Grant (money)


Grant (money)

Grants are funds disbursed by one party (Grant Makers), often a Government Department, Corporation, Foundation or Trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual. In order to receive a grant, some form of "Grant Writing" often referred to as either a proposal or an application is usually required. For more information regarding successful grant submissions see Grant Writing. Most grants are made to fund a specific project and require some level of compliance and reporting. The Grant Writing process involves an applicant submitting a proposal (or submission) to a potential funder, either on the applicant's own initiative or in response to a Request for Proposal from the funder. Other grants can be given to individuals, such as victims of natural disasters or individuals such as people who seek to open a small business. Sometimes Grant Makers require Grant Seekers to have some form of tax-exempt status, be a registered nonprofit organization or a local government.

Intergovernmental grants facilitate:

  • Tiered funding for a freeway are very large grants negotiated at Government policy level. However smaller grants may be provided by a government agency (e.g. municipal government).

Project related funding to governments, business, communities and individuals is often arranged by application either in writing or on-line.

Contents

North America

USA

In the US, grants most often come from a wide range of Government departments or an even wider range of public and private trusts and foundations. According to the Foundation Center[1] these trusts and foundations number in excess of 88,000 and disperse in excess of $40 billion every year. Trusts and Foundations are a little more complex to research and can be found through subscription-based directories.

Most often, education grants are issued by the government to students through attending post-secondary education institutions. In certain cases, a part of a government loan is issued as a grant, particularly pertaining to promising students seeking financial support for continuing their educations.

Grant compliance and reporting requirements vary depending upon the type of grant and funding agency. In the case of research grants involving human or animal subjects, additional involvement with the Institutional Review Boards (IRB) and/or Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is required.

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

NASA receives and evaluates both solicited and unsolicited grant proposals. Required documentation is described on appropriate websites such as the Goddard Space Flight Center Grants Homepage: http://code210.gsfc.nasa.gov/grants/grants.htm. The NASA Shared Services Center (NSSC) currently awards all new grants for NASA HQ, GSFC, NMO, Stennis and Dyrden. Awards are made in accordance with the NASA Grants and Cooperative Agreement Handbook (http://prod.nais.nasa.gov/pub/pub_library/grcover.htm).

The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) is the focal point at NIH for the conduct of initial peer review of grant and fellowship applications. It implements ways to conduct referral and review.

The Office of Extramural Research (OER) provides guidance to institutes in research and training programs conducted through extramural (grant, contract, cooperative agreement) programs.

Most NSF grants go to individuals or small groups of investigators who carry out research at their home campuses. Other grants provide funding for mid-scale research centers, instruments and facilities that serve researchers from many institutions. Still others fund national-scale facilities that are shared by the research community as a whole.

The NSF receives about 40,000 proposals each year, and funds about 10,000 of them. Those funded are typically the projects that are ranked highest in a merit review process. These reviews are carried out by panels of independent scientists, engineers and educators who are experts in the relevant fields of study, and who are selected by the NSF with particular attention to avoiding conflicts of interest. (For example, the reviewers cannot work at the NSF itself, nor for the institution that employs the proposing researchers.) All proposal evaluations are confidential (the proposing researchers may see them, but they do not see the names of the reviewers).

Europe (EU)

The European Commission (EC) provides financing through numerous specific Calls for project proposals within Framework Programms (FPs) and beyond. The Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress.

In March 2000, the European Council created the Lisbon Agenda—the aim was to ensure that Europe becomes the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world by 2010. The success of the agenda depends, in part, on the strategic and targeted use of technology.

Many source websites exist to publicise EU grant information for small and medium enterprises (SME) and public sector organisations - an example is European Union Grants Advisor.

Ireland

There are quite a few grant giving organisations in Ireland, but IRCSET and SFI are the best for Research Grants.

Denmark

Denmark has a educational universal grant system, SU (Statens Uddannelsesstøtte, the State Education Fund). It is available to all students from 18 years of age and all age groups currently taking courses. There are two systems of SU.

  • Youth Education (Ungdomsuddannelse), available to all students in pre-university educations (upper secondary education).
  • Higher Education (Videregående Uddannelse), available to all students in post-secondary (higher education). This system is a coupon grant valid for 5 years and 10 months from beginning higher education.

UK

Grants are made available in the United Kingdom for a variety of business, charitable and research purposes. The biggest grant distributors are government departments and agencies which offer grants to third party organisations (often a charitable organisation) to carry out statutory work on their behalf.

Other major grant distributors in the United Kingdom are the National Lottery, charitable trusts and corporate foundations (through Corporate Social Responsibility policies). For example Google contributes to the grants process through its Google Grants programme, where any charitable organization can benefit financially from free AdWords advertising if they share Google's social responsibility outcomes.

Grants are time limited (usually between one and three years) and are offered to implement existing government policies, to pilot new ways of doing things or to secure agreed outcomes. A grant will usually only be given for a specific project or use and will not usually be given for projects that have already begun.[2]

Over the years the discipline of writing grant bids has developed into a specialised activity. Many organisations employ fundraising professionals to carry out this work. In the United Kingdom the fundraising profession is governed by The Institute of Fundraising. The grant writing process generally includes search, proposal and accounting for competitive grant funds. Traditional search methods - for example referring to the Charities Aid Foundation Directory of Grant Making Trusts - are quickly becoming replaced by online fundraising tools. Grantsnet[3] is possibly the most popular non-commercial online fundraising resource for UK fundraisers. Nevertheless the proposal writing process remains much the same with the onus on the applicant to demonstrate how a grant will make a positive effect.

References

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Grant — may refer to:Funding*Grant writing *Grant (money), a financial aid *Grant (research), for scientific research *Categorical grant *Block grant *Federal grant *Land grant, a gift of land from a government or royalty in exchange for… …   Wikipedia

  • Grant-In-Aid — A transfer of money from the federal government to a state government, local government or individual person for the purposes of funding a specific project or program. The federal government gets this money from income tax revenues. Grant money… …   Investment dictionary

  • Grant writing — refers to the practice of completing formal and or informal application processes by one party, often a non profit entity, educational institution or business but also by individuals to another party such as a Government department, Corporation,… …   Wikipedia

  • Money Management International — Type 501(C)(3) Corporation Founded 1997[1 …   Wikipedia

  • grant — 1 vt 1: to permit as a right or privilege grant a new trial the Supreme Court grant ed certiorari 2: to bestow or transfer formally; specif: to transfer the possession or title of by a deed: convey …   Law dictionary

  • Grant — Grant, n. [OE. grant, graunt, OF. graant, creant, promise, assurance. See {Grant}, v. t.] 1. The act of granting; a bestowing or conferring; concession; allowance; permission. [1913 Webster] 2. The yielding or admission of something in dispute.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Grant McCann Erickson — is a leading Sri Lankan advertising agency and part of the McCann Worldgroup which has offices in over 130 countries and almost eight decades of multinational experience.HistoryGrant McCann Erickson was founded by the legendary Sri Lankan media… …   Wikipedia

  • Grant County, Georgia — Grant County, Georgia, is a fictional place used for the settings of Karin Slaughter s novels. The main characters in these novels are Sara Linton, Jeffrey Tolliver, and Lena Adams. The Grant County books are Blindsighted, Kisscut, A Faint Cold… …   Wikipedia

  • Grant DePorter — Grant M. DePorter (born November 7 1964) is a restaurateur from Chicago, U.S., who came to prominence in by|2004 after he paid US$113,824.16 for a baseball which had played a role in the Chicago Cubs defeat in the 2003 National League… …   Wikipedia

  • Money for Madagascar — Logo Money for Madagascar is a UK registered charity (number 1001420) based in Llangadog, South Wales.[1] It was established in 1986 to fund development projects managed by local partners in Madagascar. Money for Madagascar aims to …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.