- Chrysler Hemi engine
The Chrysler Hemi engine, known by the trademark Hemi, is a series of V8 engines built by Chrysler with a hemispherical combustion chamber. Three different types of Hemi engines have been built by Chrysler for automobiles: the first (known as the Chrysler FirePower engine) from 1951–1958, the second from 1964–1971, and the third beginning in 2003. Although Chrysler is most identified with the use of Hemi as marketing term, many other auto manufacturers have incorporated similar designs.
During the 1970s and 1980s, Chrysler also used the Hemi name for their Australian-made Hemi-6 engine and applied it to the 4-cylinder Mitsubishi 2.6L engine they installed in various front-drive vehicles in the North American market.
- 1 Hemispherical engines
- 2 WWII
- 3 FirePower OHV V8
- 4 Chrysler and Imperial
- 5 DeSoto
- 6 Dodge
- 7 426: The Elephant
- 8 Modern Hemi
- 9 As collector items
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
A hemispherical (i.e., bowl-shaped) combustion chamber allows the valves of a two valve-per-cylinder engine to face each other across the chamber, rather than opening side-by-side. This creates more space in the combustion chamber roof for the use of larger valves and also straightens the airflow passages through the cylinder head. This creates what is known as a cross-flow head, where the intake charge flows directly across the chamber to the exhaust valve located directly opposite it. These features significantly improve the engine's airflow capacity, which can result in relatively high power output from a given piston displacement. But the design can also significantly increase the flow of incompletely combusted air-fuel mixture straight out of the exhaust valve. With a hemi combustion chamber, there is minimal quench and swirl to burn the fuel-air mix thoroughly and quickly; the spark plug is frequently located at or near the centroid of the chamber to facilitate complete combustion. Hemispherical combustion chambers, because of their lack of quench, are more sensitive to fuel octane rating; a given compression ratio will require a higher octane rating to avoid ping in a hemi engine than in a wedge engine. Engines with hemispherical combustion chambers often use dome-topped pistons to attain the desired compression ratio.
The hemi head usually has intake and exhaust valve stems that point in different directions, requiring a large, wide cylinder head and complex rocker arm geometry in both cam-in-block and overhead cam engines. This adds to the overall width of the engine, limiting the vehicles it can be installed in.
Chrysler developed their first experimental hemisphercal-valved engine for use in the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt fighter aircraft. The XIV-2220 engine was an inverted V16 rated at 2,500 hp (1,860 kW). The P-47 was already in production with a Pratt & Whitney radial engine when the XIV-2220 flew successfully in trials in 1945 as a possible upgrade, but the war was winding down and it did not go into production. However, the exercise gave Chrysler engineers valuable research and development experience with two-valve hemi combustion chamber dynamics and parameters.
FirePower OHV V8
Chrysler applied their military experience with the hemispherical combustion chamber to their first overhead-valve V8 engine, released under the name FirePower, not "Hemi", in 1950 for the 1951 model year. The first version of the FirePower engine had a displacement of 331 cu in (5.4 L) and produced 180 bhp (134.2 kW). Eventually, each Chrysler division had its own unique version of the FirePower engine, with different displacements and designations. These different versions share almost no parts in common. There was no Plymouth hemi engine until the 1964 426. Chrysler and Imperial called their versions the FirePower. DeSoto called theirs the FireDome. Dodge had a smaller version, known as the Red Ram. Only Plymouth didn't have a version; instead retaining the poly-head engines. Collectively, these 1951-'58 Hemi engines are now commonly referred to as first-generation Hemi engines, and the group can be identified by the rear-mounted distributor and the spark plugs in a row down the center of wide valve covers.
Briggs Cunningham chose to use the Chrysler version in some of his race cars for international motor sports. A Chrysler-powered Cunningham C5-R won its class in 1953. Cunningham switched away from these designs in 1959 when Chrysler abandoned the hemispherical concept in favor of the wedge-head B engine.
Chrysler and Imperial
The Chrysler versions of the FirePower engine have a bore center distance of 4.5625 in (115.9 mm), larger than any other Chrysler engine except the B engine. All Chrysler FirePower engines are oversquare; the bore is larger than the stroke.
This first FirePower engine, used from 1951 to 1955, has a bore of 3.8125 in (96.8 mm) and a stroke of 3.625 in (92.1 mm) for a piston displacement of 331 cu in (5.4 L). Most used a two-barrel carburetor and produced 180 bhp (134 kW), with the famous exception of the 1955 Chrysler 300 equipped with dual Carter WCFB four-barrel carburetors.
The 331 engine was used in the following applications:
- 1951–1955 Chrysler New Yorker
- 1951–1954 Chrysler Imperial and 1955 Imperial * 1951 Chrysler Saratoga (optional)
- 1952 Chrysler Saratoga Club Coupe (optional)
- 1952 Chrysler Imperial Parade Phaeton
- 1955 Chrysler 300
- The Chrysler air raid siren. At 138 decibels, it is the loudest siren ever made.
The 354, released in 1956, had a bore of 3.9375 in (100.0 mm) and stroke of 3.625 in (92.1 mm). It was used in the 1956 New Yorker, Imperial Custom and Crown, and Chrysler 300B. Dodge used a modified version of this engine in the 1957 D-501. The 300B engine was rated at 340 bhp (254 kW), while the New Yorker and Imperial 354 engine configuration produced 280 bhp (209 kW). For the 300B an optional 355 hp (265 kW) version was available, making it the first American V-8 to be rated at one horsepower per cubic inch.
The 392 raised-deck engine released in 1957 had a 4.00 in (101.6 mm) bore and 3.906 in (99.2 mm) stroke. The deck height, at 10.87 in (276.1 mm), was 0.5 in (13 mm) taller than that of the previous blocks. Because its deck was taller, the heads were cast wider so that earlier manifolds could be used with the new heads on the new taller block. The 392 was used in the 1957-1958 New Yorker, 1957 Chrysler 300C, 1958 Chrysler 300D, and 1957-1958 Imperial. For 1958, Chrysler offered the 392 in two configurations: 325 bhp (242 kW) with 9.25:1 compression and 345 bhp (257 kW) with 10:1 compression, both with a single four-barrel carburetor. A dual four-barrel version of the 392 available in the 1957-58 Chrysler 300C & 300D cars was rated at 375 bhp (280 kW). An extremely rare option available on the 1958 300D was Bendix "Electrojector" fuel injection, with which the 392 was rated at 390 bhp (291 kW). Due to reliability problems with the primitive onboard computer which controlled the injection, however, 15 of the 16 300D cars built with the fuel injection option were recalled and retrofitted with carburetors.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, drag racers found the 392 to be a formidable engine and continued to run them competitively into the 1970s.
DeSoto's Hemi engines were called Fire Dome. Their bore center distance of 4.3125 in (109.5 mm) is smaller than the Chrysler but larger than the Dodge.
In 1952, DeSoto introduced its version of the FirePower with a bore of 3.625 in (92.1 mm) and stroke of 3.344 in (84.9 mm), for a displacement of 276 cu in (4.5 L). Power output was 160 bhp (119 kW). It was a hot seller, with 50,000 vehicles using the engine until it was replaced in 1955.
An increase in displacement to 291 cu in (4.8 L) was made for 1955 by increasing the bore to 3.72 in (94.5 mm).
The DeSoto engine was enlarged for 1956 to 330 cu in (5.4 L). Bore was the same as the 291 at 3.72 in (94.5 mm), but stroke was increased to 3.80 in (96.5 mm) by dint of a taller raised-deck block. The DeSoto Adventurer was the premiere named high-performance version—the DeSoto equivalent of the Chrysler 300—using dual Carter WCFB four-barrel carburetors.
Displacement was increased again for 1956 and 1957 to 341 cu in (5.6 L). Bore was now 3.78 in (96.0 mm) with stroke remaining at 3.80 in (96.5 mm). The DeSoto Adventurer produced 343 bhp (256 kW) using dual Carter WCFB four-barrel carburetors—more than one horsepower per cubic inch.
The largest DeSoto engine for 1957 was the 345 cu in (5.7 L) unit with square bore and stroke dimensions of 3.80 in (96.5 mm). The DeSoto Adventurer used dual Carter WCFB four-barrel carburetors for a rating of345 bhp (257 kW), again producing one horsepower per cubic inch.
Dodge's Hemi, introduced in 1953 as the Red Ram, has the smallest bore center distance of any Chrysler hemi engine: 4.1875 in (106.4 mm).
Dodge introduced the 241 cu in (3.9 L) engine in 1953. Bore was 3.4375 in (87.3 mm) and stroke was 3.25 in (82.6 mm). With a low compression ratio of 7.1:1, the 241 produced 140 bhp (104 kW). This engine is not the same as the Plymouth 241, which had polyspherical, not hemi heads.
The 270 displaced 268 cu in (4.4 L) and was used in the 1955 and 1956 Dodge high-line (premium) vehicles. Bore was 3.625 in (92.1 mm) and stroke was 3.25 in (82.6 mm). It was not the same as the Plymouth 270 poly-head. In the Dodge Coronet, running the same low 7.1:1 compression ratio as the 241, the 270 produced 140 bhp (104 kW). In higher trims like the Dodge Meadowbrook, it ran a 7.5:1 compression ratio and produced 150 bhp (112 kW).
For 1956, Dodge increased the displacement to 315 cu in (5.2 L) with a longer 3.80 in (96.5 mm) stroke and a taller raised-deck block and now with a polyspherical heads—no longer a Hemi. But the optional high-performance D-500 version of this engine had a four-barrel carburetor and a modified DeSoto hemi head.
Dodge released a 325 cu in (5.3 L) engine for 1957. The engine used a 3.6875 in (93.7 mm) bore and 3.80 in (96.5 mm) stroke.
426: The Elephant
The hemispherical head design was revived in 1964. These were the first engines officially designated Hemi, a name Chrysler trademarked. Chrysler Hemi engines of this generation displaced 426 cu in (7.0 L). Just 11,000 Hemi engines were ultimately produced for consumer sale due to their relatively high cost and the sheer size of the engine bay required to fit it in. The 426 Hemi was nicknamed the "elephant engine" at the time, a reference to its heavy weight and large outer dimensions. Its 10.72 in (272.3 mm) deck height and 4.80 in (121.9 mm) bore spacing made it the biggest engine racing in NASCAR at the time.
The 426 Hemi of the 1960s was an engine produced for use in NASCAR, used in a racing version of a Plymouth Belvedere in 1964. It was not initially available to the general buying public. The 426 Hemi was not allowed to compete in NASCAR's 1965 season due to its unavailability in production vehicles sold to the general public. Chrysler introduced the "Street" Hemi in 1966 for its intermediate range of cars and sold the required number of Hemi engines to the public to legimatize its use for NASCAR in 1966.
Although all manufacturers were familiar with multi-valve engines and hemispherical combustion chambers, adding more valves per cylinder, or designing the complex valve train needed for a hemispherical chamber, were expensive ways of improving the high-RPM breathing of production vehicles. By canting the angle of the NASCAR-mandated two valves per cylinder, significantly larger valves could be used. The Chrysler hemi had an oversquare 4.25 in (108.0 mm) bore and 3.75 in (95.3 mm) stroke as did the wedge-chambered big-block Chrysler RB.
The 426 Hemi also was used in NHRA drag racing. Its large casting allowed the engine to be overbored and stroked to displacements unattainable in the other engines of the day. Top-fuel racing organizers limited the bore spacing of engines until very recently, when under pressure from Ford and other manufacturers, the bore spacing allowed was increased to 4.900" - this allows other engines such as the Ford 385 series to begin to compete. The engines based on the old Chrysler design predominate Top Fuel and Funny Car classes due to plentiful parts, large amount of research and development, as well as decades of experience with the problems of the engine's design. In NHRA top fuel racing today, the engine bears little resemblance to any engine produced by Chrysler; it is usually equipped with a large Roots type supercharger and short individual exhaust pipes, and fueled with nitromethane.
The 426 Hemi, in "street Hemi" form, was produced for consumer automobiles from 1965 through 1971. There were many differences between the Hemi and the Wedge-head big-block, including cross-bolted main bearing caps and a different head bolt pattern. There were also many differences between the racing Hemi's and the street Hemi, including but not limited to compression ratio, camshaft, intake manifold, exhaust manifold. Some 1960s NASCAR & NHRA Hemi engines featured magnesium cross-ram intake manifolds and magnesium oil pans in an attempt to reduce the massive weight of the overall engine, along with chain-driven internal dry-sump oil systems. Today, aftermarket blocks, heads, intakes, rods and pistons are usually made of aluminum.
The street Hemi version was rated at 425 bhp (316.9 kW)(Gross) with two Carter AFB carburetors. In actual dynomometer testing, it produced 433.5 horsepower and 472 lb·ft (640 N·m) torque in purely stock form. Interestingly, Chrysler's sales literature published both Gross and Net HP ratings for 1971 (425 Gross HP and 350 Net HP.)
To avoid confusion with earlier (1951-'58) and current Hemi engines, the 426-based Hemi is sometimes called the "2G" or "Gen 2" Hemi.
The street version of the 2G Hemi engine was used (optionally, in all but the last case) in the following vehicles:
- 1966–1970 Dodge Coronet/Plymouth Belvedere
- 1966–1971 Plymouth Satellite
- 1966–1971 Dodge Charger
- 1967–1971 Plymouth GTX
- 1968-1969 Dodge Dart (These could be ordered from any Chrysler dealership by anyone who could afford it and were legal for the street.)
- 1968-1969 Plymouth Barracuda (These could be ordered from any Chrysler dealership by anyone who could afford it and were legal for the street.)
- 1968–1971 Dodge Super Bee
- 1968–1971 Plymouth Roadrunner
- 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona
- 1970 Plymouth Superbird
- 1970–1971 Plymouth Barracuda
- 1970–1971 Dodge Challenger
- 1970 Monteverdi Hai 450
The current-production "HEMI" engine heads are flatter and more complex than the 1950s–'70s Hemi V8 chamber. The chambers are no longer truly hemispherical. It uses a coil-on-plug distributorless ignition system and two spark plugs per cylinder to shorten flame travel leading to more consistent combustion which helps reduce emissions. Like most of Chrysler's past-model Hemi-head engines, the 5.7 version is rated at approximately one horsepower per cubic inch, however the updated 2009 model produces even more than that.[vague]
A new variable displacement technology called Multi-Displacement System (MDS) is used in some versions which can shut off two cylinders on each bank under light load to improve fuel economy. For the 2009 model year power has been bumped up to 357-390 horsepower (266-291 kW) and 389-410 lb·ft (527-556 N·m) depending on application. It also gets 4% better fuel economy. Variable valve timing (VVT) was also introduced.
The '5.7 L Hemi' was released for model year 2003 on the Dodge Ram 2500 and 3500 pickup trucks to replace the Magnum 5.9 engine. It also replaced the 8.0L V-10 engine in the heavy duty Ram. As of 2004 it was the only available gasoline engine in the Ram Heavy Duty. Chrysler has since made the 5.7 L Hemi available in all models of the 2004 Dodge Ram, Dodge Durango, the 2005 Chrysler 300C, Dodge Magnum R/T, Jeep Grand Cherokee, the 2006 Dodge Charger R/T, and the 2009 Dodge Challenger R/T. For Challenger, the 6 speed version will not feature MDS.
The 5.7 L (345 cu in) Hemi in the Ram delivered 345 hp (257.3 kW) and 375 lb·ft (508 N·m), but 340 hp (253.5 kW) and 390 lb·ft (529 N·m) for the 300C and Magnum R/T, which is exactly 100 hp (74.6 kW) more than the old 5.9 engine. It is a 90-degree V8, 2-valve pushrod design like the past LA engines, displacing 5,654 cc (345 cu in), with a bore of 99.5 mm (3.92 in) and a stroke of 90.9 mm (3.58 in).
The Hemi was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2003 through 2007, and again in 2009.
This engine is used in the following vehicles:
- 2003–present Dodge Ram
- 2004–2009, 2011–present Dodge Durango
- 2005–present Chrysler 300 300C
- 2005–2008 Dodge Magnum R/T
- 2005–present Dodge Charger R/T
- 2005–present Jeep Grand Cherokee
- 2006–2010 Jeep Commander
- 2007–2009 Chrysler Aspen
- 2009–present Dodge Challenger R/T
Chrysler has made various revisions to the 5.7 L for the 2009 model year. The first for all applications is what Chrysler calls Variable Camshaft Timing or VCT. VCT (which is essentially variable valve timing) uses an oil control valve which controls oil flow to a unique camshaft sprocket which contains a phasing device, which depending on the operation of the oil control valve either advances or retards camshaft timing.
Cylinder heads have been revised to increase flow. Though the intake manifold has also been changed on all applications, it is however model specific. Dodge Ram, non-Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Chrysler Aspens, and non-HEV Dodge Durango utilize an active intake manifold with a short runner valve to optimize torque and horsepower. At lower engine RPM the valve is closed, resulting in improved low-end torque from the longer runners. At higher engine RPM the valve is opened, diverting the incoming air into the center of the manifold. The shorter runners results in improved horsepower. Passenger cars, Jeep vehicles, and HEV Chrysler Aspen & HEV Dodge Durango do not use this manifold, these vehicles utilize a passive intake manifold, which does not have a short runner valve.
Six-speed manual transmission and all Heavy Duty truck applications will differ by not having the Multiple Displacement System (MDS). The new version of the 5.7L has five different camshaft profiles. All will have VCT.
- Active intake with MDS
- Active intake without MDS
- Passive intake with MDS
- Passive intake without MDS
- HEV Application (modified version of passive intake with MDS)
2009 to present Power Numbers
- 300C: 360 hp (268 kW), 390 lb·ft (529 N·m)
- Charger R/T: 368 hp (274 kW), 395 lb·ft (536 N·m)
- Challenger R/T 5 Speed Automatic: 372 hp (277 kW), 401 lb·ft (544 N·m)
- Challenger R/T 6 Speed Manual: 375 hp (280 kW), 410 lb·ft (556 N·m)
- Ram 1500 Truck: 390 hp (291 kW), 407 lb·ft (552 N·m)
- Ram 2500/3500 Truck: 383 hp (286 kW), 404 lb·ft (548 N·m)
- Jeep Grand Cherokee and Jeep Commander: 357 hp (266 kW), 389 lb·ft (527 N·m)
- Chrysler Aspen and Dodge Durango non-HEV: 376 hp (280 kW), 401 lb·ft (544 N·m)
- Chrysler Aspen and Dodge Durango HEV: 390 hp (291 kW), 390 lb·ft (529 N·m)
The Hemi is also available in a 6,059 cc (6.059 L; 369.7 cu in) version. The engine's bore is 4.055 in (103 mm), and many other changes were made to allow it to produce 425 horsepower (317 kW) at 6200 rpm and 420 lb·ft (569 N·m) at 4800 rpm. The engine block is different from the 5.7, with revised coolant channels and oil jets to cool the pistons. A forged crankshaft, lighter pistons, and strengthened connecting rods add durability. A cast aluminum intake manifold is tuned for high-RPM power and does not include variable-length technology. Chrysler's Multi-Displacement System is not used on the 6.1.
- 2005–2010 Chrysler 300C SRT–8
- 2005–2008 Dodge Magnum SRT-8
- 2006–2010 Dodge Charger SRT-8
- 2006–2010 Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT-8
- 2008–2010 Dodge Challenger SRT-8
6.4 / 392
Chrysler displayed a larger 6.4 L (392 cu in) Hemi in 2005 with output 525 horsepower (391 kW) and 510 lb·ft (691 N·m) torque. It is based on an iron 6.1 L engine block with aluminium alloy pistons.This engine has been available since 2007, as a crate under the name 392 Hemi.
The production version of the 392 Hemi was launched in the 2011 Dodge Challenger SRT8 with variable camshaft timing as well as MDS in cars with automatic transmissions. In late 2009 Chrysler has said the new engine will be available in the next generation SRT8 Dodge Charger, Chrysler 300C and Jeep Grand Cherokee. Special-edition Challengers equipped with this engine, and the engines themselves, will bear "392 HEMI" badging in commemorative reference to the first-generation Hemi engine of the same piston displacement. In other applications, the engine is badged as "6.4L HEMI". It is much more similar to the revised 5.7L V8 Hemi that was released in 2009 and is a completely different block and build than the 392 crate engine. Output is 470 hp (350 kW) and 470 lb·ft (637 N·m). Availability of the 6.4 is to expand to the Chrysler 300SRT8, Dodge Charger SRT8, and the Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT8.
In February to April 2005, DaimlerChrysler hosted a 'What Can You HEMI?' contest promoting alternative uses of the HEMI engines. The top 5 finalist include HEMI Snowblower (designed by Tim Flucht of Belleville, Michigan), HEMI-Go-Round (by Jonathan Brzon of Topeka, Kansas) carousel, HEMI on Ice ice resurfacer (designed by MSX International), HEMI-Shredder (designed by Randy Fredner of Earlysville, VA), HEMI Big Wheel, i.e. the child's tricycle of the 70's (designed by Marcus Brauns of Vancouver, British Columbia). The winner was HEMI Big Wheel, which had a 5.7L HEMI in the back, which was installed backwards, thus reverse became the only forward gear. Plate steel was the predominant material used to make this remarkable machine. A rolled tube of steel had to be utilized for the front tire as there were no such tires 4' in diameter that were as narrow as needed for this project.
As collector items
Dodge and Plymouth Hemi-powered cars produced between the model years of 1965 and 1971 have become collector's items (as have other muscle cars manufactured during this era).
- Chrysler engines
- ^ http://www.oldcarbrochures.com/static/NA/Chrysler_and_Imperial/1951_Chrysler/1951_Chrysler_FirePower_Advantages/1951%20Chrysler%20FirePower%20Advantages-01.html
- ^ Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1946-1959 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2008), p.899.
- ^ a b http://www.redletterdodge.com/2010/03/05/this-week-from-the-archives-baby-hemi%C2%AE-is-born/
- ^ "Hemi Dyno Test". allpar.com. http://www.allpar.com/mopar/hemi/dyno-test.html. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
- ^ http://www.stockmopar.com/brochures/1971-plymouth-rapid-transit-system-brochure.html
- ^ 2009 Mopar Performance catalog
- ^ "2006 Chrysler 300" (PDF). http://www.media.chrysler.com/dcxms/assets/specs/2006Chrysler300Specifications06_2005.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- ^ http://www.media.chrysler.com/dcxms/assets/specs/2007Chrysler300CSRT8FASpecifications.pdf
- ^ a b "2011 Dodge Challenger SRT8 392 Debuts with Newest HEMI® V-8". Chrysler LLC. 2010-11-15. http://media.chrysler.com/newsrelease.do?id=10182&mid=261. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
- ^ "Mopar Performance Parts 6.4L 392cid HEMI Crate Engine". Thehemi.com. 2006-02-28. http://www.thehemi.com/news.php?id=20060228-1. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- ^ http://content.usatoday.com/communities/driveon/post/2010/10/dodge-ditches-silly-metric-system-on-challenger-srt8-392/1
- ^ http://www.media.chrysler.com/dcxms/assets/specs/2011_Challenger392_Specifications.pdf
- ^ 2011 Dodge Challenger 392 Hemi: SRT8 and Inaugural Edition
- ^ Revealed - 2012 Chrysler 300 SRT8 392 HEMI
- ^ "2011 Dodge Challenger SRT8 392 Hemi and Inaugural Edition". allpar.com. 2010-09-18. http://www.allpar.com/cars/dodge/challenger/392.html. Retrieved 2011-07-28.
- ^ "Charger SRT8 on Allpar". http://www.allpar.com/cars/dodge/charger-SRT8.html. Retrieved 2011-07-28. Dodge Charger SRT8
- ^ Alannah Tremblay. "New & Used Cars Auto Parts Auto Insurance Auto Loans DaimlerChrysler Announces Winner of Zany "What Can You HEMI?" Contest!". Automobile.com. http://www.automobile.com/daimlerchrysler-announces-winner-of-zany-what-can-you-hemi-contest.html. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- ^ Kaehler, Justin (2005-06-22). "That thing got a HEMI?". Cars.ign.com. http://cars.ign.com/articles/628/628210p1.html. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- ^ "Five Finalists Named in 'What Can You HEMI(R)?' Contest". Michigan: Prnewswire.com. 2005-05-16. http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/05-17-2005/0003633658&EDATE=. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
- ^ Keegan, Walter J (2005-12-18). ""What can you Hemi?" contest winner". Autoblog.com. http://www.autoblog.com/2005/06/18/what-can-you-hemi-contest-winner/. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
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