- Banyumasan language
Banyumasan Basa Banyumasan Spoken in Western Part of Central Java (Indonesia) Native speakers 12–15 million (date missing) Language family Language codes ISO 639-3 None
The Banyumasan language, spoken on the island of Java, is usually considered a dialect of Javanese in modern language classification.
The Banyumasan language is mainly spoken in the three areas of the island of Java: the Banyumasan region, located in westernmost Central Java Province and surrounding the Slamet mountain and Serayu River; a neighboring area inside West Java Province; and northern region of Banten Province. This area includes Majenang, Cilacap, Gombong, Kebumen, Banjarnegara, Purbalingga, Purwokerto, Bumiayu, Slawi, Pemalang, Tegal, and Brebes region.
Scholars divide the development of Javanese language into four different stages:
- 9th–13th century, known as Old Javanese
- 13th–16th century developed to Middle Javanese
- 16th–20th century developed to New Javanese
- 20th century: Modern Javanese.
The phases above were influenced by the emergence of empires in Java. In Javanese cultural history, empires yielded some distinct grades of language, each grade representing the social grade of the speakers (mainly nobles and populaces). Those grades of language are not of significant influence to Banyumasan people. In the Banyumasan region, high grades are usually used only when speaking to a stranger assumed to come from the eastern area of Java i.e. Yogyakarta / Surakarta etc, or on certain occasions. Surakartan and Yogyakartan style are usually considered the standard Javanese language.
Banyumasan has a lot of differences compared to standard Javanese, mainly in phonology, pronunciation and vocabulary. This happened due to cultural or character distinction and widely current usage of Old Javanese vocabulary. Another distinction is that the pronunciation of the vowels is not as complicated.
Vocabulary distinction basically found in:
- Same word and phonetic but different meaning
- Same word and meaning but different phonetic
- Same phonetic and meaning but different pronunciation (changed on consonant or vowel).
Banyumasan Language Standard Javanese English ageh ayo come on ambring sepi quiet batir kanca friend bangkong kodok frog bengel mumet dizzy bodhol rusak broken brug → Dutch loanwords kreteg bridge bringsang sumuk heat gering kuru thin clebek kopi coffee londhog alon slow druni medhit stingy dhonge/dhongane kudune should be egin isih still gableg duwe have getul tekan arrive gigal tiba fall gili dalan road gujih rewel fussy jagong lungguh sit kiye iki this kuwe iku that letek asin salty maen apik good maregi nyebeli badly
Javanese speech varies depending on social context, yielding three distinct styles, or registers. Each style employs its own vocabulary, grammatical rules and even prosody. This is not unique to Javanese; neighbouring Austronesian languages as well as East Asian languages such as Korean, Japanese and Thai share similar constructions.
In Javanese these styles are called:
- Ngoko is informal speech, used between friends and close relatives. It is also used by persons of higher status to persons of lower status, such as elders to younger people or bosses to subordinates.
- Madya is the intermediary form between ngoko and krama. An example of the context where one would use madya is an interaction between strangers on the street, where one wants to be neither too formal nor too informal.
- Krama is the polite and formal style. It is used between persons of the same status who do not wish to be informal. It is also the official style for public speeches, announcements, etc.
In Banyumasan region, Madya and Krama styles are rarely used, usually towards a stranger who is assumed to come from the eastern area of Java (wetanan) such as Yogyakarta, Surakarta etc or on certain occasions, an eastern style of language (basa wetanan) named bandhekan (from gandhek).
Dialects and sub-dialects
There are 3 main dialects of Banyumasan language: North area (Tegalan), South area (Banyumasan), and Banten. The Tegalan dialect is spoken in northern areas of Banyumasan: Tanjung, Ketanggungan, Larangan, Brebes, Slawi, Moga, Pemalang, Surodadi and Tegal. The Banyumasan dialect is spoken in southern areas: Bumiayu, Karang Pucung, Cilacap, Nusakambangan Island, Kroya, Ajibarang, Wangon, Purwokerto, Purbalingga, Bobotsari, Banjarnegara, Purwareja, Kebumen and Gombong. The Banten dialect is spoken in north Banten.
In addition, there are several sub-dialects spoken in Banyumasan, such as Bumiayu sub-dialect, Dayeuhluhur sub-dialect, and Ayah sub-dialect.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Banyumasan — noun A Javanese language closely related to Malay, Sundanese, Madurese, and Balinese … Wiktionary
Javanese language — Not to be confused with Japanese language. Javanese ꦧꦱꦗꦮ (Basa Jawa) Spoken in Java (Indonesia) Peninsular Malaysia Suriname New Caledonia … Wikipedia
Wikipedias — Anexo:Wikipedias Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre … Wikipedia Español
List of Indonesia-related topics — This is a list of topics related to Indonesia. Those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes ( alt k ) in the sidebar.This list can re read in conjunction with List of basic Indonesia topics… … Wikipedia
Bird's eye chili — For a similar variety of Capsicum frutescens better known as peri peri, see African birdseye. Several Bird s eye chilis on a shrub Bird s Eye Heat … Wikipedia
List of Wikipedias — Main article: Meta: List of Wikipedias Screenshot of Wikipedia s portal www.wikipedia.org showing the different language editions sorted by article count. This is a list of many of the different language editio … Wikipedia
Wikipedia:Multilingual statistics — This page is currently inactive and is retained for historical reference. Either the page is no longer relevant or consensus on its purpose has become unclear. To revive discussion, seek broader input via a forum such as the village pump. It was… … Wikipedia
Java — This article is about the Indonesian island. For other uses, see Java (disambiguation). Java Native name: Jawa Topography of Java … Wikipedia
Anexo:Wikipedias — Esta es una tabla con todas las Wikipedias, presentadas en orden decreciente de artículos existentes. Los datos se actualizan automáticamente dos veces al día. Puesto Idioma Idioma (local) Código Artículos Páginas Ediciones Admins. Usuarios… … Wikipedia Español
Banyumas Regency — Banyumas is a regency ( id. kabupaten) in the southwestern part of Central Java province in Indonesia. Its capital is Purwokerto. The term Banyumasan is also used as an adjective referring to the culture, language and peoples of larger Banyumas… … Wikipedia