Pakatan Rakyat


Pakatan Rakyat

Infobox Political party
name_english = People's Alliance
name_native = Pakatan Rakyat

leader = Anwar Ibrahim, Lim Kit Siang, Abdul Hadi Awang
foundation = April 1, 2008
dissolution =
headquarters = Petaling Jaya, Malaysia (DAP & PKR)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (PAS)
membership_year =
membership =
ideology = Social Justice, Progressive, Social democracy, Social justice
national = Malaysia
international =
colors =
website =
footnotes =

Pakatan Rakyat or PR ( _en. People's Pact) was established on April 1, 2008. The political coalition comprises a group of Malaysian political parties, which are, the Democratic Action Party (DAP), the People's Justice Party (PKR) and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), who collectively worked together as the Barisan Rakyat (or People's Front) during the 12th Malaysian general election in 2008. In the 10th General Election, they composed the Barisan Alternatif to defeat Barisan Nasional. After failing to do so, the component parties broke up and formed a coalition again after the major turned out votes against the Barisan Nasional. Each political party in People's Pact has its own ideology; PKR promotes its ideals that revolves around social justice and anti-corruption themes, PAS with its aim to establish Malaysia as a nation based on Islamic legal theory and DAP with its secular, multi-racial, social democratic ideals.

Pakatan Rakyat is to be collectively led and managed, by all three parties and it pledges to uphold the rights and interests of all Malaysians. With the establishment of the Pakatan Rakyat coalition, State Governments of Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak, and Selangor are known as the Pakatan Rakyat state governments.

History

The Pakatan Rakyat is a maturing development of the concept, of Barisan Rakyat (English: People's Front), that was created during the election campaign of the 12th Malaysian general election in 2008. Barisan Rakyat was the banner and policy position document which a group of Malaysian opposition political parties (DAP, PKR, PAS, PSM, MDP and PASOK) endorsed and coalesced around for the 12th Malaysian general election in 2008.

The concept and ideals were conceived and developed by Malaysian human-rights lawyer and blogger Haris Ibrahim, and is based on a pledge to uphold egalitarian, transparent, and responsible governance, in service of the people (or "rakyat").

The unprecedented electoral successes of the Pakatan Rakyat in the 12th Malaysian general election, held on 8 March 2008, led to their forming state governments in five out of the 13 Malaysian states, and occupy 37% (82 out of 222) of the seats in the Federal Parliament. In view of this, the leaders of PKR, DAP and PAS decided to solidify and streamline the alliance by jointly announcing on 1 April 2008 the new banner, Pakatan Rakyat, under which these parties are to cooperate and govern based on a common set of policy positions and principles. It was also announced that the Leadership Council of the Pakatan Rakyat will consist of the leaders of the three parties, and a Joint Secretariat, consisting of three leaders each from each of the three parties, will develop the foundation and framework of the Pakatan Rakyat subject to the approval of the Leadership Council. [ [http://anwaribrahimblog.com/2008/04/01/pakatan-rakyat/ PKR "de-facto" leader Anwar Ibrahim's blog] ] This structure is in accordance with the consensus-based approach promulgated by the Pakatan Rakyat.

PKR, DAP and PAS have also won in the recent general elections 41, 73, and 86 seats, respectively, in the various state assemblies. On July 10, Opposition and PR leader Datin Wan Azizah submitted an urgent motion of "no-confidence" in Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, on behalf of the Pakatan Rakyat (PR) MPs. The reasons she cited were the narrow victory of Barisan Nasional in the March general election, the sudden fuel price hike, the marginalisation of PR-led states and the alleged oppression of BN MPs to voice up, had led to the confidence crisis against the prime minister. [ [http://www.malaysia-today.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9753&Itemid=1 Wan Azizah files emergency motion of "no confidence" in PM; Speaker to decide on Monday ] ]

On August 28, 2008, Anwar Ibrahim rejoined parliament on and was appointed leader of the Pakatan Rakyat, taking over the position from Datuk Wan Azizah. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20080828/wl_nm/malaysia_anwar_dc_19 Anwar rejoins Malaysia parliament, heads opposition] ]

Pakatan Rakyat's Component Parties and Leaders

Leader: Yang Berhormat Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim
*Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (Parti Islam Se-Malaysia, PAS)
**President: Yang Berhormat Dato' Seri Haji Abdul Hadi bin Awang
**Spiritual leader: Yang Amat Berhormat Tuan Guru Dato' Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat
*Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik, DAP)
**National chairman: Yang Berhormat Karpal Singh Ram Singh
*People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat, KeADILan @ PKR)
**President: Yang Berbahagia Datuk Seri Dr. Wan Azizah binti Wan Ismail

Members of Pakatan Rakyat's Shadow Cabinet

Pakatan Rakyat's Members of the 12th Parliament of Malaysia

Dewan Negara (Nation's Hall / Senate)

enators

*Kedah
**Muhammad Yusof bin Husin (PAS)

*Kelantan
**Puan Hajah Mumtaz Binti Md Nawi (PAS)


Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)

Members of Parliaments

* Kedah
** P7 - Padang Terap - Mohd Nasir Zakaria (PAS)
** P8 - Pokok Sena - Mahfuz Omar (PAS)
** P10 - Kuala Kedah - Ahmad Kasim (PKR)
** P11 - Pendang - Mohd Hayati Othman (PAS)
** P12 - Jerai - Mohd Firdaus Jaafar (PAS)
** P13 - Sik - Che Uda Che Nik (PAS)
** P14 - Merbok - Rashid Din (PKR)
** P15 - Sungai Petani - Johari Abdul (PKR)
** P16 - Baling - Taib Azamudden Md Taib (PAS)
** P17 - Padang Serai - N Gobalakrishnan (PKR)
** P18 - Kulim Bandar Baharu - Zulkifli Nordin (PKR)



">
Parliamentary results map of Malaysian general election 2008

* Kelantan
** P19 - Tumpat - Kamaruddin Jaafar (PAS)
** P20 - Pengkalan Chepa - Abdul Halim Abdul Rahman (PAS)
** P21 - Kota Bharu - Wan Abdul Rahim Wan Abdullah (PAS)
** P22 - Pasir Mas - Ibrahim Ali (PAS)
** P23 - Rantau Panjang - Siti Zailah Muhd Yusoff (PAS)
** P24 - Kubang Kerian - Salahuddin Ayub (PAS)
** P25 - Bachok - Nasharudin Mat Isa (PAS)
** P26 - Ketereh - Ab Aziz Ab Kadir (PKR)
** P27 - Tanah Merah - Amran Ab Ghani (PKR)
** P28 - Pasir Puteh - Muhammad Husin (PAS)
** P29 - Machang - Saifuddin Nasution Ismail (PKR)
** P31 - Kuala Kerai - Mohd Hatta Ramli (PAS)

* Terengganu
** P37 - Marang - Abdul Hadi Awang (PAS)

* Penang
** P44 - Permatang Pauh - Anwar Ibrahim (PKR)
** P47 - Nibong Tebal - Tan Tee Beng (PKR)
** P43 - Bagan - Lim Guan Eng (DAP)
** P45 - Bukit Mertajam - Chong Eng (DAP)
** P46 - Batu Kawan - Ramasamy Palanisamy (DAP)
** P48 - Bukit Bendera - Liew Chin Tong (DAP)
** P49 - Tanjong - Chow Kon Yeow (DAP)
** P50 - Jelutong - Ooi Chuan Aun (DAP)
** P51 - Bukit Gelugor - Karpal Singh Ram Singh (DAP)
** P52 - Bayan Baru - Zahrain Mohamed Hashim (PKR)
** P53 - Balik Pulau - Mohd Yusmadi Mohd Yusuff (PKR)

* Perak
** P57 - Parit Buntar - Mujahid Yusof Rawa (PAS)
** P58 - Bagan Serai - Mohsin Fadzli Samsuri (PKR)
** P59 - Bukit Gantang - Roslan Shaharum (PAS)
** P60 - Taiping - Nga Kor Ming (DAP)
** P62 - Sungai Siput - Michael Jeyakumar Devaraj (PKR; member of Socialist Party of Malaysia)
** P64 - Ipoh Timor - Lim Kit Siang (DAP)
** P65 - Ipoh Barat - M. Kulasegaran V. Murugeson (DAP)
** P66 - Batu Gajah - Fong Po Kuan (DAP)
** P68 - Beruas - Ngeh Koo Ham (DAP)
** P71 - Gopeng - Lee Boon Chye (PKR)
** P76 - Teluk Intan - M. Manogaran (DAP)

* Pahang
** P82 - Indera Mahkota - Azan Ismail (PKR)
** P83 - Kuantan - Fuziah Salleh (PKR)

* Selangor
** P94 - Hulu Selangor - Zainal Abidin Ahmad (PKR)
** P96 - Kuala Selangor - Dzulkefly Ahmad (PAS)
** P97 - Selayang - William Leong Jee Keen (PKR)
** P98 - Gombak - Mohamed Azmin Ali (PKR)
** P99 - Ampang - Zuraida Kamarudin (PKR)
** P101 - Hulu Langat - Che Rosli Bin Che Mat (PAS)
** P102 - Serdang - Teo Nie Ching (DAP)
** P103 - Puchong - Gobind Singh Deo (DAP)
** P104 - Kelana Jaya - Loh Gwo Burne (PKR)
** P105 - PJ Selatan - Hee Loy Sian (PKR)
** P106 - PJ Utara - Tony Pua Kiam Wee (DAP)
** P107 - Subang - Sivarasa Rasiah (PKR)
** P108 - Shah Alam - Khalid Abd Samad (PAS)
** P109 - Kapar - Manikavasagam a/l Sundaram (PKR)
** P110 - Klang - Charles Anthony Santiago (DAP)
** P111 - Kota Raja - Siti Mariah Mahmud (PAS)
** P112 - Kuala Langat - Abdullah Sani bin Abdul Hamid (PKR)

* Federal Territory
** P114 - Kepong - Tan Seng Giaw (DAP)
** P115 - Batu - Chua Tian Chang (PKR)
** P116 - Wangsa Maju - Wee Choo Keong (PKR)
** P117 - Segambut - Lim Lip Eng (DAP)
** P119 - Titiwangsa - Lo' Lo' Mohd Ghazali (PAS)
** P120 - Bukit Bintang - Fong Kui Lun (DAP)
** P121 - Lembah Pantai - Nurul Izzah Anwar (PKR)
** P122 - Seputeh - Teresa Kok Suh Sim (DAP)
** P123 - Cheras - Tan Kok Wai (DAP)
** P124 - Bandar Tun Razak - Abdul Khalid Ibrahim (PKR)

* Negeri Sembilan
** P128 - Seremban - John Fernandez (DAP)
** P130 - Rasah - Loke Siew Fook (DAP)
** P132 - Telok Kemang - Kamarul Bahrin Abbas (PKR)

* Melaka
** P138 - Kota Melaka - Sim Tong Him (DAP)

* Johor
** P145 - Bakri - Er Teck Hwa (DAP)

* Sabah
** P172 - Kota Kinabalu - Hiew King Chew (DAP)

* Sarawak
** P195 - Bandar Kuching - Chong Chieng Jen (DAP)

Pakatan Rakyat States & Chief Ministers

* Kedah
** Menteri Besar: Yang Amat Berhormat Datuk Seri Ustaz Azizan Abdul Razak
* Penang
** Chief Minister: Yang Amat Berhormat Tuan Lim Guan Eng
* Kelantan
** Menteri Besar: Yang Amat Berhormat Dato' Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat
* Perak
** Menteri Besar: Yang Amat Berhormat Dato' Seri Ir. Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin
* Selangor
** Menteri Besar: Yang Amat Berhormat Tan Sri Abdul Khalid Ibrahim

References

See also

* Malaysian general election, 2008
* Parliament of Malaysia
* State Seats Representatives elected 2008
*Barisan Alternatif


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