- Economic determinism
Economic determinism is the
theorywhich attributes primacy to the economicstructure over politics in the development of human history. It is usually associated with the theories of Karl Marx, although many Marxist thinkers have dismissed plain and unilateral economic determinismas a form of "vulgar Marxism", or " economism", nowhere included in Marx's works.
Economic determinism as understood by vulgar Marxism is the positivist belief that economical laws determine the course of history, in the same way that
Auguste Comteconsidered that laws governed society. The law of economic determinism attributed to Marx's historical materialismis simple: self-preservation is the supreme instinct in man, and therefore the whole pattern of human conduct must always have been governed by the fundamental laws governing survival, a dialectical process between man and nature (see co-evolution) Fact|date=February 2007. This reasoning leads to the conclusion that all elements of historical consequence result from 'economic determinism', or man's effort to survive.
Economic determinism's relation to Marxist philosophy
Marx, each social mode of productionproduces the material conditions of its reproduction, that is, ideology(which gathers all the political, law and cultural spheres). Thus, ideology permits the mode of production to reproduce itself. Furthermore, Marx and Engels are said to have believed Fact|date=July 2007, should a revolutionary force change the mode of production, the dominant class will immediately set out to create a new society to protect this new economic order. In the modernity of their era, Marx and Engels felt the property class had essentially accomplished the establishment of a new societal and economic order, instinctively creating a society protective of their capitalist interests. They made this statement to the Bourgeoisiein the Communist Manifesto: "Your very ideas are but the outgrowth of conditions of your bourgeois production and bourgeois property, just as your jurisprudenceis but the will of your class, made into law for all, a will whose essential character and direction are determined by the economic conditions of the existence of your class." [Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, "Communist Manifesto", pg 35] From this, it is argued that Marx and Engels did not believe men could arbitrarily choose any one of several forms of society, but only that one which promotes the prevailing mode of production. The very nature of man's materialisticmake-up requires him to do this. The young Marxhence criticized man's alienation, a concept which he later replaced by the critique of commodity fetishism. "Vulgar Marxism" has considered that the relation between the economical infrastructureand the ideological superstructurewas an unicausal one, and thus believed in economic determinism. This has been criticized by various Marxist theorists, who dismissed it as a form of economismor economic reductionism. They claimed the relationship is much more reciprocal and complex than unilateral determinism would have it.
Many Marxists claim that Marx and Engels viewed this law of 'economic determinism' as the creative force in human progress. Marx and Engels stated: "The final causes of all social changes and
political revolutionare to be sought, not in men's brains, not in man's insight into internal truthand justice... but in the economies of each epoch." [ Friedrich Engels, "Socialism -- Utopian and Scientific", pg 54] Therefore, they advocated a change in economic structure as the only valid way of improving society and refining the intellectualmake-up of humanity.
Criticism of the concept
Other Marxists and Marx-scholars - including
György Lukács, Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, Maurice Godelier, Franz Jakubowski, Edward P. Thompsonand Michael Lowy- completely reject the interpretation of Marx and Engels as "economic determinists". They claim this idea is based on a poor and selective reading of Marx and Engels' work.
They argue that this interpretation originated in the early years of the
Second Internationaland was popularised by Karl Kautskyand Nikolai Bukharin, among many others. They refer to the disclaimers by Friedrich Engels(see historical materialism) to the effect that while Marx and himself had focused a lot on the economic aspects, they were very aware that this did "not" in fact constitute the totality of society or of social life. However, some have viewed such comments as Engels's attempt to extricate himself from an untenable position.
Non-Marxist scholars have also objected that economic determinism is overly generalized, insofar as any serious historical explanation of "economic" realities must always refer to "non-economic" realities. This became obvious when one had to specify exactly what the economic determinism precisely consisted of. In addition, a lot of confusion about "economic determinism" is due to the conflation of the "commercial" with the "economic". For Marx at least, these were very "different" concepts.
The dynamic of history according to Marx was shaped precisely by the clash of those interests (
class struggle), and that clash "could not be understood" simply in terms of economic self-interest, because it also involved human needs, customs, traditions, morals and values encompassing a whole way of life. On the other hand, Lenin wrote that "an idea that captures the minds of the masses becomes a material force," meaning that the said needs, customs, traditions, morals and values can be equated to economic forces.
The end result of economic determinism in this view is both
economism(a narrow focus on how people earn their livelihood) and economic reductionism(the attempt to reduce a complex social reality to one factor [the economic] such that this one factor "causes" all other aspects of society). This, according to somewho plays directly into the hands of the business class, and ultimately ends in an "anti"-working class position, whereby the allegiance of the working class is just a "tool" to be used by the political class to modernise an economy, with the aid of forced labour, if need be.
* Skousen, W. Cleon "The Naked Communist", pg 33-42
*Helmut Fleischer, "Marxism and History". New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1973.
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