special relationship between Rajput and Charan: "The Charan was the esteemed and faithful companion of the Rajput, sharing his opium and half his loaf in adversity and receiving his extravagant bounty in prosperity. He followed his client chief on horseback to the thickest of fight, where poetic fire of his deed of old gave a Rajput the strength of ten on the field of carnage". .[citation needed]

Charans are also known to speak truth to the kings of the Rajputs, something which others would not do because they feared to arouse the anger of the kings. James Tod[14] remarks that "Their chroniclers (Charans) dare utter truths, sometimes most unpalatable to their masters. Many resolutions have sunk under the lash of their satire." In spite of their amnesty as a divine community, speaking the truth cost many Charans their life and led to mass persecution.

The other community with whom Charans have very close relationship is the Ahir/Yadav community. Ahirs are considered to be descendent of the god Krishna. Presently most of them are farmers and herdsmen. Charans refer to Ahirs using the word "mama" which means "brother of one's mother".

History of charans

Prehistoric period

According to Shrimada Bhagwata Skand (3.a.10 Slok 728) Charans were created along with other divine forms such as Yaksha, Gandharvas, Kinnara, Sidhdhas, Apsara, etc. and lived with them in Heaven.[15] According to Padma Purana, King Prithu brought the Charans from Himalaya to India and gave to them Telang Kingdom (may be Telinga Kingdom or present day Telangana ).[15]

Ancient period (1000BC-1000 AD)

King Nahapana honored the Charans with large amount of land grants around 119 AD to 128 AD[15] Brahmanand Swami who is one of the most prominent figure for Swaminarayan Community, was a Ashiya Charan born in Khann village, Sirohi District, Rajasthan. His original name was Ladudanji. Few years earlier Swminarayan Community had built Brahmanand Nagari in Khann village.[16]

Medieval period (1000 AD - 1800 AD)

(1509 to 1527) when Rana Sangram Singh popularly known as Rana Sanga was the ruler of chittorgarh mewar from 1509 to 1527 .He once went to aakhet where an elephent lost his temper and ran towards rana sanga seeing this Haridass mahiyaria who was also accompaning the maharana remembered her sister devi sundar baisa an incarnation of goddess Karni,at once the elephant turned around and everyone was safe .After coming to fort Rana Sanga told everyone that in the jungle he saw a hand on the elephants head and that's the moment he got saved. On knowing that it was the hand of non other that "Sundar maa" rana sanga offered Haridasji Mahiyaria to act as rular of Mewar for three days as reward and gave jagir of "Panchli village". Sundar baisa and her hands are worshipped by "Mahiyaria" till today. The main temple is at "Bhildi" in Bhilwara district. The pond there have miracle and said to believe can cure skin desises. Kaviwar Nathu Singh Mahiyaria was know to be among one of the best poets in the court of Mewar.He had written ample number of poetry, poetry in dingal. Kavivar use to keep a paper and a pencil everytime in his pocket and whenever thought came in his mind he would note it. His books Karni Shatak, Vir Satsai, Chunda Shatak, Haadi Shatak, Jhalamaan Shatak are still admired. Dr.Rajender Prasad, the first president of India was one of the great admirer of kaviwar. When India got independence elections were commenced and it was a coincidence that when Kaviwar Nathu singh Mahiyaria was going to cast his vote the then Maharana Bhagwat Singh Ji was coming out of the room after casting his vote showing the spot of ink on his finger he asked kavivar/poetto comment something on the occasion. Charan kavi Nathusingh ji Mahiyaria with his brilliance said ""Andaagal Chetak rayo, Andaagal Hindbhaan, vota main shamil wheh dagal huai mahraan". HINDU HERE MEANS Hindu and BHAN MEANS sun.Hindubhan here said for Maharana Pratap. The translation is "Chetak and Maharana Pratap who were your forefathers fought for the soil throughout their life and never surrendered and were spotless throughout their life, and you being his descendant wore the spot on your finger".

At the advent of 16th Century, contemporary to Mirabai, Pata Barhat was in the court of rao Ratan Singh Rathore of Merta. He was another famous martyr from the Marwar region of Rajasthan. During the Mughal attack on Merta Pata Barhat with his 17 sons sacrificed their life to save the king from the Mughals. In lieu of their sacrifice the King gave 12 villages in gift to descendants of Pata Barhat. In the present day the Village is known as Ratnas. Adha Duraso, known as Dursaji, was a poet of the medieval era. He born at Jaitaran in Pali district in Rajasthan in 1538 and died at Panchetiya in 1651. Dursa Adha is believed to have been a maternal uncle of the goddess Karni. Historian remembers him for his boldness to sing praises of Maharana Pratap(an archenemy of Akbar) in the court of the Akbar. Opo Adha was also a famous poet.[17] A golden statue of Dursaji stands in Achalgadh, Mount Abu. Dursaji's niece the mother-goddess Karni (between 1387 and 1537) is revered as the major deity of Rathod and other communities of this region. She is supposed to have helped Rao Bika (a ruler of Rajasthan) to occupy the territory of Bikaner. Her shrine is at Deshnok near Bikaner.

  • Thakur Jugtidan Varnsurya(commonly referred to as Jugto Ji Bapji meaning Jugto Ji,the father) was Thakur {JAGIRDAR-RULER of seven villages including KOTDA, PARLU etc.} and born in Kotda village,now in Jalore district. He helped Maharaja MAN SINGH RATHORE(1803–1843) of Jodhpur(erstwhile MARWAR) by providing diplomatic and logistics support while the King was under siege at the fort of Jalore and at war with the then state of Marwar.After the successful accession to the thrown of Marwar, Maharaja Man Singh showed immense respect and payed many tributes to Jugto Ji Bapji including the prestigious villege of PADLAO (now known as PARLU) which was a land having a territory of fifty six thousand bighas.Maharaja Man Singh also honoured Jugto Ji Bapji with the Rank of Thakur,Tajim(the King would stand in honor when the Thakur joins or leaves the royal court),Gold in leg(symbol of prestige), elephant, fort at village Kotra and seven other honors and privileges known as Kurabs.Most important among other Kurabs was one equivalent to licence to kill ( known as "Khoon Maaf"). Karamsot Rathors, the then rulers of Parlu, were asked to relinquish the village.When they refused, were threatened by the King to quit immediately or he would send five hundred rajput horsemen to take the village by force.The village was left by them and later handed over to Jugto ji Bapji.After the death of his beloved thakur the king erected a royal chatri( a special structure built in honor at the site of funeral) which can still be seen at the Kaga Shamshan Ghat(Place of funeral) in Jodhpur city,the only Charan in history to have one. The book "Maharja Man Singh Ji Ri Khyat" written by the then state historian (now published by Rajasthani Granthagar,Jodhpur) states all these facts precisely.[18] Last edited by Lalit Jugtawat.
  • Varnsuraya Bherudan who was son of Thakur Jugtidan Varnsuraya was given a task to kill the prime minister of Bundi by Maharaja Man Singh of Marwar (Jodhpur). With hundred Rajputs under his command he accomplished the duty and returned to Marwar. This was perhaps the only situation where a charan was given command of Rajputs.This fact is mentioned in the book Vansh Bhaskar authored by Sooryamall Mishan, the famous poet of Bundi,however he has criticized the attack showing his loyalty towards Bundi.

A saintly Charan woman Maa Barvadi ji from Gujarat, of whom Sauda / Souda Barhat are descedents, mother of Baru ji Sauda, helped Rana Hamir, using her own funds to supply him with 500 horses to use in the recovery of Chittor.[4]After victory, Rana Hamir gave the title of Barhat to Baruji along with 12 villages, in which Soniyana,Aantri and Paaner are the main ones. The Sauda were officially declared as 'Barhat ji' for Sisodia Rajput clan in Mewar.[1] There have been many chivalrous Saudas who have laid down their life for Mewar.

  • Jaisa ji Sauda and Keshav ji Sauda fought with Maharana Pratap in the Battle of Haldighati and became martyrs.
  • Naru ji Sauda, worshipped by both Hindus and Muslims, achieved martyrdom at the gate of Jagdish Temple, Udaipur in Udaipur when Taj Khan and Ruhullah Khan came to destroy it on the order of Muslim emperor Aurangzeb. Two shrines for him were built; one, tended by Hindus, is where his body fell; the other, a few yards away and tended by Muslims, is where his head fell.[9]

Charan Khemraj Dadhiwadia (of village Dharta) saved the life of Prince Jagat Singh of udaipur by killing Naruka Rajput, who attempted to murder the prince.[4]

Following are the quotations about Charans taken from book of Dr. G. N. Sharma.[4]

  • In the Battle of Haldighati, which took place in 1576 between Rana Pratap Singh of Mewar and Raja Man Singh of Amber, general of the Mughal emperor Akbar,charan warrior Rama Sandu displayed unprecedented valor.
  • In the year 1615 AD, Narhar Charan fell fighting in the action of Sur Singh against Kishan Singh of Kishangarh.
  • In the famous field of Dharmat in 1658 AD, Jagmal Khadiya made his end as a valiant warrior.
  • In the battle of Delhi when Durgadas planned the rescue of Ajit Singh, Charan Sandu and Mishan Ratan distinguished themselves as martyrs for the cause of their land.
  • One of the Unique Battle of Martyr and self respect was fought by VISHAL RABA AND OTHER 11 CHARANS at Ambardi in 1600- 1620 AD with Gujarat Sultan. Jhaverchand Meghani has noted this act of bravery as "ANNAM MATHA" [Heads that never bowed]. Even today there are 12 nos of pillars [paliyas] of Vishal Raba and others who fought with 500-600 persons of Gujarat Sultan's army for not bowing the head in front of Gujarat Sultan.
  • Valabha Kesariya of Garni in Saurashtra{Ta- Babara} was honoured by Gaekwad in 1830-1840 AD for his charity to one of his Suba's Childhood without any relationship. Valabha Kesariya had given a widow amount equivalent to accomplish her needs for 20- 25 yrs as he could not resist her insult done by the shopkeeper in the Vadodara city when he was there for selling his horses and other specious diamonds etc. He had said ' Sister i cannot accept such a insult of a lady by such crooked shopkeepers so keep this amount and jewellery to bring up your child and live life with respect. Even if you need more call me any how. I am Valabha Kesariya of Garni in amreli paragana." Later on child became Suba of Gaekwad and met Valabha Kesariya and bowed to him. Further Valabha Kesariya use to help him accomplish the amount of revenue[Khandani] from all Saurashtra kings to Gaekwad. In such a event of recovering the revenue from Jamnagar state, the King of Jamnagar had argument with Vithoba who was Suba of amreli pargana. Suba involved Valabha Kesariya for the Strict recovery from Jamnagar state and to take revenge Jamanagar's King killed Valabha Kesariya by giving him poison in his shoes [Mojadi].
  • Charan Jogidas, Mishan Bharmal, Sarau, Asal Dhanu and Vithu Kanau were among the chosen brave warriors who escorted prince Akbar through his way to Shambhaji's court.
  • Dhanraj Charan (1801 AD) and Ghan Rama (1822 AD) have been recorded as well-known traders in records of that period.
  • Alha charan gave selter to the rathore king Rao Veeramdev rani-Mangilani and her son rao Chunda who than taken over The Mandor Kingdom from Inda(Parihar Rajputs) Alha charan Gave not only selter but complite Army and training to Rao Chunda and by his efforts Inda rajput got married there daughter to Rao Chunda and gave mandor in Dowry to rathore, Alha Charan are now Known as ALAWAT barath of Marwar Jodhpur. Due to grete contribution to the Rathore Kings Alhawat were holding very important position Marwar.
  • Dhanabha Raba of Rabana Samadhiyala Village had also helped his friend Ala Khachar who was King of Kundani [Jasdan-Saurashtra] in 1850. He was held by Gaekwad for not paying 18000 kori as amount of treaty between them. Ala Khachar was released as Dhanabha paid the amount to save his friends prestige.

There are records of gifting villages for glorious military service, the book Palanpur Rajayano Itihas (p. 266) gives accounts of gifting a village Manaka to Royal Charan who organised Mercenary Army of Arab Soldiers and helped his Master to stabilise as the Nawab of the state. Again there were several such incidents in the state of Rajasthan as well and literature of Marwar and Mewar have evidences that Charans were gifted village for acts of bravery in War..


  1. ^ a b Shah A. M. and Shroff R. G. (1958). "The Vahivanca Barots of Gujarat: A Caste of Genealogists and Mythographers". J. American Folk Lore 71 (281): 246–276. doi:10.2307/538561. JSTOR 538561. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Section VII". Bombay Gazetteer. Bombay: Government Central press. 1904. pp. 214–222. 
  3. ^ Abul Fida (1590). Ain-e-Akbari. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Sharma G. N. (1968). Social Life in Medieval Rajasthan. Agra: Lakshmi Narayan Agarwal Educational Publisher. pp. 94–96. 
  5. ^ Thomson, G. R. (1991). "Charans of Gujarat: Caste Identity, Music and Cultural Change". Ethnomusicology 35 (3): 381–391. doi:10.2307/851968. JSTOR 851968. 
  6. ^ Mr. Ovan's Survey Book. 1817. 
  7. ^ Spodek H. (1971). "On the Origin of the Gandhi's Political Methodology: The Heritage of Kathiawad and Gujarat". The Journal of Asian Studies 30 (2): 361–372. doi:10.2307/2942919. JSTOR 2942919. 
  8. ^ Singh, Khushwant (1982). We Indians. Delhi: Orient Paperbacks. OCLC 10710940. 
  9. ^ a b Harlan L (2003). Goddesses' Henchmen - Gender in Hero Worship. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 258. 
  10. ^ "Matanamadh, Desh Devi Ashapura". Matanamadh Jagir, Kachchh, India. 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2006-12-23. 
  11. ^ a b Meghani, Z. (1943). Charano and Charani Sahitya. Ahmedabad. 
  12. ^ a b Smith, J. D. (1974). "An introduction to language of the historical documents from Rajasthan". Modern Asian Studies 9 (4): 433–464. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00012841. 
  13. ^ "South Asian Arts: Rajasthani". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2007-11-15. 
  14. ^ James, Tod (1952). Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan (first published in 1829-32). London. pp. 500. 
  15. ^ a b c Gadhvi, Laxman (2005-06-22). "Evolution of Charans". World Charan Cultural Organization. Archived from the original on 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  16. ^ Brahmanad Swami Biography
  17. ^ K Ayyappapanicker (1997-01-01). Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology saya zulo, known as sayaji zula he was born in gujarat at kuvava village. he was the bhakt of lord krishna. he was kavi he wrote Rukmani haran kuvava is h only village of zula they all are say's sayaji zula .there are 35 house in this a day kuvava in idar taluka dist-sabarktha Gujarat.. India: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 8126003650. 
  18. ^ Maharaja Man Singh Ji Ri Khyat" by Rajasthani Granthagar,Jodhpur

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