Vindomora

Vindomora

Vindomora (or Ebchester Roman Fort) was an auxiliary castra on Dere Street, in the Roman province of Britannia Inferior (Upper Britain - The Romans judged distances by proximity to Rome, therefore north england is "inferior" as it is farther away). Its ruins are located at Ebchester (gbmapping|NZ1055) in the civil parish of Derwentside in the English county of Durham, situated to the north of Consett and 19 kilometers (twelve miles) west-south-west from Newcastle. [ [http://www.joinermarriageindex.com/pjoiner/genuki/DUR/Ebchester/index.html GENUKI - Ebchester ] ]

History

Vindomora is situated in between the forts of Corstopitum (Corbridge) and Bywell to the north/west north, and Longovicium (Lanchester) to the south. It is located on Dere Street, the main Roman road linking Eboracum (York) with Hadrian's Wall and its surrounding areas. Its position also protected the river Derwent. It is about 20 kilometers (13 miles) south of Hadrian's wall, and was built at the foot of a long descent, sloping towards the north, scattered along the edge of a still deeper declivity, which overhangs the green low-lying meadow of the river valley of the Derwent. [ [http://www.northeasthistory.co.uk/the_north_east/history/romans/sites/index.html North East History ] ]

The name Vindomora, signifies in Latin "The edge of the Black Moor.", or "End of the Hill". When the Romans had departed from the land, it received the name it now bears which is identical with "Upchester", and signifies "The Camp on the Height. The main road through Ebchester is appropriately named Vindomora road." [ [http://www.roman-britain.org/places/vindomora.htm Vindomora ] ] The fort is only mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary

Little remains to be seen of the fort as the town of Ebchester was built directly on top of the fort, unlike the successors of many other roman towns which are generally situated at a little distance from the ancient sites. Ebchester, however, stands right upon the old site, and Roman ramparts, Roman altars, and Roman remains of all kinds are mingles in singular confusion with the gardens, cottages, roads, and St.Ebba's Church. Immediately after the Roman departure, the area was reoccupied by woodland. [ [http://pastscape.english-heritage.org.uk/events.aspx?a=0&hob_id=22536&pnt=y EBCHESTER ROMAN FORT , Investigation History ] ] Parts of the rampart are still visible near the post office, and some excavated ruins. Despite this, a few legionary building stones and small altars have been recovered, enabling archaeologists to identify which units garrisoned the fort. [ [http://pastscape.english-heritage.org.uk/events.aspx?a=0&hob_id=22536&pnt=y EBCHESTER ROMAN FORT , Investigation History ] ]

It is postulated there would be a road from Vindomora to Washing Wells (Wickham, Tyne and Wear), but this remains to be discovered. Also, recent discoveries at Bywell by Raymond Selkirk seem to suggest that Dere Street carried on to Bywell, and not to Corstopitum (Corbridge) as previously thought. Another road left to Whittonstall to the north-west and then possibly either to Corbridge (the path previously assumed to be Dere Street) or Hexham (Which possibly contained a fort). Other finds at Cong Burn near Concangis (Chester-le-Street) to the east suggest these two forts were also linked by a road and bridge over the Cong Burn.

Gods worshipped included a typical mixture found at Auxiliary forts of classical Roman and Germanic/Celt Gods. Two altars name the ancient Germanic ancestor-god Vitiris, and one altar to a 'Genius Locii', a sort of presiding spirit in the local area. [Reed, A.H. and Maxfield, V. 1973. 'Vindomara, Roman Fort' Council for British Archaeolgoy Group 3 Bulletin 4, 6-8] . Roman war deities Mars and Minerva were also worshipped. A Vernostonus Cocidius was apparently a conflation of two Germanic war Gods.

Garrison

Legionary stones recovered identify a Fifth Cohort as building the fort, but unfortunately give no clue as to the parent legion. This however cannot be taken as evidence of occupation because all Roman auxiliary forts were actually built by the highly-trained legionaries, and not entrusted to the peregrine auxiliary soldiers who were to garrison the completed camp. [ [http://www.roman-britain.org/places/vindomora.htm Vindomora ] ] The stones also identify the names of Centurions responsible for the construction work, and later restoration work done by auxiliary regiments at the time of the Scottish campaigns by emperor Severus. [ [http://www.roman-britain.org/places/vindomora.htm Vindomora ] ]

The first unit proven to garrison Ebchester is the Cohors Quartae Breucorum Antoninianae (The Fourth Cohort of the Breuci: Antonine's Own), identified from an early 3rd century altar. They were a nominally five-hundred strong infantry regiment, although usually the number was around 460 or lower. This Auxilia unit was originally levied from amongst the Breuci tribe of Pannonia Inferior, natives of the Bosna valley in north-eastern Bosnia-Herzegovina. This unit was also possibly present at Lavatris (Bowes, Durham), but the inscription is too damaged to read accurately.

ee also

*Roman engineering
*Roman military engineering
*Dere Street
*Roman sites in the United Kingdom
*Castra

References

External links

* [http://www.roman-britain.org/places/vindomora.htm Details of fort]
* [http://www.durham.gov.uk/durhamcc/K2P.nsf/K2PDetail?readform&PRN=D1911 Keys to the past]
* [http://www.joinermarriageindex.com/pjoiner/genuki/DUR/Ebchester/index.html General Information]
* [http://pastscape.english-heritage.org.uk/events.aspx?a=0&hob_id=22536&pnt=y Excavation History]

Further reading

*Reed, Harper & Dodds, 1964. ' Excavations at Echester in 1962-3' Archaeologia Aeliana (4th Series) 32, 173-185
*Reed, A.H. and Maxfield, V. 1973. 'Vindomara, Roman Fort' Council for British Archaeolgoy Group 3 Bulletin 4, 6-8
*Reed, A.H. Vindomora; The Roman Fort At Ebchester Village (Ebchester)


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Vindomora — Vindomora, Ort der Briganter in Britannia; j. Ebchester …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • VINDOMORA — oppid. Albionis in Anglia Boreali inter Vallum 29. et Cataractonum 40. milliar. in Northumbriâ. Wallsend Camdeno. Oppidum fuit Ottadinorum, Baudrand. nunc viculus 3. milliar. a Novo Castro in Occidentem in Northumbria, in ipso limite Dioeceseos… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Dere Street — Route of Dere Street in blue Route information Length: 226 mi (364 km) [146 mi (235 km) Eboracum to …   Wikipedia

  • Concangis — Coordinates: 54°51′24″N 1°34′20″W / 54.85659°N 1.572263°W / 54.85659; 1.572263 …   Wikipedia

  • Hadrian's Wall — This article is about the fortification in Northern England. For the Broad Wall of Jerusalem, see Broad Wall (Jerusalem). Coordinates: 55°01′27″N 2°17′33″W / 55.02417°N 2 …   Wikipedia

  • Vindolanda — 54° 59′ 25″ N 2° 22′ 02″ W / 54.9902, 2.3671 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Banna (Birdoswald) — Banna Les ruines du fort de Birdoswald. Lieu Birdoswald  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Fort romain de Bewcastle — Fanum Cocidi Remparts du fort romain de Bewcastle. Type d’ouvrage …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vindolanda — Chesterholm, Northumberland, England Military bathhouse at Vindolanda …   Wikipedia

  • Ebchester — is a village in County Durham, in England. It is situated to the north of Consett and to the south east of Whittonstall.The parish church, which is dedicated to St. Ebba is of ambiguous origin, being of partly Norman construction with a… …   Wikipedia


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