W. Mark Felt

W. Mark Felt

Infobox police officer

caption =
born = birth date and age|1913|8|17|mf=y
died =
placeofbirth = Twin Falls, Idaho, U.S.A.
placeofdeath =
nickname =
department = Federal Bureau of Investigation
service = Washington D.C., Houston, San Antonio, Washington D.C., Seattle, Washington D.C., Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, Kansas City, Washington D.C.
serviceyears = 1942–1973
rank = Associate Director
awards =
relations =
laterwork =

William Mark Felt, Sr. (born August 17, 1913) is a former agent of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, who retired in 1973 as the Bureau's Associate Director. After thirty years of denying his involvement with reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, Felt revealed himself on May 31, 2005 to be the Watergate scandal whistleblower called "Deep Throat".

Felt worked in several FBI field offices prior to his promotion to the Bureau's Washington headquarters. During the early investigation of the Watergate scandal (1972–74), Felt was the Bureau's Associate Director, the second-ranking post in the FBI. While Associate Director, Felt provided "Washington Post" reporter Woodward with critical leads on the story that eventually saw the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in 1974. In 1980, Felt was convicted of the felony of violating the civil rights of people thought to be associated with members of the Weather Underground by ordering FBI agents to search their homes as part of an attempt to prevent bombings. He was ordered to pay a $5,000 fine but was pardoned by President Ronald Reagan during his appeal. In 2006, he published an update of his 1979 autobiography, "The FBI Pyramid". His new book, written with John O'Connor, is titled "A G-Man's Life."

Early career

Felt was born in Twin Falls, Idahoref|FeltBirth, the son of carpenter and building contractor Mark Earl Felt and his wife, the former Rose Dygert.ref|FeltContractorDad After graduating from Twin Falls High School in 1931, he received a BA from the University of Idaho in 1935, and was a member and president of the Gamma Gamma chapter of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. He went to Washington, D.C. to work in the office of U.S. Senator James P. Pope (D-Idaho). In 1938, Felt married Audrey Robinson of Gooding, Idaho, whom he had known when they were both students at the University of Idaho. She had come to Washington to work at the Bureau of Internal Revenue, and they were wed by the chaplain of the United States House of Representatives, the Rev. Sheara Montgomery.ref|FeltMarriage Felt stayed on with Pope's successor in the Senate, David Worth Clark (D-Idaho).ref|SenPopeAndClarke Felt attended The George Washington University Law School at night, earning his law degree in 1940, and was admitted to the District of Columbia bar in 1941.ref|TheoharrisGeneralBio

Upon graduation, Felt took a position at the Federal Trade Commission but did not enjoy the work. His workload was very light. He was assigned a case to investigate whether a toilet paper brand called "Red Cross" was misleading consumers into thinking it was endorsed by the American Red Cross. Felt wrote in his memoir::My research, which required days of travel and hundreds of interviews, produced two definite conclusions::1. Most people "did" use toilet tissue.:2. Most people "did not" appreciate being asked about it.:That was when I started looking for other employment.ref|RedCrossToiletPaper

He applied for a job with the FBI in November 1941 and was accepted. His first day at the Bureau was January 26, 1942.

Early FBI years

FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover often moved Bureau agents around so they would have wide experience. Hoover, Felt observed, "wanted every agent to get into any Field office at anytime. Since he had never been transferred and did not have a family, he had no idea of the financial and personal hardship involved."ref|HooverNoFamily

After completing sixteen weeks of training at the FBI Academy at Quantico, Virginia and FBI Headquarters in Washington, Felt was first assigned to Texas, working in the field offices in Houston and San Antonio, spending three months in each. He then returned to the "Seat of Government", as Hoover called FBI headquarters, and was assigned to the Espionage Section of the Domestic Intelligence Division, tracking down spies and saboteurs during World War II, where he worked on the Major Case Desk. His most notable work there was on the "Peasant" case. Helmut Goldschmidt, operating under the codename "Peasant", was a German agent in custody in England. Under Felt's direction, his German masters were informed "Peasant" had made his way to the United States, and were fed disinformation on Allied plans.ref|Peasant

The Espionage Section was abolished in May 1945 after V-E Day. After the war, he was again in the field, sent first to Seattle, Washington. After two years of general work, he spent two years as a firearms instructor and was promoted from agent to supervisor. Upon passage of the Atomic Energy Act and the creation of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Seattle office became responsible for completing background checks of workers at the Hanford plutonium plant near Richland, Washington. Felt oversaw these checks.ref|Espionage

In 1954, Felt returned briefly to Washington as an inspector's aide. Two months later, Felt was sent to New Orleans, Louisiana, as assistant special agent in charge of the field office. When he was transferred to Los Angeles, California fifteen months later, he held the same rank there.ref|TransferNewOrleansLosAngeles In 1956, Felt was transferred to Salt Lake City, Utah, and promoted to special agent in charge. The Salt Lake office included Nevada within its purview, and while there, Felt oversaw some of the Bureau's earliest investigations into organized crime with the Mob's operations in the casinos of Reno and Las Vegas.ref|MobNevada (It was Hoover's, and therefore the Bureau's official position at the time, that there was no such thing as the Mob). In February 1958, he went to Kansas City, Missouri, in his memoir dubbed "the Siberia of Field Offices",ref|SiberiaOfFieldOffices where he oversaw additional investigations of organized crime.ref|MobKansas

.ref|FeltReturnToDC In November 1964, he became assistant director of the Bureau, as chief inspector of the Bureau and head of the Inspection Division ref|FeltToInspectionDivision. This division oversaw compliance with Bureau regulations and conducted internal investigations.

On July 1, 1971, Felt was promoted by Hoover to Deputy Associate Director, assisting Associate Director Clyde A. Tolson.ref|FeltMadeAsstDirector Hoover's right-hand man for decades, Tolson was in failing health and no longer able to attend to his duties. Richard Gid Powers wrote that Hoover installed Felt to rein in William C. Sullivan's domestic spying operations, as Sullivan had been engaged in secret unofficial work for the White House. In his memoir, Felt quoted Hoover as having said, "I need someone who can control Sullivan. I think you know he has been getting out of hand."ref|FeltMemoirControlSullivan In his book, "The Bureau", Ronald Kessler said, "Felt managed to please Hoover by being tactful with him and tough on agents."ref|KesslerOnFeltTactfulness Curt Gentry called Felt "the director's latest fair-haired boy", but who had "no inherent power" in his new post, the real number three being John P. Mohr.ref|GentryOnFelt

Among the criminal groups that the FBI investigated in the early 1970s was the Weathermen Underground. The case ended up being dismissed because of illegal activities by the FBI, including wiretaps, break-ins and mail interceptions. The lead federal prosecutor on the case, William C. Ibershof, claims that Mark Felt and Attorney General John N. Mitchell initiated these illegal activities that tainted the investigation. [cite news| work=New York Times| date=2008-10-09| author=William C. Ibershof| Title=Letter to the Editor: Prosecuting Weathermen| url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/10/opinion/l10ayers.html]

In 1976, Felt publicly stated he had ordered break-ins and that individual agents were merely obeying orders and should not be punished for it. Felt also stated that acting Director L. Patrick Gray had also authorized the break-ins, but Gray denied this. Felt said on the CBS television program "Face the Nation" that he would probably be a "scapegoat" for the Bureau's work. [John Crewdson (August 30, 1976), "Ex-F.B.I. Aide Sees 'Scapegoat' Role", "The New York Times", p. 21.] "I think this is justified and I'd do it again tomorrow", he said on the program. While admitting the break-ins were "extralegal", he justified it as protecting the "greater good". Felt said:

To not take action against these people and know of a bombing in advance would simply be to stick your fingers in your ears and protect your eardrums when the explosion went off and then start the investigation.

After Hoover's death

frame|left|L. Patrick Gray, acting director of the FBI from May 1972 to April 1973.] Hoover died in his sleep and was found on the morning of May 2, 1972. Tolson was nominally in charge until the next day when Nixon appointed L. Patrick Gray III as acting FBI director. Tolson submitted his resignation, which Gray accepted. Felt took Tolson's post as Associate Director, the number-two job in the bureau.ref|TolsonResignation Felt served as an honorary pallbearer at Hoover's funeral.ref|HooverPallbearerOn the day of his death, Hoover's secretary for five decades, Helen Gandy, began destroying his files. She turned over twelve boxes of the "Official/Confidential" files to Felt on May 4, 1972. This consisted of 167 files and 17,750 pages, many of them containing derogatory information. Felt stored them in his office, and Gray told the press that afternoon that "there are no dossiers or secret files. There are just general files and I took steps to preserve their integrity." Felt earlier that day had told Gray, "Mr. Gray, the Bureau doesn't have any secret files", and later accompanied Gray to Hoover's office. They found Gandy boxing up papers. Felt said Gray "looked casually at an open file drawer and approved her work", though Gray would later deny he looked at anything. Gandy retained Hoover's "Personal File" and destroyed it.ref|GandyHooversFiles When Felt was called to testify in 1975 by the U.S. House about the destruction of Hoover's papers, he said, "There's no serious problems if we lose some papers. I don't see anything wrong and I still don't." At the same hearing Gandy claimed that she had destroyed Hoover's personal files only after receiving Gray's approval. In a letter submitted to the committee in rebuttal of Gandy's testimony, Gray vehemently denied ever giving such permission. Both Gandy's testimony and Gray's letter were included in the committee's final report.ref|FeltBeforeUSHouseOfRepsOnFileDest

In his memoir, Felt expressed mixed feelings about Gray. While noting Gray did work hard, he was critical at how often he was away from FBI Headquarters. Gray lived in Stonington, Connecticut, and commuted to Washington. He also visited all of the Bureau's field offices except Honolulu. His frequent absences led to the nickname "Three-Day Gray". ref|ThreeDayGrayNickname These absences, combined with Gray's hospitalization and recuperation from November 20, 1972 to January 2, 1973,ref|GrayHospitalisation meant that Felt was effectively in charge for much of his final year at the Bureau. Bob Woodward wrote "Gray got to be director of the F.B.I. and Felt did the work."ref|WoodwardonGray Felt wrote in his memoir::The record amply demonstrates that President Nixon made Pat Gray the Acting Director of the FBI because he wanted a politician in J. Edgar Hoover's position who would convert the Bureau into an adjunct of the White House machine.ref|FeltMemoirOnGray

Gray's defenders would later argue that Gray simply practiced a different management style than that of Hoover. Gray's visits to all the field offices (except Honolulu), was something that Hoover had never done, and some felt this did much to raise the morale of the agents working in those field offices. Furthermore, Gray's leadership style of the FBI seemed to mirror the leadership style he learned in the US Navy, in which the executive officer concentrates on the basic operation of the ship, while the captain concentrates on the position and heading of the ship. The FBI, however, was not a Navy ship, and Felt was not the only member of the FBI's leadership (particularly amongst those that had served under Hoover) that disapproved of Gray's methods.


, who had spoken to former Bureau agents, reported that throughout the investigation they "were amazed to see material in Woodward and Bernstein's stories lifted almost verbatim from their reports of interviews a few days or weeks earlier."ref|KesslerAmazed

Contact with Woodward

Bob Woodward first describes Deep Throat in "All the President's Men" as "a source in the Executive Branch who had access to information at CRP (the Committee to Re-elect the President, Nixon's 1972 campaign organization), as well as at the White House." ref|BernsteinSourceInExecutive The book also calls him "an incurable gossip" who was "in a unique position to observe the Executive Branch", a man "whose fight had been worn out in too many battles."ref|BernsteinOnFelt Woodward had known the source before Watergate and had discussed politics and government with him.

Woodward in 2005 wrote that he met Felt at the White House in 1969 or 1970 when Woodward was an aide to Admiral Thomas H. Moorer, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, delivering papers to the White House Situation Room. In his book "The Secret Man", Woodward described Felt as "a tall man with perfectly combed gray hair . . . distinguished looking" with "a studied air of confidence, even what might be called a command presence".ref|HowWoodwardMetFelt They stayed in touch and spoke on the telephone several times. When Woodward started working at the "Washington Post", he phoned Felt on several occasions to ask for information for articles in the "Post". Felt's information, taken on a promise that Woodward would never reveal their origin, was a source for a few stories, notably for an article on May 18, 1972, about Arthur H. Bremer, who shot George C. Wallace. When the Watergate story broke, Woodward called on his friend. Felt advised Woodward on June 19 that E. Howard Hunt was involved; the telephone number of his White House office had been listed in the address book of one of the burglars. Initially, Woodward's source was known at the "Post" as "My Friend", but was tagged "Deep Throat" by "Post" editor Howard Simons, after the pornographic movie. Woodward has written that idea for the nickname first came to Simons because Felt had been providing the information on a deep background basis.

When Felt's name was revealed, it was noted that "My Friend" has the same initial letters as "Mark Felt". Woodward has said this was a coincidence, but in looking back at some of his notes, interviews with Felt during the earliest days of the story were marked with "M.F."

Code for contacting Woodward

Woodward claimed that when he wanted to meet Deep Throat, he would move a flowerpot with a red flag on the balcony of his apartment, number 617, at the Webster House at 1718 P Street, Northwest, and when Deep Throat wanted a meeting, he would circle the page number on page twenty of Woodward's copy of "The New York Times" and draw clock hands to signal the hour.ref|DeepThroatSignal Adrian Havill questioned these claims in his 1993 biography of Woodward and Bernstein, stating Woodward's balcony faced an interior courtyard and was not visible from the street, but Woodward responded that it has been bricked in since he lived there. Havill also claimed that copies of "The Times" were not delivered marked by apartment, but Woodward and a former neighbor disputed this claim.ref|HavillOnSignalStory Woodward has stated:

:How [Felt] could have made a daily observation of my balcony is still a mystery to me. At the time, the back of my building was not enclosed so anyone could have driven in the back alley to observe my balcony. In addition, my balcony and the back of the apartment complex faced onto a courtyard or back area that was shared with a number of other apartment or office buildings in the area. My balcony could have been seen from dozens of apartments or offices.

:There were several embassies in the area. The Iraqi embassy was down the street, and I thought it possible that the FBI had surveillance or listening posts nearby. Could Felt have had the counterintelligence agents regularly report on the status of my flag and flowerpot? That seems unlikely, but not impossible.ref|WoodwardSurveillanceSpeculation

Days after the break-in, Nixon and White House chief of staff H. R. Haldeman talked about putting pressure on the FBI to slow down the investigation. The FBI had been called in by the District of Columbia police because the burglars had been found with wiretapping equipment, and wiretapping is a crime investigated by the FBI. Haldeman told President Nixon on June 23, 1972, "Mark Felt wants to cooperate because he's ambitious."ref|HadlemanOnFeltCooperation

Haldeman informed Nixon that Felt was leaking information

Despite initial suspicions that other agents, including Angelo Lano, had been speaking to the Post, [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/19/AR2005061900699_pf.html "Watergate and the Two Lives of Mark Felt"] The Washington Post retrieved July 25, 2007] in a taped conversation on October 19, 1972, Haldeman told the president that he had sources, which he declined to name, confirming Felt was speaking to the press. "You can't say anything about this because it will screw up our source and there's a real concern. Mitchell is the only one who knows about this and he feels strongly that we better not do anything because . . . If we move on him, he'll go out and unload everything. He knows everything that's to be known in the FBI. He has access to absolutely everything." ref|HaldemanOnFeltUnloading Haldeman also reported that he had spoken to White House counsel John W. Dean about punishing Felt, but Dean said Felt had committed no crime and could not be prosecuted.

When Gray returned from his sick leave in January 1973, he confronted Felt about being the source for Woodward and Bernstein. Gray said he had defended Felt to Attorney General Richard G. Kleindienst: "You know, Mark, Dick Kleindienst told me I ought to get rid of you. He says White House staff members are concerned that you are the FBI source of leaks to Woodward and Bernstein"ref|GrayRevealsSuspOfFeltLeak, to which Felt replied, "Pat, I haven't leaked anything to anybody."ref|FeltDeniesLeaking Gray told Felt, "I told Kleindienst that you've worked with me in a very competent manner and I'm convinced that you are completely loyal. I told him I was not going to move you out. Kleindienst told me, 'Pat, I love you for that.'"

Felt denies he was source

Felt called "obvious" the reasons why he was suspected by the White House as the reporters' source:

I was supposed to be jealous of Gray for having received the appointment as Acting Director instead of myself. They felt that my high position in the FBI gave me access to all the Watergate information and that I was releasing it to Woodward and Bernstein in an effort to discredit Gray so that he would be removed and I would have another chance at the job. Then there were those frequent instances when I had been much less than cooperative in responding to requests from the White House which I felt were improper. I suppose the White House staff had me tagged as an insubordinate.ref|FeltOnAllegedGrayJealousy

Felt wrote, "it is true I would like to have been appointed FBI director," but "I never leaked information to Woodward and Bernstein or anyone else!"

Nixon passes over Felt again

On February 17, 1973, Nixon nominated Gray as Hoover's permanent replacement as director.ref|GrayNominated Until then, Gray had been in limbo as acting director. In another taped conversation on February 28, Nixon spoke to Dean about Felt acting as an informant, and mentioned that he had never met him. Gray was forced to resign on April 27, after it was revealed Gray had destroyed a file that had been in the White House safe of E. Howard Hunt.ref|GrayResigns Gray told his superiors that Felt should be named as his successor.

The day Gray resigned, Kleindienst spoke to Nixon, urging him to appoint Felt as Gray's replacement, but Nixon instead appointed William Ruckelshaus. Stanley Kutler reported that Nixon said, "I don't want him. I can't have him. I just talked to Bill Ruckelshaus and Bill is a Mr. Clean and I want a fellow in there that is not part of the old guard and that is not part of that infighting in there."ref|MrClean On another White House tape, from May 11, 1973, Nixon and White House Chief of Staff Alexander M. Haig spoke of Felt leaking material to the New York Times. Nixon said, "he's a bad guy, you see," and that William Sullivan had told him Felt's ambition was to be director of the Bureau.ref|FeltNixonsBadGuy

Felt called his relationship with Ruckelshaus "stormy." ref|FeltOnRuckelshausRelStormy He said in his memoir Ruckelshaus was a "security guard sent to see that the FBI did nothing which would displease Mr. Nixon."ref|FeltOnRuckelshausAsSecurityGuard Felt retired from the Bureau on June 22, 1973, ending a thirty-one-year career.

Tried for illegal break-ins

In the early 1970s, Felt oversaw a turbulent period in the FBI's history. The FBI was pursuing radicals in the Weather Underground who had planted bombs at the Capitol, the Pentagon, and the State Department. Felt, along with Edward S. Miller, authorized FBI agents to break into homes secretly in 1972 and 1973, without a search warrant, on nine separate occasions. These kinds of FBI burglaries were known as "black bag jobs". The break-ins occurred at five addresses in New York and New Jersey, at the homes of relatives and acquaintances of Weather Underground members, and did not lead to the capture of any fugitives. The use of "black bag jobs" by the FBI was declared unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court in the "Plamondon" case, 407 U.S. 297 (1972).

After revelation by the Church Committee of the FBI's illegal activities, many agents were investigated. Felt in 1976 publicly stated he had ordered break-ins and that individual agents were merely obeying orders and should not be punished for it. Felt also stated Gray also authorized the break-ins, but Gray denied this. Felt said on the CBS television program "Face the Nation" he would probably be a "scapegoat" for the Bureau's work.ref|Scapegoat "I think this is justified and I'd do it again tomorrow", he said on the program. While admitting the break-ins were "extralegal", he justified it as protecting the "greater good". Felt said:

To not take action against these people and know of a bombing in advance would simply be to stick your fingers in your ears and protect your eardrums when the explosion went off and then start the investigation.
The Attorney General in the new Carter administration, Griffin B. Bell, investigated, and on April 10, 1978, a federal grand jury charged Felt, Miller and Gray with conspiracy to violate the constitutional rights of American citizens by searching their homes without warrants, though Gray's case did not go to trial and was dropped by the government for lack of evidence on December 11, 1980. Felt told Ronald Kessler:

I was shocked that I was indicted. You would be too, if you did what you thought was in the best interests of the country and someone on technical grounds indicted you.ref|FeltIndictmentShock

The indictment charged violations of Title 18, Section 241 of the United States Code. The indictment charged Felt and the others

did unlawfully, willfully, and knowingly combine, conspire, confederate, and agree together and with each other to injure and oppress citizens of the United States who were relatives and acquaintances of the Weatherman fugitives, in the free exercise and enjoyments of certain rights and privileges secured to them by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America.ref|FeltIndictmentText

Felt, Gray, and Miller were arraigned in Washington on April 20. Seven hundred current and former FBI agents were outside the courthouse applauding the "Washington Three", as Felt referred to himself and his colleagues in his memoir.ref|ArraignmentFBIAgentApplause

Felt and Miller attempted to plea bargain with the government, willing to agree to a misdemeanor guilty plea to conducting searches without warrants—a violation of 18 U.S.C. sec. 2236—but the government rejected the offer in 1979. After eight postponements, the case against Felt and Miller went to trial in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia on September 18, 1980.ref|EightPostponements On October 29, former President Richard M. Nixon appeared as a rebuttal witness for the defense, and testified that presidents since Franklin D. Roosevelt had authorized the bureau to engage in break-ins while conducting foreign intelligence and counterespionage investigations.ref|NixonTestimony It was Nixon's first courtroom appearance since his resignation in 1974. Nixon also contributed money to Felt's legal defense fund, Felt's expenses running over $600,000. Also testifying were former Attorneys General Herbert Brownell, Jr., Nicholas deB. Katzenbach, Ramsey Clark, John N. Mitchell, and Richard G. Kleindienst, all of whom said warrantless searches in national security matters were commonplace and not understood to be illegal, but Mitchell and Kleindienst denied they had authorized any of the break-ins at issue in the trial. (The Bureau used a national security justification for the searches because it alleged the Weather Underground was in the employ of Cuba.ref|ObeyingOrders)

The jury returned guilty verdicts on November 6, 1980. Although the charge carried a maximum sentence of 10 years in prison, Felt was fined $5,000. (Miller was fined $3,500).ref|Convictions Writing in "The New York Times" a week after the conviction, Roy Cohn claimed that Felt and Miller were being used as scapegoats by the Carter administration and it was an unfair prosecution. Cohn wrote it was the "final dirty trick" and that there had been no "personal motive" to their actions ref|Cohn. "The Times" saluted the convictions saying it showed "the case has established that zeal is no excuse for violating the Constitution".ref|NYTEditorialOnConvictions

Felt and Miller appealed the verdict.

Pardoned by Reagan

to issue a pardon, and after further encouragement from law enforcement officials and former bureau agents, he did so. The pardon was given on March 26, but was not announced to the public until April 15. (The delay was partly because Reagan was shot on March 30.) Reagan wrote:

:Pursuant to the grant of authority in article II, section 2 of the Constitution of the United States, I have granted full and unconditional pardons to W. Mark Felt and Edward S. Miller.

:During their long careers, Mark Felt and Edward Miller served the Federal Bureau of Investigation and our nation with great distinction. To punish them further — after 3 years of criminal prosecution proceedings — would not serve the ends of justice.

:Their convictions in the U.S. District Court, on appeal at the time I signed the pardons, grew out of their good-faith belief that their actions were necessary to preserve the security interests of our country. The record demonstrates that they acted not with criminal intent, but in the belief that they had grants of authority reaching to the highest levels of government.

:America was at war in 1972, and Messrs. Felt and Miller followed procedures they believed essential to keep the Director of the FBI, the Attorney General, and the President of the United States advised of the activities of hostile foreign powers and their collaborators in this country. They have never denied their actions, but, in fact, came forward to acknowledge them publicly in order to relieve their subordinate agents from criminal actions.

:Four years ago, thousands of draft evaders and others who violated the Selective Service laws were unconditionally pardoned by my predecessor. America was generous to those who refused to serve their country in the Vietnam war. We can be no less generous to two men who acted on high principle to bring an end to the terrorism that was threatening our nation.ref|ReaganStatement

Nixon sent Felt and Miller bottles of champagne with the note "Justice ultimately prevails".ref|NixonChampagneCongrats "The New York Times" disapproved, saying that America "deserved better than a gratuitous revision of the record by the President".ref|NYTDisapprovesPardon Felt and Miller said they would seek repayment of their legal fees from the government.

The chief prosecutor at the trial, John W. Nields, Jr., said "I would warrant that whoever is responsible for the pardons did not read the record of the trial and did not know the facts of the case." Nields also complained that the White House did not consult with the prosecutors in the case, which was usual practice when a pardon was under consideration.ref|PardonReaction

Felt reacted by saying, "I feel very excited and just so pleased that I can hardly contain myself. I am most grateful to the President. I don't know how I'm ever going to be able to thank him. It's just like having a heavy burden lifted off your back. This case has been dragging on for five years." Miller told a press conference the day of the announcement "I certainly owe the Gipper one." Their attorney, Thomas Kennelly, said "We thank God and we thank President Reagan that these two good men have been vindicated at last." Carter Attorney General Griffin Bell said he did not object to the pardons, as the initial convictions showed that behavior such as Felt and Miller's was no longer tolerated.

Despite their pardons, Felt and Miller won permission from the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit to appeal the conviction so as to remove it from their record and to prevent it being used in civil suits by the victims of the break-ins they ordered.ref|FeltMillerAppeal Ultimately, Felt's law license was returned by the court in 1982, which cited Reagan's pardon. In June 1982, Felt and Miller testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee's security and terrorism subcommittee that the restrictions placed on the FBI by Attorney General Edward H. Levi were threatening the country's safety.ref|FeltMillerDenouncePrivacyAndFOIAActcs

Later years

Felt published his memoir "" in 1979. It was co-written with Hoover biographer Ralph de Toledano, though the latter's name appears only in the copyright notice. Toledano in 2005 wrote that the volume was "largely written by me since his original manuscript read like "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table"." Toledano said::Felt swore to me that he was not Deep Throat, that he had never leaked information to the Woodward-Bernstein team or anyone else. The book was published and bombed.ref|Toldedano

"Library Journal" wrote in their review that "at one time Felt was assumed to be Watergate's 'Deep Throat'; in this interesting but hardly sensational memoir, he makes it clear that that honor, if honor it be, lies elsewhere."ref|LibraryJournalReview The memoir was a strong defense of Hoover and his tenure as Director and condemned the reaction to criticisms of the Bureau made in the 1970s by the Church Committee and civil libertarians. He also denounced the treatment of Bureau agents as criminals and said the Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act of 1974 only served to interfere with government work and helped criminals. (The flavor of his criticisms is apparent with the very first words of the book: "The Bill of Rights is not a suicide pact", Justice Robert H. Jackson's comment in his dissent to "Terminiello v. City of Chicago", 337 U.S. 1 (1949).ref|NotASuicidePact) "The New York Times Book Review" was highly critical of the book saying Felt "seeks to perpetuate a view of Hoover and the F.B.I. that is no longer seriously peddled even on the backs of cereal boxes" and contains "a disturbing number of factual errors"ref|NYTBR, sentiments echoed by Curt Gentry who said Felt was "the keeper of the Hoover flame".ref|KeeperHooverFlame

In 1990, Felt moved to Santa Rosa, California, from Alexandria, Virginia, his home since the 1970s. In 1992, he bought his present home in Santa Rosa and since then lived with his daughter Joan Felt. He suffered a stroke before 1999, reported Ronald Kessler in his book "The Bureau." According to Kessler's book, in the summer of 1999, Woodward showed up unexpectedly at the home of Felt’s daughter Joan and took him to lunch. Joan Felt, who was taking care of him at her home, told Kessler her father greeted Woodward like an old friend, and their mysterious meeting appeared to be more of a celebration than an interview.

“Woodward just showed up at the door and said he was in the area,” Joan Felt was quoted as saying in Kessler’s book, which was published in 2002. "He came in a white limousine, which parked at a schoolyard about ten blocks away. He walked to the house. He asked if it was okay to have a martini with my father at lunch, and I said it would be fine.” After Woodward left the house to get the limousine, which was parked almost three-quarters of a mile east at Comstock Junior High School, Joan Felt caught up with him to give him further instructions about what her father could eat for lunch. They walked together to the limo, and Joan Felt rode back with Woodward to pick up her father.Kessler said in his book that the measures Woodward took to conceal his meeting with Felt lent "credence" to the notion that Felt was Deep Throat.After Woodward confirmed that Felt was Deep Throat, the New York Post said on June 3, 2005, "There are plenty of people claiming they knew Deep Throat was actually former FBI man Mark Felt....On May 3, 2002, PAGE SIX reported that Ronald Kessler, author of The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI, says that all the evidence points to former top FBI official W. Mark Felt."


Felt and his wife, Audrey, who died in 1984, had two children, Joan and Mark.

Deep Throat speculation

"For a detailed overview of speculation prior to May 31, 2005, see Deep Throat."

The identity of Deep Throat was debated for over three decades. Jack Limpert had published evidence as early as 1974 that Felt was the informant.ref|Limpert On June 25 of that year, a few weeks after "All the President's Men" was published, "The Wall Street Journal" ran an editorial, "If You Drink Scotch, Smoke, Read, Maybe You're Deep Throat". It began "W. Mark Felt says he isn't now, nor has he ever been Deep Throat." The "Journal" quoted Felt saying the character was a "composite" and "I'm just not that kind of person." ref|WSJ During a grand jury investigation in 1976, Felt was called to testify and the prosecutor, Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights Stanley Pottinger, stumbled upon the fact Felt was "Deep Throat", but the secrecy of the proceedings preserved the secrecy of Felt's alter ego from the public. ref|GrandJury

In 1992, James Mann, who had been a reporter at "The Washington Post" in 1972 and worked with Woodward, wrote a piece for "The Atlantic Monthly" saying the source had to have been within the FBI. While he mentioned Felt as a possibility, he said he could not be certain it was him.ref|MannAtlanticMonthly

Alexander P. Butterfield, the White House aide best known for revealing the existence of Nixon's taping system, told "The Hartford Courant" in 1995, "I think it was a guy named Mark Felt." ref|Butterfield In July 1999, Felt was identified as Deep Throat by The "Hartford Courant", citing Chase Culeman-Beckman, a nineteen-year-old from Port Chester, New York. Culeman-Beckman said Jacob Bernstein, the son of Carl Bernstein and Nora Ephron, had told him the name at summer camp in 1988, and that Jacob claimed he had been told by his father. Felt denied the identification to the "Courant" saying "No, it's not me. I would have done better. I would have been more effective. Deep Throat didn't exactly bring the White House crashing down, did he?" Bernstein said his son didn't know. "Bob and I have been wise enough never to tell our wives, and we've certainly never told our children."ref|Campmate (Bernstein reiterated on June 2, 2005, on the "Today Show" that his wife had never known.)

Leonard Garment, President Nixon's former law partner who became White House counsel after John W. Dean's resignation, ruled Felt out as Deep Throat in his 2000 book "In Search of Deep Throat". Garment wrote::The Felt theory was a strong one . . . Felt had a personal motive for acting. After the death of J. Edgar Hoover . . . Felt thought he was a leading candidate to succeed Hoover . . . The characteristics were a good fit. The trouble with Felt's candidacy was that Deep Throat in "All the President's Men" simply did not sound to me like a career FBI man.ref|GarmentFeltTheoryStrong

Garment said the information leaked to Woodward was inside White House information Felt would not have had access to. "Felt did not fit."ref|GarmentNotFelt (Once the secret was revealed, it was noted Felt did have access to such information because the Bureau's agents were interviewing high White House officials.)

In 2002, the "San Francisco Chronicle" profiled Felt. Noting his denial in "The FBI Pyramid", the paper wrote:Curiously, his son — American Airlines pilot Mark Felt — now says that shouldn't be read as a definitive denial, and that he plans to answer the question once-and-for-all in a second memoir. The excerpt of the working draft obtained by the "Chronicle" has Felt still denying he's Throat but providing a rationale for why Throat did the right thing.ref|SFChronicleFeltsSon

In February 2005, reports surfaced that Woodward had prepared Deep Throat's obituary, because he was near death. This led to some speculation that Deep Throat might have been William H. Rehnquist, who was a Justice Department official early in the Nixon administration, but was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court when he putatively revealed the incident.

Deep Throat revealed

"Vanity Fair" magazine revealed Felt was Deep Throat on May 31, 2005 when it published an article (eventually appearing in the July issue of the magazine) on its website by John D. O'Connor, an attorney acting on Felt's behalf, in which Felt said, "I'm the guy they used to call Deep Throat." After the "Vanity Fair" story broke, Benjamin C. Bradlee, the key editor of the "Washington Post" during Watergate, confirmed that Felt was Deep Throat. According to the "Vanity Fair" article, Felt was persuaded to come out by his family, who wanted to capitalize on the book deals and other lucrative opportunities that Felt would inevitably be offered in order, at least in part, to pay off his grandchildren's education.

Public response varied widely. Felt's family called him an "American hero", suggesting that he leaked information for moral or patriotic reasons. G. Gordon Liddy, who was convicted of burglary in the Watergate scandal, said Felt should have gone to the grand jury rather than leak.ref|GGordonLiddy Some have contrasted Felt's media treatment with that of other whistleblowers.

Nixon chief counsel Charles Colson, who served prison time for his actions in the Nixon White House, said Felt had violated "his oath to keep this nation's secrets"ref|CharlesColston, but a "Los Angeles Times" editorial argued that this argument was specious, "as if there's no difference between nuclear strategy and rounding up hush money to silence your hired burglars."ref|LATimesEditorial Ralph de Toledano, who co-wrote Felt's 1979 memoir, said Mark Felt Jr. had approached him in 2004 to buy Toledano's half of the copyright. Toledano agreed to sell but was never paid and attempted to rescind the deal, threatening legal action. A few days before the "Vanity Fair" article was released, Toledano finally received a check.:I had been gloriously and illegally deceived, and Deep Throat was, in characteristic style, back in business — which given his history of betrayal, was par for the course.ref|Toledano

Speculation about Felt's motives at the time of the scandal has varied widely as well. Some suggested it was revenge for Nixon choosing Gray over Felt to replace Hoover as FBI Director. Others suggest Felt acted out of institutional loyalty to the FBI.
Publishers were interested in signing Felt to a book deal after the revelation. Weeks after the "Vanity Fair" article was released, PublicAffairs Books, whose CEO was a "Washington Post" reporter and editor during the Watergate era, announced that it signed a deal with Felt. The new book was to include material from his 1979 memoir with an update. The new volume was scheduled for publication in the spring of 2006. Felt sold the movie rights to his story to Universal Pictures for development by Tom Hanks's production company, Playtone. The book and movie deals were valued at US $1 million.ref|DealWithHanks

In the summer of 2005, Woodward's longtime publisher, Simon and Schuster, swiftly issued Woodward's account of his contacts with Felt, "The Secret Man: The Story of Watergate's Deep Throat" (ISBN 0-7432-8715-0). The book received mixed reviews.


# W. Mark Felt, "The FBI Pyramid: From the Inside" (New York: Putnam, 1979) p. 11; & Ronald Kessler, "The F.B.I.: Inside the World's Most Powerful Law Enforcement Agency" (New York: Pocket Books, 1994), p. 163.
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 11.
# Ibid, p. 18.
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 18; & Anthony Theoharis, Tony G. Poveda, Susan Rosenfeld, and Richard Powers eds., "The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide" (New York: Checkmark Books, 2000), pp. 324–325.
# Theoharis et al., "FBI: Reference Guide", pp. 324–325.
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 19.
# Ibid., p. 25.
#. Thaddeus Holt. "The Deceivers: Allied Military Deception in the Second World War." New York: Scribner, 2004. 452–456
# Felt, p. 29ff.
# Ibid., p. 45.
# Ibid.
# Ibid.
# John O'Connor, "'I'm the Guy They Called Deep Throat'", "Vanity Fair" [http://www.vanityfair.com/commentary/content/articles/050530roco02/ PDF]
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 59.
# Ibid., p. 67.
# Theoharis et al., "FBI: Reference Guide", p. 315, p. 470; & Curt Gentry, "J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets" (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1991), p. 624.
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", "page number not given"
# Kessler, "F.B.I.: Inside the Agency", p. 163.
# Gentry, "J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets", p. 24.
# Ibid., p. 43.
# Ibid., p. 49.
# Gentry, "J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets", p. 50; & United States Congress, House of Representatives, "Inquiry Into the Destruction of Former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's Files and FBI Recordkeeping: Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations".
# United States Congress, House of Representatives, "Inquiry Into the Destruction of Former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's Files and FBI Recordkeeping: Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations".
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 216.
# Ibid., p. 225.
# Ibid., p. 186.
# Ibid., p. 245.
# Kessler, "F.B.I.: Inside the Agency", p. 269.
# Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, "All the President's Men", 2nd ed. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), p. 71.
# Ibid., p. 131.
# Bob Woodward, "How Mark Felt Became 'Deep Throat'", "The Washington Post"; Woodward "Secret Man", p. 16
# Bernstein and Woodward, "All the President's Men", p. 71.
# Adrian Havill, "Deep Truth: The Lives of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein" (New York: Carol Publishing, 1993), pp. 78–82.
# "Voice from the shadows", "The Sydney Morning Herald", p. 35.
# Stanley Kutler, "Abuse of Power: The New Nixon Tapes" (New York: Touchstone, 1998), p. 67.
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 227.
# Ibid., p. 225.
# Ibid.
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 226.
# Ibid., p. 278.
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 293; Kessler, "F.B.I.: Inside the Agency", p. 181; & Kutler, "Abuse of Power", p. 347.
# Kutler, "Abuse of Power", p. 347.
# Ibid., p. 454.
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 300.
# Ibid., p. 293.
# John Crewdson (August 30, 1976), "Ex-F.B.I. Aide Sees 'Scapegoat' Role", "The New York Times", p. 21.
# Kessler, "F.B.I.: Inside the Agency", p. 194.
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 333.
# Ibid., p. 337.
# Robert Pear: "Conspiracy Trial for 2 Ex-F.B.I. Officials Accused in Break-ins", "The New York Times", September 19, 1980; & "Long Delayed Trial Over F.B.I. Break-ins to Start in Capital Tomorrow", "The New York Times", September 14, 1980, p. 30.
# Robert Pear, "Testimony by Nixon Heard in F.B.I. Trial", "The New York Times", October 30, 1980.
# Ibid.
# Kessler, "F.B.I.: Inside the Agency", p. 194.
# Roy Cohn, "Stabbing the F.B.I.", "The New York Times", November 15, 1980, p. 20.
# "The Right Punishment for F.B.I. Crimes." (Editorial), "The New York Times", December 18, 1980.
# [http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1981/41581d.htm Statement on Granting Pardons to W. Mark Felt and Edward S. Miller] , Ronald Reagan. April 15, 1981.
# Gentry, "J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets", p. 595; Robert Sam Anson, "Exile: The Unquiet Oblivion of Richard M. Nixon", p. 233; Laurie Johnston and Robert McG. Thomas, "Congratulations and Champagne from Nixon."
# "Pardoning the F.B.I's Past". (Editorial), "The New York Times", April 16, 1980.
# Robert Pear, "President Pardons 2 Ex-F.B.I. Officials in 1970's Break-ins.", "The New York Times"; & Lou Cannon and Laura A. Kiernan, "President Pardons 2 Ex-FBI Officials Guilty in Break-Ins", "The Washington Post".
# Joe Pichirallo, "Judge Allows Appeals by Ex-Officials Of FBI Despite Pardons by Reagan", "The Washington Post".
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 349.
# Ralph de Toledano, "Deep Throat's Ghost". "The American Conservative." July 4, 2005.
# Henry Steck, "Review of The FBI Pyramid", "Library Journal".
# Felt, "FBI Pyramid", p. 11.
# David Wise, "Apologia by No. 2", "The New York Times Book Review".
# Gentry, "J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets", p. 728.
# Kessler, "F.B.I.: Inside the Agency", p. 179.
# Carol Benfell, "A Family Secret: Joan Felt Explains Why Family Members Urged Her Father, Watergate's 'Deep Throat' to Reveal His Identity", "The Press Democrat" (Santa Rosa, California).
# Jack Limpert, "Deeper Into Deep Throat", "Washingtonian".
# James Mann, "Deep Throat: An Institutional Analysis", "The Atlantic Monthly".
# Woodward, "Secret Man", p. 116.
# ibid., p. 131.
# Frank Rizzo, "Nixon one role will remain nameless", "The Hartford Courant".
# David Daley, "Deep Throat: 2 boys talking politics at summer camp may have revealed a Watergate secret", "The Hartford Courant".
# Leonard Garment, "In Search of Deep Throat: The Greatest Political Mystery of Our Time", pp. 146–47.
# Ibid., pp. 170–71.
# Vicki Haddock, "The Bay Area's 'Deep Throat' candidate", "San Francisco Chronicle".
# John O'Connor, "'I'm the Guy They Called Deep Throat'", "Vanity Fair" [http://www.vanityfair.com/commentary/content/articles/050530roco02/ PDF]
# Martin Schram. "Nixon's henchmen lecture us on ethics". " Newsday. " June 6, 2005. A32.
# James Lakely. "Tripp, Felt treatment a contrast". "The Washington Times". June 2, 2005. [http://www.washingtontimes.com/functions/print.php?StoryID=20050602-120508-5913r]
# Tom Raum. "Turncoat or U.S. hero? Deep Throat casts divide"." Journal - Gazette" (Ft. Wayne, Indiana). June 2, 2005. 1A.
# "Deep Thoughts" (editorial). "Los Angeles Times". June 2, 2005. B10.
# Ralph de Toledano, "Deep Throat's Ghost". "The American Conservative." July 4, 2005.
#. Bob Thompson. "Deep Throat Family Cuts Publishing, Film Pacts; Tom Hanks to Develop Movie About Secret Watergate Source." "The Washington Post". June 16, 2005. C1.


*Anson, Robert Sam. "Exile: The Unquiet Oblivion of Richard M. Nixon". New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984. (ISBN 0-671-44021-7)
*Benfell, Carol. "A Family Secret: Joan Felt Explains Why Family Members Urged Her Father, Watergate's 'Deep Throat' to Reveal His Identity". "The Press Democrat" (Santa Rosa, California). June 5, 2005. A1.
*Bernstein, Carl and Bob Woodward. "All the President's Men". New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974. (ISBN 0-671-21781-X)
*Cannon, Lou and Laura A. Kiernan. "President Pardons 2 Ex-FBI Officials Guilty in Break-Ins". " The Washington Post. " April 16, 1981. A1.
*Cohn, Roy. "Stabbing the F.B.I." "The New York Times". November 15, 1980. 20.
*Crewdson, John. "Ex-Aide Approved F.B.I. Burglaries." "The New York Times. " August 18, 1976. A1.
*Crewdson, John. "Ex-F.B.I. Aide Sees 'Scapegoat' Role". "The New York Times. " August 30, 1976. 21.
*Daley, David. "Deep Throat: 2 boys talking politics at summer camp may have revealed a Watergate secret." "The Hartford Courant". July 28, 1999. A1.
*"Deep Thoughts" (editorial). "Los Angeles Times". June 2, 2005. B10.
*Duke, Lynne. "Deep Throat's Daughter, The Kindred Free Spirit" "The Washington Post." June 12, 2005. A1.
*Felt, W. Mark. "The FBI Pyramid: From the Inside". New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1979. (ISBN 0-399-11904-3).
*Garment, Leonard. "In Search of Deep Throat: The Greatest Political Mystery of Our Time." New York: Basic Books, 2000. ISBN 0-465-02613-3
*Gentry, Curt. "J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets". New York: W.W. Norton, 1991. (ISBN 0-393-02404-0)
*Haddock, Vicki. "The Bay Area's 'Deep Throat' candidate." "The San Francisco Chronicle". June 16, 2002. D1.
*Havill, Adrian. "Deep Truth: The Lives of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein". New York: Birch Lane Press, 1993. ISBN 1-55972-172-3
*Holt, Thaddeus, "The Deceivers: Allied Military Deception in the Second World War". New York: Scribner, 2004. ISBN 0-7432-5042-7.
*Horrock, Nicholas M. "Gray and 2 Ex-F.B.I Aides Indicted on Conspiracy in Search for Radicals." "The New York Times. " April 11, 1978. A1.
*Johnston, David, "Behind Deep Throat's Clandestine Ways, a Cloak-and-Dagger Past." The New York Times. June 4, 2005
*Johnston, Laurie and Robert McG. Thomas. "Congratulations and Champagne from Nixon." "The New York Times. " April 30, 1981. C18.
*Kamen, Al and Laura A. Kiernan. "Lawyers". "The Washington Post". June 28, 1982. B3.
*Kessler, Ronald. "The F.B.I.: Inside the World's Most Powerful Law Enforcement Agency". New York: Pocket Books, 1993. ISBN 0-671-78657-1
*Kutler, Stanley I., editor. "Abuse of Power: The New Nixon Tapes". New York: The Free Press, 1997. ISBN 0-684-84127-4
*Lardner, George. "Attorney General Backs FBI Pardons but Ex-Prosecutor Disagrees". "The Washington Post". April 17, 1981. A9.
*Limpert, Jack. "Deeper Into Deep Throat". "Washingtonian". August 1974. [http://www.washingtonian.com/people/deepthroat.html#0874]
*Mann, James. "Deep Throat: An Institutional Analysis". "The Atlantic Monthly". May 1992. [http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/199205/mann]
*Marro, Anthony. "Gray and 2 Ex-F.B.I. Aides Deny Guilt as 700 at Court Applaud Them". "The New York Times". April 21, 1978. A13.
*O'Connor, John D. "'I'm the Guy They Called Deep Throat'". "Vanity Fair. " July 2005. 86–89, 129–133. [http://www.vanityfair.com/commentary/content/articles/050530roco02/]

*"Pardoning the F.B.I's Past". (Editorial). "The New York Times". April 16, 1980. A30.
*Pear, Robert. "Conspiracy Trial for 2 Ex-F.B.I. Officials Accused in Break-ins." "The New York Times". September 19, 1980. A14.
*Pear, Robert. "Long Delayed Trial Over F.B.I. Break-ins to Start in Capital Tomorrow". "The New York Times. " September 14, 1980. 30.
*Pear, Robert. "President Pardons 2 Ex-F.B.I. Officials in 1970's Break-ins." "The New York Times". April 16, 1981. A1.
*Pear, Robert. "Prosecutors Rejected Offer of Plea to F.B.I. Break-ins". "The New York Times". January 11, 1981. 24.
*Pear, Robert. "Testimony by Nixon Heard in F.B.I. Trial." "The New York Times". October 30, 1980. A17.
*Pear, Robert. "2 Ex-F.B.I. Agents Get Light Fines for Authorizing Break-ins in 70's". "The New York Times". December 16, 1980. A1.
*Pear, Robert. "2 Pardoned Ex-F.B.I. Officials to Seek U.S. Payment of Some Legal Fees." "The New York Times". May 1, 1981. A14.
*Pichirallo, Joe. "Judge Allows Appeals by Ex-Officials Of FBI Despite Pardons by Reagan". "The Washington Post". July 24, 1981. C5.
*Raum, Tom. "Turncoat or U.S. hero? Deep Throat casts divide". "The Journal - Gazette" (Ft. Wayne, Indiana). June 2, 2005. 1A.
*"The Right Punishment for F.B.I. Crimes." (Editorial). "The New York Times". December 18, 1980. A30.
*Rizzo, Frank. "Nixon one role will remain nameless." " The Hartford Courant. " December 17, 1995. G1.
*Schram, Martin. "Nixon's henchmen lecture us on ethics". " Newsday. " June 6, 2005. A32.
*Steck, Henry. Review of The FBI Pyramid. "Library Journal". April 1, 1980. 850.
*Summers, Anthony. "Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover". New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1993. (ISBN 0-399-13800-5)
*Theoharis, Athan G., Tony G. Poveda, Susan Rosefeld, and Richard Gid Powers. "The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide". New York: Checkmark Books, 2000. (ISBN 0-8160-4228-4)
*Thompson, Bob. "Deep Throat Family Cuts Publishing, Film Pacts; Tom Hanks to Develop Movie About Secret Watergate Source." "The Washington Post". June 16, 2005. C1.
*Toledano, Ralph de. "Deep Throat's Ghost". "The American Conservative." July 4, 2005.
*United Press International. "2 Ex-FBI Aides Urge Relation of Spying Rules." "The Miami Herald". June 27, 1982. 24A.
*United States Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Government Operations. Subcommittee on Government Information and Individual Rights. "Inquiry Into the Destruction of Former FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover's Files and FBI Recordkeeping: Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, 94th Congress, December 1, 1975". Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1975.
*United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Office of the Federal Register. "Public Papers of the President: Ronald Reagan, 1981." Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1982. [http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/publicpapers.html]
*Wise, David. "Apologia by No. 2". "The New York Times Book Review". January 27, 1980. 12.
*Woodward, Bob. "How Mark Felt Became 'Deep Throat'". "The Washington Post". June 2, 2005. A1.
*Woodward, Bob. "The Secret Man: The Story of Watergate's Deep Throat". New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005. (ISBN 0-7432-8715-0)

External links

*Dohrn, Jennifer. [http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=05/06/02/1445253 I Was The Target Of Illegal FBI Break-Ins Ordered by Mark Felt aka "Deep Throat"] (2 June 2005). "Democracy Now!"
*Dean, John W. [http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dean/20050603.html Why The Revelation of the Identity Of Deep Throat Has Only Created Another Mystery] (3 June 2005. "Findlaw." See also his extensive [http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dean/20050603.appendix.html appendix] collecting all of Woodward's references to "Deep Throat" in "All The President's Men."
* [http://www.supportui.uidaho.edu/default.aspx?pid=24967#Felt University of Idaho Alumni Hall of Fame - 1972] W. Mark Felt

NAME=Felt, William Mark
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Deep Throat (Watergate)
SHORT DESCRIPTION=FBI agent and official, Watergate scandal informant
DATE OF BIRTH=17 August 1913
PLACE OF BIRTH=Twin Falls, Idaho, United States

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