- John Horton Conway
Infobox_Scientist

name = John Horton Conway

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image_width = 300px

birth_date = birth date and age|1937|12|26|mf=y

birth_place =Liverpool ,Merseyside ,England

residence = U.S.

nationality = English

death_date =

death_place =

field =Mathematician

work_institutions =Princeton University

alma_mater =University of Cambridge

doctoral_advisor =Harold Davenport

doctoral_students =Richard Borcherds

Robert Wilson

known_for = Game of life ,Look-and-say sequence

prizes = Polya Prize (1987),Nemmers Prize in Mathematics (1998)

religion =

footnotes =**John Horton Conway**(bornDecember 26 ,1937 ,Liverpool ,England ) is a prolific mathematician active in the theory of finite groups,knot theory ,number theory ,combinatorial game theory andcoding theory . He has also contributed to many branches ofrecreational mathematics , notably the invention of the Game of Life (thecellular automaton , not theboard game ).Conway is currently professor of mathematics at

Princeton University . He studied at Cambridge, where he started research underHarold Davenport . He has anErdős number of one. He received the Berwick Prize (1971) [*[*] , was elected a*http://www.lms.ac.uk/activities/prizes_com/pastwinners.html#berwick LMS Prizewinners*]Fellow of the Royal Society (1981) [*[*] , and was the first recipient of the*http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/page.asp?id=1727 List of Royal Society Fellows*]Pólya Prize (LMS) (1987). [*[*]*http://www.lms.ac.uk/activities/prizes_com/pastwinners.html#berwick LMS Prizewinners*]**Biography**Conway's parents were Agnes Boyce and Cyril Horton Conway. John had two older sisters, Sylvia and Joan. Cyril Conway was a chemistry laboratory assistant. John became interested in mathematics at a very early age and his mother Agnes recalled that he could recite the powers of two when aged four years. John's young years were difficult for he grew up in Britain at a time of wartime shortages. At primary school John was outstanding and he topped almost every class. At the age of eleven his ambition was to become a mathematician.

After leaving secondary school, Conway entered

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge to study mathematics. He was awarded his BA in 1959 and began to undertake research in number theory supervised byHarold Davenport . Having solved the open problem posed by Davenport on writing numbers as the sums of fifth powers, Conway began to become interested in infinite ordinals. It appears that his interest in games began during his years studying at Cambridge, where he became an avid backgammon player spending hours playing the game in the common room. He was awarded his doctorate in 1964 and was appointed as Lecturer in Study at theUniversity of Cambridge .He left Cambridge in 1986 to take up the appointment to the

John von Neumann Chair of Mathematics atPrinceton University . He is also a regular visitor atMathcamp andMathPath [*http://www.mathpath.org*] , summer math programs for high schoolers and middle schoolers, respectively.Conway resides in Princeton, New Jersey, United States with his wife and youngest son. He has six other children from his two previous marriages, three grandchildren, and two great-grandchildren.Fact confirmed by wife.

**Game theory**Among amateur mathematicians, he is perhaps most widely known for his contributions to

combinatorial game theory , a theory ofpartisan game s. This he developed withElwyn Berlekamp andRichard Guy .He is also one of the inventors of sprouts, as well as philosopher's football. He developed detailed analyses of many other games and puzzles, such as the

Soma cube ,peg solitaire , andConway's soldiers . He came up with the Angel problem, which was solved in 2006.He invented a new system of numbers, the

surreal numbers , which are closely related to certain games and have been the subject of a mathematical novel byDonald Knuth . He also invented a nomenclature for exceedinglylarge number s, theConway chained arrow notation .He is also known for the invention of the Game of Life, one of the early and still celebrated examples of a

cellular automaton .**Geometry**In the mid-1960s with Michael Guy, son of

Richard Guy , he established that there are sixty-four convex uniform polychora excluding two infinite sets of prismatic forms. Conway has also suggested a system of notation dedicated to describingpolyhedra calledConway polyhedron notation .**Geometric topology**Conway's approach to computing the

Alexander polynomial of knot theory involvedskein relation s, by a variant now called the Alexander-Conway polynomial. After lying dormant for more than a decade, this concept became central to work in the 1980s on the novelknot polynomial s. Conway further developedtangle theory and invented a system of notation for tabulating knots, while completing the knot tables up to 10 crossings.**Group theory**He worked on the

classification of finite simple groups and discovered theConway group s. He was the primary author of the "Atlas of Finite Groups" giving properties of many finite simple groups. He with collaborators constructed the first concrete representations of some of thesporadic group s.With

Simon Norton he formulated the complex of conjectures relating themonster group withmodular function s, which was christenedmonstrous moonshine by them.**Number Theory**He proved the conjecture by

Edward Waring that every integer could be written as the sum of 37 numbers, each raised to the fifth power.**Algebra**He has also done work in algebra particularly with

quaternion s.**Algorithmics**For

calculating the day of the week , he invented theDoomsday algorithm . The algorithm is simple enough for anyone with basic arithmetic ability to do the calculations mentally. Conway can usually give the correct answer in under two seconds. To improve his speed, he practices his calendrical calculations on his computer, which is programmed to quiz him with random dates every time he logs on. One of his early books was onfinite state machine s.**Theoretical physics**In 2004, Conway and

Simon Kochen , another Princeton mathematician, proved theFree will theorem , a startling version of the No Hidden Variables principle ofQuantum Mechanics . It states that given certain conditions, if an experimenter can freely decide what quantities to measure in a particular experiment, then elementary particles must be free to choose their spins in order to make the measurements consistent with physical law. In Conway's provocative wording: "if experimenters havefree will , then so do elementary particles".**Books**He has (co-)written several books including the "Atlas of Finite Groups", "Regular Algebra and Finite Machines", "Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups", "The Sensual (Quadratic) Form", "

On Numbers and Games ", "Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays ", "The Book of Numbers", and "On Quaternions and Octonions". He is currently finishing "The Triangle Book" written with the late Steve Sigur, math teacher at Paideia School in Atlanta Georgia, and in summer 2008 published"The Symmetries of Things" withChaim Goodman-Strauss and Heidi Burgiel.**ee also**

*Conway polyhedron notation

*Conway's LUX method for magic squares

*Orbifold notation

*Conway chained arrow notation

*Conway's Game of Life

*Conway's soldiers

*Phutball

*Pinwheel tiling

*Look-and-say sequence

*15 theorem

*Conway's thrackle conjecture

*Conway base 13 function **References****References and external links*** by O'Connor and Robertson

* Charles Seife, [*http://www.users.cloud9.net/~cgseife/conway.html "Impressions of Conway"*] , The Sciences

* Mark Alpert, "Not Just Fun and Games", "Scientific American" April 1999. ( [*http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=0000FFD8-61FF-1C70-84A9809EC588EF21&catID=2 official online version*] ; [*http://www.cpdee.ufmg.br/~seixas/PaginaATR/Download/DownloadFiles/NotJustFunAndGames.PDF registration-free online version*] )

* Jasvir Nagra, "Conway's Proof Of The Free Will Theorem" [*http://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/~jas/one/freewill-theorem.html*]

* Conway, J. H.; Curtis, R. T.; Norton, S. P.; Parker, R. A.; and Wilson, R. A.: "Atlas of Finite Groups: Maximal Subgroups and Ordinary Characters for Simple Groups." Oxford, England 1985.

*

* [*http://www.math.dartmouth.edu/~doyle/docs/conway/conway Video*] of Conway leading a tour of brickwork patterns in Princeton, lecturing on the ordinals, and lecturing on sums of powers and Bernoulli numbers.

* [*http://www.adeptis.ru/vinci/m_part3_3.html Photos of John Horton Conway*]

* "The Triangle Book", [*http://www.amazon.com/dp/1568811659*]

* John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, "The Symmetry of Things" 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 [*http://www.akpeters.com/product.asp?ProdCode=2205*]

*Margaret Boden , Mind As Machine,Oxford University Press , 2006, p. 1271

*Marcus du Sautoy , Symmetry, HarperCollins, 2008, p.308Persondata

NAME= Conway, John Horton

ALTERNATIVE NAMES=

SHORT DESCRIPTION=Mathematician

DATE OF BIRTH= birth date|1937|12|26|mf=y

PLACE OF BIRTH=Liverpool ,England

DATE OF DEATH=

PLACE OF DEATH=

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**John Horton Conway**— (* 26. Dezember 1937 in Liverpool) ist ein englischer Mathematiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und W … Deutsch Wikipedia**John Horton Conway**— Pour les articles homonymes, voir Conway. John Horton Conway John Horton Conway en 2005 Naissance 26& … Wikipédia en Français**John H. Conway**— John Horton Conway John Horton Conway (* 26. Dezember 1937 in Liverpool) ist ein englischer Mathematiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und Wirken 2 … Deutsch Wikipedia**John H. Conway**— John Horton Conway Pour les articles homonymes, voir Conway. John Horton Conway John Horton Conway (26 décembre … Wikipédia en Français**Conway , John Horton**— (1937–) British mathematician Born in Liverpool, Conway was educated at Cambridge where he obtained his PhD in 1964. He was appointed professor of mathematics at Cambridge in 1983. In 1988 he moved to America to become John von Neumann Professor… … Scientists**John Conway**— John Horton Conway Pour les articles homonymes, voir Conway. John Horton Conway John Horton Conway (26 décembre … Wikipédia en Français**Conway's Game of Life**— Conway game , which redirects to here, can also refer to games as defined by surreal numbers, which John Conway also developed … Wikipedia**Conway**— may refer to: Contents 1 People 1.1 Surname 1.2 Given name 1.3 … Wikipedia**John Conway**— John Horton Conway Nacimiento … Wikipedia Español**Conway**— ist der Name folgender Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Conway (Arkansas) Conway (Florida) Conway (Iowa) Conway (Kansas) Conway (Kentucky) Conway (Louisiana) Conway (Massachusetts) Conway (Michigan) Conway (Mississippi) Conway (Missouri) Conway… … Deutsch Wikipedia