- Canadian cultural protectionism
Cultural protectionism in Canada has, since the mid-20th century, taken the form of conscious, interventionist attempts on the part of various Canadian governments to promote Canadian cultural production and limit the effect of foreign, largely American, culture on the domestic audience. Sharing a large border and (for the majority) a common language with the
United States, Canada faces a difficult position in regard to American culture, be it direct attempts at the Canadian market or the general diffusion of American culture in the globalized media arena. While Canada tries to maintain its cultural sovereignty, it also must balance this with responsibility in trade arrangements such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT) and the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA).
Studies and recommendations
Pierre Trudeauexpressed the sentiment many Canadians feel about living with the United States: "Living next to you is in some ways like sleeping with an elephant. No matter how friendly or temperate the beast, one is affected by every twitch and grunt."
One of the first such responses to perceived American cultural invasion was through the National Film Act of 1950 that strengthened the
National Film Board. Its purpose was to help promote Canadian films and give money to projects that would help promote Canadian culture.
Royal Commission on National Development in the Arts, Letters and Sciences, also known as the Massey Commission, advocated the creation of a government sponsored organization that would distribute grants to Canadian artists. This organization, named the Canada Council, helps distribute large sums of money in hopes of promoting Canadian culture. The Council had a greater impact than its parent, and continues to support emerging Canadian cultural talent through grants and other support.
The Massey Commission also foregrounded a general sense that Canada risks being swamped by an invasion of foreign culture, most notably that of the United States. This led to an increased fear that Canada might well lose a distinct, national culture.
In 1955, with this fear in mind, the government appointed Robert Fowler to chair a Royal Commission that is known as the
Fowler Commission. The Fowler Commission reported that the majority of Canadian stations, including the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, used not Canadian material, but American. It was the Commission's belief that a quota system should be enacted to protect Canadian content on the airwaves.
This recommendation, passed in 1956, shaped Canadian media significantly. It affirmed the CBC as Canada's official broadcasting station and, more importantly, it initiated the
quotasystem. In its inception, the quota system said that 45% of all content broadcast on the airwaves must be Canadian in origin. While this number has fluctuated over the years, it has generally required that approximately half of all programming on Canadian airwaves be Canadian in origin. However, Canadian contentincludes not only arts and drama, but news and sports, and most private broadcast networks skew towards the latter rather than the former, to allow for large quantities of foreign dramas. To the dismay of many Canadians, this leaves more "culturally" oriented Canadian programming off the major-network airwaves.
This reformation of the Canadian airwaves, according to some, did not have the desired impact on Canadians. T. B. Symons, shortly after the Fowler report's installation in Canadian law, released a report entitled "To Know Ourselves". The report looked at Canadian high-school history books and found that while the
Winnipeg General Strikewent without mention, the books contained two chapters on Abraham Lincoln. The report also looked at Canadian children's general knowledge of their government and most could not identify the Canadian head of state (Queen Elizabeth II) and the basis for Canada's law and founding (the British North America Act 1867).
This cultural protectionism by the Canadian government has raised the hackles of certain companies, specifically "
Reader's Digest" and "Time" magazines. In 1998, American magazines like "Sports Illustrated" and "Time Magazine" successfully pressured the Canadian government under World Trade Organization(WTO) and threatened a NAFTA lawsuit to stop the outlaw of "split run" magazines; in other words, to allow "Canadian editions" of an American magazine, rather than mandating the creation of uniquely Canadian magazines. [ [http://www.canadians.org/media/trade/1998/18-Nov-98.html Time Magazine’s Threatened Lawsuit Under NAFTA Blackmail, says Council of Canadians] . Council of Canadians. November 18, 1998. ] [ [http://www.pch.gc.ca/newsroom/index_e.cfm?fuseaction=displayDocument&DocIDCd=8NR064 New Advertising Services Measure to Promote Canadian Culture] (includes timeline of events). Heritage Canada. July 29, 1998. ] [ [http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=M1ARTM0011067 WTO Rules Against Canada's Magazine Policy] . Maclean's. January 27, 1997.]
Culture of Canada
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