- Beano (dietary supplement)
Beano is an
enzyme-based dietary supplementthat is used to reduce gas in the digestive tract, thereby preventing flatulence. It contains the enzyme alpha galactosidasethat breaks down oligosaccharides such as raffinose. It is available in both tablet and liquid form.
How Beano works
Beano is a product containing the enzyme
alpha galactosidase, which is derived from the fungus Aspergillus niger. The enzyme works in the digestive tractto break down the complex or branching sugars ( polysaccharidesand oligosaccharides) in foods such as legumes( beansand peanuts) and cruciferous vegetables( cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, brussels sprouts, among others). The enzyme breaks those complex sugars into simple sugars, making these foods somewhat more digestible, and reducing flatulence.
The polysaccharides and oligosaccharides found in these foods might otherwise pass through the
small intestineunaffected. Once in the large intestine, those sugars may be metabolized by intestinal flora, fermenting to produce the gases that cause discomfort.
randomized controlled trialsshow reduction in gas by subjects taking oral alpha galactosidase (PMID 17151807 and PMID 7964541). Another study indicates alpha galactosidase may interfere with the diabetic medication acarbose(PMID 9663365).
Use in the brewing of beer
Simple sugars are also produced as a consequence of the
maltingprocess that eventually produces beer. The complex sugars are not broken down by the yeast, and are eventually consumed by the beer drinker, possibly causing flatulence. Homebrewers have found that it is possible to add Beano to their brew to produce a beer that causes less flatulence. The Beano breaks the complex sugars into simple sugars, and these simple sugars are consumed by the yeast, producing alcohol (or some acetic acid in the aerobic reactions in early fermentation).
The addition of Beano to the brew reduces the complex sugar content of the final product, thereby reducing the carbohydrate content of the beer, and also slightly increasing the alcohol content of the beer. A disadvantage of the addition of Beano to homebrew is that the lower carbohydrates lead to less head retention of the beer, the loss of the sugars results in a less
sweet flavourof the final product, and fewer of the malty flavours are conveyed since some of those flavours are from the complex sugars that are affected.
The addition of Beano to homebrew beer (at a rate of about four tablets per 5 gallon brew) gives a low flatulence, low carbohydrate beer (about half the carbohydrates that it would otherwise have), but also alters some of the flavours of the beer. The loss of flavour is less apparent the darker the beer is, and the higher the alcohol content of the beer (since the alcohol numbs the tastebuds somewhat). Consequently it is suggested that a dark ale or a stout would be the best candidates for the use of Beano with minimal effect on the final taste of the beer.
Homebrewers who add Beano to their beer fermentation should expect to see slightly lower
final gravityreadings than they are used to for a given recipe, so should wait until they get two identical hydrometerreadings at 24 hours apart before deciding that the fermentation has finished. Not doing so may increase the risk of exploding beer bottles.
Beano was developed in
1990by Alan Kligerman of AkPharma Inc. after research into gas-causing vegetables that had begun in 1981. The idea for such a product was proposed at least as early as the 1780s in Benjamin Franklin's essay "A Letter To A Royal Academy”.
* [http://www.beanogas.com/ Beano web site.]
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