Infobox Former Country
native_name = سلسله امرای چوپانی
conventional_long_name = Amir Chupani
common_name = Chupanids
continent = moved from Category:Asia to the Middle East
region = the Middle East
status = Empire
government_type = Monarchy
year_start = 1335
year_end = 1357
p1 = Ilkhanate
s1 = Golden Horde
image_map_caption = Division of Ilkhanate territory
capital = TabrizThe Chupanids, also known as the Süldüz or the Chobanids (سلسله امرای چوپانی, "Amir Chupani"), were descendants of a
Mongolfamily that came to prominence in 14th centuryPersia. [Ta'rīkh-i Shaikh Uwais: History of Shaikh Uwais - by Abū Bakr al-Quṭbī Aharī, Abu Bakr al Qutbi al-Ahri, Johannes Baptist van Loon] At first serving under the Ilkhans, they took "de facto" control of the territory after the fall of the Ilkhanate. The Chupanids made Arran( Azerbaijan) their stronghold, while the Jalayirids took control in Baghdad. [ [http://search.eb.com/eb/article-22890 Encyclopædia Britannica] ]
The early Chupanids were members of the Soldus tribe. Sorgan Sira, one of the first important Chupanids, served
Genghis Khanduring the latter's rise to power. Later on, the Chupanids came to live under the authority of the Ilkhanate. A descendent of Sorgan Sira, Amir Tuda'un, was killed in 1277fighting against the Mamluks at the battle of Eblistan. He left a son, Malek, who in turn fathered Amir Chupan, the namesake of the Chupanids.
Amir Chupan and his Sons
During the early
1300s, Amir Chupan served under three successive Ilkhans, beginning with Ghazan Mahmud. A military commander of note, Chupan quickly gained a degree of influence over the Ilkhans and married several members of the line of Hulagu Khan. His power fueled resentment among the nobility, who conspired against him in 1319but failed. The Ilkhan Abu Sa'id, however, also disliked Chupan's influence and successfully eliminated him from court. He fled in 1327to Herat, where the Kartidsexecuted him. Several of his sons fled to the Golden Hordeor the Mamluks of Egypt while others were killed.
The Chupanids were not completely wiped out from Persia. A daughter of Chupan's, Baghdad Katun, had caught the eye of Abu Sa'id. During Chupan's lifetime, she had been married to
Hasan Buzurg, the future founder of the Jalayirids, but after Chupan fled Hasan Buzurg divorced her, and she married Abu Sa'id. She quickly gained influence over the Ilkhan and exercised the wide powers given to her. She was alleged (but never proven) to have been involved in any conspiracies against the Ilkhan, but was believed by some to have caused Abu Sa'id's death in 1335. Abu Sa'id's successor Arpa Ke'unexecuted her.
Role During the Fall of the Ilkhnate, and Hasan-i Kuchak
Arpa Ke'un's position proved to be weak; when a granddaughter of Chupan,
Delsad Katun, fled to Diyarbakr, it caused the governor of that region to attack and defeat the Ilkhan. During the strife that occurred in the next few years, individual members of the Chupanids sided with various factions, such as Arpa or Hasan Buzurg. The latter ended up marrying Delsad Katun, who provided for the heirs to the Jalayirid position.
While the Jalayirids were consolidating their position in
Iraq, however, other Chupanid were also busy. Hasan Kucek, a grandson of Chupan, rallied much of the Chupanid family to his side and defeated the Jalayirids in 1338, paving the way for a Chupanid realm in the area around Tabriz. That same year, he elevated Sati Beg, sister of Abu Sa'id and widow of Chupan, to the Ilkhanid throne. To keep Sati Beg in check, he forced her to marry his puppet Suleiman Khan. Hasan Kucek continued to fight the Jalayirids (a fight which was further complicated by the incursions made by Togha Temurof Khurasan), but family infighting proved to be the most difficult challenge. Several members defected to the Jalayirids; in any case, Hasan Kucek was forced to deal with them up until his death in 1343.
Malek Ashraf and the Chupanid decline
A power struggle quickly emerged after Hasan Kucek's death. During the dispute, Hasan Kucek's brother Malek Asraf gained the upper hand and eliminated his uncles. By the end of
1344, Malek Asraf had gained effective control of the Chupanid lands. Like his predecessor, Malek Asraf used puppet monarchs from behind which he ruled. During his reign, the Chupanid attempted to capture Baghdadfrom the Jalayirids in 1347but failed miserably. He also failed to seize Farsfrom the Injuidsin 1350. As his reign wore on, Malek Asraf became more and more cruel, prompting widespread dissatisfaction amongst his subjects. When forces of the Golden Horde overran the Chupanid realm and captured Tabriz in 1357, few lamented the loss of power by the Chupanids. Malek Asraf was executed, and his family brought north to the Golden Horde. Malek Asraf's offspring were eventually killed off in Persia, bringing a definitive end to the Chupanids as a power.
Modern descendents of the Chupanids in
Irantoday share the dynastic surname "Amir Chupani" and are primarily found in the Khorasanprovinces, especially in the area of Mashhad.
*Charles Melville and Abbas Zaryab [http://www.iranica.com/articles/search/searchpdf.isc?ReqStrPDFPath=/home1/iranica/articles/v5_articles/chobanids&OptStrLogFile=/home/iranica/public_html/logs/pdfdownload.html]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Hassan (Chupanids) — Amir Hasan was a Chupanid prince of the Ilkhanate in the early 14th century. He was the first son of Chupan.Hasan had been made viceroy of Khurasan and Mazandaran during his father s lifetime. When Coban fled to Herat and was subsequently… … Wikipedia
List of kings of Persia — History of Greater Iran until the rise of modern nation states Pre modern … Wikipedia
Chobanides — Chupanides Les Chupanides, Chobanides ou Tchupanides aussi connus sous le nom de Suldus (Süldüz, Soldus), sont les descendants d un émir mongol nommé Chupan, qui ont pris de l importance au XIVe siècle en Perse … Wikipédia en Français
Chupanides — Dynastie des Chupanides سلسله امرای چوپانی (fa) 1336 – 1357 Division de l empire des … Wikipédia en Français
Iraq — /i rak , i rahk /, n. a republic in SW Asia, N of Saudi Arabia and W of Iran, centering in the Tigris Euphrates basin of Mesopotamia. 22,219,289; 172,000 sq. mi. (445,480 sq. km). Cap.: Baghdad. Also, Irak. * * * Iraq Introduction Iraq Background … Universalium
Chobanids — سلسله امرای چوپانی ← 1335–1357 … Wikipedia
Muslim dynasties of Iran — This is a list of kings of Persia of the medieval Islamic period, AD 820 to 1432, arranged genealogically. For the early Islamic period before 820, see: Rashidun Caliphate: Umar (634 644), Usman (644 656), Ali (656 661) Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750 … Wikipedia
List of Azerbaijan-related articles — Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to the Azerbaijan Republic include:#26 Baku Commissars 26 Commissars Memorial 1842 Baku earthquake 2000 Baku earthquakeA.az Abbasgulu Bakikhanov Abdulla Shaig Abdurahman Fatalibeyli Abülfaz Elçibay… … Wikipedia
Borjigin — Altan urag redirects here. For the folk rock band, see Altan Urag. Borjigin Боржигин Country Mongolia Titles Khagan, Khan Founder Bodonchar Munkhag Final sovereign Ligden Khan Current head Unknown … Wikipedia
Abu Sa'id (Ilkhanid dynasty) — Abu Sa id (June 2, 1305, Ujan ndash; December 1, 1335) also Abusaid Bahador Khan, Abu Sayed Behauder), was the ninth ruler of the Ilkhanate state in Iran (1316 1335).In 1306, after defeating the Golden Horde army, the Mongols gave him, then… … Wikipedia