Senigallia


Senigallia

Infobox CityIT
img_coa = Senigallia-Stemma.png official_name = Comune di Senigallia
name=Senigallia
region = Marche
province = Ancona (AN)
elevation_m = 3
area_total_km2 = 115
population_as_of = December 31, 2004
population_total = 43899
population_density_km2 = 359
timezone = CET, UTC+1
coordinates = coord|43|43|N|13|13|E
frazioni = Marzocca, Montignano, Cesano, Vallone, Bettolelle, Borgo Passera, S.Angelo, San Silvestro, Scapezzano, Roncitelli, Vasari, Mandriola, Gabriella, Castellaro, Cannella, Brugnetto , Borgo Catena
telephone = 071
postalcode = 60019
gentilic = Senigalliesi
saint = St. Paulinus
day = May 4
mayor = Luana Angeloni
mapx=43.66
mapy=13.217
website = [http://www.comune.senigallia.an.it www.comune.senigallia.an.it]

Senigallia or Sinigaglia is a comune and port town on Italy's Adriatic coast, 25 km by rail north of Ancona, in the Marche region, province of Ancona. The small port is formed by the lower reaches of the Misa, a stream which flows through the town between embankments constructed of Istrian marble.

History

Senigallia, spread out along the coast at the mouth of the river Misa, was founded in the 4th century B.C. by the Gallic tribe of the Senones and was the first Roman colony on the Adriatic shore.A colony was founded there by the Romans after their victory over the tribe of the Senones, rather before 280 BC: the name is probably a later Roman corruption of Senones; the addition "Gallica" distinguishes it from "Saena" (Siena) in Etruria. The place is also mentioned in connection with Hasdrubal's defeat at the Metaurus in 207 BC. It was destroyed by Pompey in 82 BC, and is not often mentioned afterwards. Ravaged by Alaric, Senigallia was fortified by the Byzantines , and again laid waste by the Lombards in the 8th century and by the Saracens in the 9th.

It was the second easternmost of the five cities of the medieval Adriatic duchy of Pentapolis, east of Fano and west of Ancona.

Senigallia used to hold one of the largest fairs in Italy, which dated originally from 1200, when Sergius, count of Senigallia, received from the count of Marseilles, to whose daughter he was affianced, certain relics of Mary Magdalene; this fair used to be visited by merchants from France, Switzerland, Austria, Germany and especially the Levant. Senigallia was at length brought so low by the Guelph and Ghibelline wars, and especially by the severities of Guido I da Montefeltro, that it was chosen by Dante as the typical instance of a ruined city. In the 15th century it was captured and recaptured again and again by the Malatesta and their opponents. Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta of Rimini erected strong fortifications round the town in 1450-1455. The lordship of Senigallia was bestowed by Pius II on his nephew Antonio Piccolomini, but the people of the town in 1464 placed themselves anew under Pope Paul II, and Giacomo Piccolomini in 1472 failed in his attempt to seize the place. Sixtus IV assigned the lordship to the Della Rovere family, from whom it was transferred to Lorenzo de Medici in 1516. After 1624 it formed part of the Papal State's legation (province) of Urbino.

Main sights

Despite its ancient origin the city presents a modern appearance, with wide streets. Attractions include:
*"Palazzo Comunale", from the 17th century.
*The Castle ("Rocca Roveresca"), of Gothic origin, was restored by Baccio Pontelli in 1492.
*The Cathedral, erected after 1787.
*The church of "Santa Maria delle Grazie", outside the town, is one of the only two churches which he is known to have executed (the other is at Orciano near Mondavio, about 20 km to the west by road).

Celebrities

* Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, who in 1846 was elected Pope Pius IX, was born at Senigallia 13 May 1792
* Gaetano Bedini (15 May 1806 - 6 September 1864) Cardinal and diplomat of the Catholic Church.
* Domenico Consolini (7 June 1806 - 20 December 1884) Cardinal Camerlengo of the Catholic Church
* Mario Giacomelli (1925 - 2000) Photographer.
* Ferruccio Ferroni (1920 - 5 September 2007) Photographer.
* Fabri Fibra (1976) Italian rapper.

Twinned cities

* Chester
* Lörrach
* Sens

ources and references

* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14013a.htm "Sinigaglia"] — article on the Catholic diocese, from the "New Advent" Catholic Encyclopædia
*1911
* [http://crtpesaro.altervista.org/Materiali/Esperienze/Pinocchiate/Senigallia%20in%20a%20Nutshell/index.php Senigallia In a Nutshell: An Illustrated Guidebook to Senigallia]



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