- Magnetic deviation
In nautical terminology deviation is the magnetic compass error caused by magnetised iron within the structure of the ship. Any magnet, in the proximity of a compass, will cause the compass needle to "deviate" from Magnetic North. In the case of big steel or iron structures, such as ships, this deviation error can be both large and variable. The problem of analysing and correcting the magnetic deviation error is complex - because the magnetised iron in every ship is a combination of iron particles which have become 'permanently' magnetised and iron particles which contain some "temporary" magnetism that has been induced by the Earth's magnetic field. Deviation errors vary with the ship's magnetic heading (the angle the ship makes to magnetic north).
(N.B. - Magnetic declination, also called variation, is the angular difference between true north and the direction of the Earth's magnetic field at any point on the Earth's surface. The corresponding definition, for deviation, is the angular difference between magnetic north and the compass needle. Variation and deviation both influence magnetic compass needles. Their combined effect is known as magnetic "Compass error".)
The deviation errors caused by magnetism in the ship's structure are minimised by precisely positioning small magnets and iron compensators close to the compass. However, because the magnetic "signature" of every ship changes slowly with location, and with time, it is necessary to adjust the compensating magnets, periodically, to keep the deviation errors to a practical minimum. Magnetic compass adjustment and correction is one of the subjects in the examination curriculum for a shipmaster's certificate of competency.
The sources of magnetic deviation vary from compass to compass or vehicle to vehicle. However, they are independent of location, and thus the compass can be calibrated to accommodate them.
Variations in the Earth's magnetic fields caused by variations in the Earth's crust and mantle and variations caused by mountains, iron ore deposits, etc. vary according to location, and also vary over time (conditions in the Earth's crust/mantle change over time.) Generally, they are indicated on maps, so you must take into account the declination for your current location. In the short term, these changes are predictable, and maps generally indicate the year in which the deviation was determined, and an amount to add for each subsequent year, for a period of several years. However, after that period, the predictions would become increasingly inaccurate.
Non-magnetic methods of taking bearings, such as with gyrocompass, astronomical observations, satellites (as GPS) or radio navigation, are not subject to magnetic deviation. Thus, a comparison of bearings taken with such methods with the bearing given by a compass can be used to compute local magnetic deviation.
Additionally, some large storms have been known to create altered local magnetic fields. Studies have shown that these local magnetic field variations can affect compass readings.
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magnetic deviation — magnetinis nuokrypis statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. magnetic deviation vok. magnetische Ablenkung, f rus. магнитное отклонение, n; магнитное склонение, n pranc. déviation magnétique, f … Fizikos terminų žodynas
magnetic deviation — The angular difference between the magnetic heading and the compass heading, expressed in degrees east or west to indicate in which direction the end of the compass heading is offset from the magnetic heading. It is one of the errors in a… … Aviation dictionary
magnetic deviation — noun see magnetic declination … Useful english dictionary
Deviation — may refer to: Deviation (statistics), the difference between the value of an observation and the mean of the population in mathematics and statistics Standard deviation, which is based on the square of the difference Absolute deviation, where the … Wikipedia
magnetic declination — or magnetic deviation n. DECLINATION (sense 3) … English World dictionary
Magnetic declination — Example of magnetic declination showing a compass needle with a positive (or easterly ) variation from geographic north. Magnetic declination is the angle between magnetic north (the direction the north end of a compass needle points) and true… … Wikipedia
magnetic declination — noun the angle (at a particular location) between magnetic north and true north • Syn: ↑magnetic variation, ↑variation • Derivationally related forms: ↑vary (for: ↑variation) • Hypernyms: ↑ … Useful english dictionary
déviation magnétique — magnetinis nuokrypis statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. magnetic deviation vok. magnetische Ablenkung, f rus. магнитное отклонение, n; магнитное склонение, n pranc. déviation magnétique, f … Fizikos terminų žodynas
deviation — [dē΄vē ā′shən] n. [ME deviacion < LL deviatio] the act or an instance of deviating; specif., a) sharp divergence from normal behavior b) divergence from the official ideology or policies of a political party, esp. a Communist party c) the… … English World dictionary
deviation — de vi*a tion, n. [LL. deviatio: cf. F. d[ e]viation.] 1. The act of deviating; a wandering from the way; variation from the common way, from an established rule, etc.; departure, as from the right course or the path of duty. [1913 Webster] 2. The … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English