- Indonesian Declaration of Independence
The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10.00 a.m. sharp on Friday,
August 17, 1945. The declaration marked the start of the five year diplomatic and armed-resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlandsuntil the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia's independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlandsdeclared that they recognised Indonesian independence is in 1945, not 1949. [http://indonesia.nl/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=27&Itemid=46]
The Declaration Event
The draft was prepared only a few hours earlier, on the night of
August 16, by Soekarno, Hatta, and Soebardjo, at Rear-Admiral Maeda (Minoru) Tadashi'shouse, Miyako-Doori 1, Jakarta(now the " Museumof the Declaration of Independence", JL. Imam Bonjol I, Jakarta). The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence was typed by Sayuti Melik. cite news |first=|last=|title=Former governor Ali Sadikin, freedom fighter SK Trimurti die |url=http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2008/05/21/former-governor-ali-sadikin-freedom-fighter-sk-trimurti-die.html |work= Jakarta Post|publisher= |date=2008-05-21 |accessdate=2008-06-07] cite news |first=Dian|last=Yuliastuti|title=Freedom Fighter SK Trimurti Dies
Tempo Interactive|publisher= |date=2008-05-21 |accessdate=2008-06-07] Maeda himself was sleeping in his room upstairs. He was agreeable to the idea of Indonesia's independence, and had lent his house for the drafting of the declaration. Marshal Terauchi, the highest-ranking Japanese leader in South East Asiaand son of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was however against Indonesia's independence, scheduled for August 24.
While the formal preparation of the declaration, and the official independence itself for that matter, had been carefully planned a few months earlier, the actual declaration date was brought forward almost inadvertently as a consequence of the Japanese unconditional surrender to the Allies on August 15 following the Nagasaki atomic bombing. The historic event was triggered by a plot, led by a few more radical youth activists such as
Adam Malikand Chairul Saleh, that put pressure on Soekarno and Hatta to proclaim independence immediately. The declaration was to be signed by the 27 members of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) symbolically representing the new nation's diversity. The particular act was apparently inspired by a similar spirit of the United States Declaration of Independence. However, the idea was heavily turned down by the radical activists mentioned earlier, arguing that the committee was too closely associated with then soon to be dysfunctional Japanese occupation rule, thus creating a potential credibility issue. Instead, the radical activists demanded that the signatures of six of them were to be put on the document. All party involved in the historical moment finally agreed on a compromise solution which only included Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta as the co-signers 'in the name of the nation of Indonesia'
Soekarno had initially wanted the declaration to be read at Ikada Plain, the large open field in the centre of Jakarta, but due to unfounded widespread apprehension over the possibility of Japanese
sabotage, the venue was changed to Soekarno's house at Pegangsaan Timur 56. In fact there was no concrete evidence for the growing suspicions, as the Japanese had already surrendered to the Allies, and the Japanese high command in Indonesia had given their permission for the nation's independence. The declaration of independence passed without a hitch.
The event also triggered several insurgencies and atrocities in some local areas such as
Westerling's Celebes Massacrein 1946, East Sumatra Social Revolutionin 1946, and Laskar Hitam. They were carried out by both Dutch-loyalists and anti Dutch-loyalists fighting against each other, as well as by other local militias that simply took advantage of the seemingly uncertain situation following the proclamation.
Text of the Declaration
Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan (menyatakan) kemerdekaan Indonesia.
Hal-hal jang (yang) mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan (kekuasaan), d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara (cara) saksama dan dalam tempoh jang (yang) sesingkat-singkatnja (sesingkat-singkatnya).
Djakarta (Jakarta), 17-8-0'5
Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia
Three amendments were made to the draft, as follows:
* "tempoh": changed to "tempo", both meaning "time period".
* 17-8-45: changed to "hari" 17, "boelan" 8, "tahoen" 05" ("day 17, month 8, year 05" of the Japanese sumera calendar); the number "05" is the short form for 2605.
* "Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia" (Representatives of the people of Indonesian nation): changed to "Atas nama bangsa Indonesia" ("in the name of the nation of Indonesia").
Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.
Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja.
Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen 05
Atas nama bangsa Indonesia
>Soekarno - Hatta
We, the Indonesian people, hereby declare the independence of Indonesia.
Matters concerning the transfer of power, etc., will be carried out in a conscientious manner and as speedily as possible.
Jakarta, 17th day of 8th month, year 05 (note: Japanese calendar year)
In the name of the nation of Indonesia
>Soekarno - Hatta
* Ricklefs, M.C., 1981, "A History of modern Indonesia" Macmillan Southeast Asian Reprint, p198
* Lembaga Soekarno-Hatta, 1984 "Sejarah Lahirnya Undang Undang Dasar 1945 dan Pancasila", Inti Idayu Press, Jakarta, p19
* Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan,1991:52-53.
*cite book|author=Anderson, Ben|title=Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944-1946|year=1972|publisher=Cornell University Press|location=Ithaca, N.Y.|id=ISBN 0-8014-0687-0
* [http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1153/1126024158_e94ce6be16.jpg?v=0 Draft declaration] fact|date=August 2007
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