John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill

region = Western Philosophy
era = 19th-century philosophy
color = #B0C4DE

image_caption = John Stuart Mill
name = John Stuart Mill
birth = 20 May 1806
Pentonville, London, England
death = 8 May 1873
Avignon, France
school_tradition = Empiricism, utilitarianism, liberalism
main_interests = Political philosophy, ethics, economics, inductive logic
influences = Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Hobbes, Locke, Bentham, Smith, Ricardo, Tocqueville, Coleridge, James Mill, Francis Place, Saint-Simon (Utopian Socialists) [cite journal|author=Friedrich Hayek|title=The Counter-Revolution of Science|year=1941|journal=Economica|volume=8|issue=31|pages=281–320|doi=10.2307/2549335]
influenced = Many philosophers after him, including William James, John Rawls, Robert Nozick, Bertrand Russell, Karl Popper, Ronald Dworkin, H.L.A. Hart, Peter Singer, Wilhelm Dilthey, Paul Feyerabend, John Maynard Keynes, Will Kymlicka
notable_ideas = public/private sphere, hierarchy of pleasures in Utilitarianism, liberalism, early liberal feminism, first system of inductive logic

John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. He was an exponent of utilitarianism, an ethical theory developed by Jeremy Bentham, although his conception of it was very different from Bentham's.


John Stuart Mill was born in the Pentonville area of London, the eldest son of the Scottish philosopher and historian James Mill. John Stuart was educated by his father, with the advice and assistance of Jeremy Bentham and Francis Place. He was given an extremely rigorous upbringing, and was deliberately shielded from association with children his own age other than his siblings. His father, a follower of Bentham and an adherent of associationism, had as his explicit aim to create a genius intellect that would carry on the cause of utilitarianism and its implementation after he and Bentham were dead.

Mill was a notably precocious child; at the age of three he was taught Greek. By the age of eight he had read Aesop's "Fables", Xenophon's "Anabasis," and the whole of Herodotus, and was acquainted with Lucian, Diogenes Laërtius, Isocrates and six dialogues of Plato. He had also read a great deal of history in English and had been taught arithmetic.

At the age of eight he began learning Latin, Euclid, and algebra, and was appointed schoolmaster to the younger children of the family. His main reading was still history, but he went through all the Latin and Greek authors commonly read in the schools and universities at the time, such as Horace, Virgil, Ovid, Tacitus, Homer, Dionysus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes and Thucydides. By the age of ten he could read Plato and Demosthenes with ease. His father also thought that it was important for Mill to study and compose poetry. One of Mill's earliest poetry compositions was a continuation of the Iliad. In his spare time, he also enjoyed reading about natural sciences and popular novels, such as "Don Quixote" and "Robinson Crusoe".

His father's "History of India" was published in 1818; immediately thereafter, about the age of twelve, Mill began a thorough study of the scholastic logic, at the same time reading Aristotle's logical treatises in the original language. In the following year he was introduced to political economy and studied Adam Smith and David Ricardo with his father - ultimately completing their classical economic view of factors of production. Mill's "comptes rendus" of his daily economy lessons helped his father in writing "Elements of Political Economy", which became the leading textbook exposition of doctrinaire Ricardian economics. Ricardo, who was a close friend of his father, used to invite the young Mill to his house for a walk in order to talk about political economy.

In his "Autobiography", Mill described his father's teaching methods:

At the age of fourteen, Mill stayed for one year in France, with the family of Sir Samuel Bentham, brother of Jeremy Bentham. The mountain scenery he saw in France made the deepest impression on him, which led to a lifelong taste for mountain landscapes. The lively and friendly way of life of the French also left a deep impression on him. In Montpellier, he attended the winter courses on chemistry, zoology, logic of the "Faculté des Sciences", as well as taking a course of the higher mathematics with a private professor. While coming and going from France, he stayed in Paris for a few days in the house of the renowned economist Jean-Baptiste Say, who was a friend of Mill's father. There he met many leaders of the Liberal party, as well as other notable Parisiens, including Henri Saint-Simon.

A contemporary record of Mill's studies from eight to thirteen is published in Bain's sketch of his life. It suggests that his autobiography rather understates the amount of work done.

This intensive study however had injurious effects on Mill's mental health, and state of mind. At the age of twenty [Mill, J.S. "Autobiography", Part V (1873).] he suffered a nervous breakdown. As explained in chapter V of his "Autobiography", this was caused by the great physical and mental arduousness of his studies which had suppressed any feelings he might have developed normally in childhood. Nevertheless, this depression eventually began to dissipate, as he began to find solace in the "Mémoires" of Jean-François Marmontel and the poetry of William Wordsworth - his capacity for emotion resurfaced - Mill remarking that the "cloud gradually drew off".

Mill refused to study at Oxford University or Cambridge University, because he refused to take Anglican orders from the "white devil".Capaldi, Nicholas. "John Stuart Mill: A Biography." p.33, Cambridge, 2004, ISBN 0-521-62024-4.] Instead he followed his father to work for the British East India Company until 1858. In 1851, Mill married Harriet Taylor after 21 years of an intimate friendship. Taylor was married when they met, and their relationship was close but chaste during the years before her first husband died. Brilliant in her own right, Taylor was a significant influence on Mill's work and ideas during both friendship and marriage. His relationship with Harriet Taylor reinforced Mill's advocacy of women's rights. He cites her influence in his final revision of "On Liberty", which was published shortly after her death, and she appears to be obliquely referenced in "The Subjection of Women". Taylor died in 1858 after developing severe lung congestion, only seven years into her marriage to Mill.

Between the years 1865-1868 Mill served as Lord Rector of the University of St. Andrews, where he gave an inaugural speech on the value of culture. During the same period, 1865-8, he was a Member of Parliament for City and WestminsterIbid. p.321-322] , and was often associated with the Liberal Party. During his time as an MP, Mill advocated easing the burdens on Ireland, and became the first person in Parliament to call for women to be given the right to vote. Mill became a strong advocate of women's rights and such political and social reforms as proportional representation, labor unions, and farm cooperatives. In 1869, he argued for the right of women to vote. In "Considerations on Representative Government", Mill called for various reforms of Parliament and voting, especially proportional representation, the Single Transferable Vote, and the extension of suffrage. He was godfather to Bertrand Russell.

He died in Avignon, France in 1873. Five people came to his burial. Mill is buried alongside his wife.


Theory of liberty

Mill's "On Liberty" addresses the nature and limits of the power that can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual. One argument that Mill develops further than any previous philosopher is the harm principle. The harm principle holds that each individual has the right to act as he wants, so long as these actions do not harm others. If the action is self-regarding, that is, if it only directly affects the person undertaking the action, then society has no right to intervene, even if it feels the actor is harming himself. Mill excuses those who are "incapable of self-government" from this principle, such as young children or those living in "backward states of society". It is important to emphasize that Mill did not consider giving offense to constitute "harm"; an action could not be restricted because it violated the conventions or morals of a given society. The idea of 'offense' causing harm and thus being restricted was later developed by Joel Feinberg in his 'offense principle' essentially an extension of J.S.Mill's 'harm principle'.

"On Liberty" involves an impassioned defense of free speech. Mill argues that free discourse is a necessary condition for intellectual and social progress. We can never be sure, he contends, that a silenced opinion does not contain some element of the truth. He also argues that allowing people to air false opinions is productive for two reasons. First, individuals are more likely to abandon erroneous beliefs if they are engaged in an open exchange of ideas. Second, by forcing other individuals to re-examine and re-affirm their beliefs in the process of debate, these beliefs are kept from declining into mere dogma. It is not enough for Mill that one simply has an unexamined belief that happens to be true; one must understand why the belief in question is the true one.

Mill's states the harm principle in Chapter 1 of "On Liberty":Though this principle seems clear, there are a number of complications. For example, Mill explicitly states that "harms" may include acts of omission as well as acts of commission. Thus, failing to rescue a drowning child counts as a harmful act, as does failing to pay taxes, or failing to appear as a witness in court. All such harmful omissions may be regulated, according to Mill. By contrast, it does not count as harming someone if — without force or fraud — the affected individual consents to assume the risk: thus one may permissibly offer unsafe employment to others, provided there is no deception involved. (Mill does, however, recognize one limit to consent: society should not permit people to sell themselves into slavery). In these and other cases, it is important to keep in mind that the arguments in "On Liberty" are grounded on the principle of Utility, and not on appeals to natural rights. The question of what counts as a self-regarding action and what actions, whether of omission or commission, constitute harmful actions subject to regulation, continues to exercise interpreters of Mill.

Additionally, Mill demonstrated a deep appreciation for the military, noting in his essay "The Contest In America":

This particular version of the quotation is often used as a condensed version by military doctrines in order to express the message simply. The original, wordier full quotation is:

Mill's view on social liberty and tyranny of majority (from "On Liberty")

Mill believes that “the struggle between Liberty and Authority is the most conspicuous feature in the portions of history.” For him, liberty in antiquity was a “contest... between subjects, or some classes of subjects, and the government". By liberty, he meant protection against the tyranny of the political rulers” and he calls it “social liberty.” He introduces different tyrannies such as social tyranny, and the tyranny of the majority.

Social Liberty for Mill was to put limits on the ruler’s power so that he would not be able to use his power on his own wishes and make every kind of decision which could harm society; in other words, people should have the right to a say in the government’s decisions. He said that social liberty was “the nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual”. It was attempted in two ways: first, by obtaining recognition of certain immunities, called political liberties or rights; second, by establishment of a system of "constitutional checks".

However, limiting the power of government is not enough. "Society can and does execute its own mandates: and if it issues wrong mandates instead of right, or any mandates at all in things with which it ought not to meddle, it practises a social tyranny more formidable than many kinds of political oppression, since, though not usually upheld by such extreme penalties, it leaves fewer means of escape, penetrating much more deeply into the details of life, and enslaving the soul itself.”

“The rulers should be identified with the people; that their interest and will should be the interest and will of the nation. The nation did not need to be protected against its own will.” By will of nation, he means the will of “the most active part of people [and] the majority.”

“The people, consequently, may desire to oppress a part of their number; and precautions are as much needed against this, as against any other abuse of power.” He calls this type of power the “tyranny of majority” when the majority oppresses the minority by their decisions which could be harmful and wrong sometimes. As he writes, that tyranny of majority “is still vulgarly, held in dread, chiefly as operating through the acts of the public authorities.”

Religious view

John Stuart Mill’s religious view, influenced by John Locke, is that man is free to do anything unless he harms others. Individuals are rational enough to make decisions about their good being and choose any religion they want to. Government should interfere when it is for the protection of society. Mill explains, “The sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively, in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number, is self-protection. That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not sufficient warrant. He cannot rightfully be compelled to do or forbear because it will be better for him to do so, because it will make him happier, because, in the opinion of others, to do so would be wise, or even right...The only part of the conduct of anyone, for which he is amenable to society, is that which concerns others. In the part which merely concerns him, his independence is, of right, absolute. Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign.” [John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), “The Contest in America.” Harper's New Monthly Magazine, Volume 24, Issue 143, page 683-684. Harper & Bros., New York, April 1862. [] ]

Non Secular Governance and Atheism

Mill stated on many occasions that the idea of religion involving doctrine repulsed him as it imposes an unchallengeable opinion from an infallible authority such as God. He says: "I choose, by preference the cases which are least favourable to me - In which the argument against freedom of opinion, both on truth and that of utility, is considered the strongest. Let the opinions impugned be the belief of God and in a future state, or any of the commonly received doctrines of morality... But I must be permitted to observe that it is not the feeling sure of a doctrine (be it what it may) which I call an assumption of infallibility. It is the undertaking to decide that question for others, without allowing them to hear what can be said on the contrary side. And I denounce and reprobate this pretension not the less if I put forth on the side of my most solemn convictions. However positive anyone's persuasion may be, not only of the faculty but of the pernicious consequences, but (to adopt expressions which I altogether condemn) the immorality and impiety of opinion. - yet if, in pursuance of that private judgement, though backed by the public judgement of his country or contemporaries, he prevents the opinion from being heard in its defence, he assumes infallibility. And so far from the assumption being less objectionable or less dangerous because the opinion is called immoral or impious, this is the case of all others in which is most fatal.” [John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) “On Liberty” 1859. ed. Gertrude Himmelfarb, UK: Penguin, 1985, pp.83-84]

Human rights and slavery

In 1850, Mill sent an anonymous letter (which came to be known under the title "The Negro Question") -- in rebuttal to Thomas Carlyle's anonymous letter -- to Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country. Carlyle had defended slavery on grounds of genetic inferiority and claimed that the West Indies development was due to British ingenuity alone and dismissed any notion that there was a debtedness to imported slaves for building the economy there. Mill's rebuttal and references to the ongoing debate in the U.S. at the time regarding slavery were emphatic and eloquent. The full text -- in public domain -- (as well as a link to the Carlyle letter which prompted it) can be found at: An excerpt -- one lengthy paragraph -- which turns metaphorical (highlighted in boldface) regarding the pivotal role of nurture over nature (defying race-based genetic disparagements) -- and in which "professed moral reformer" and "your contributor" both refer to Carlyle -- illustrates Mill's passionate defense of human rights and abhorrence of slavery:

Mill is also famous for being one of the earliest and strongest supporters of women's liberation. His book "The Subjection of Women" is one of the earliest written on this subject by a male author. He felt that the oppression of women was one of the few remaining relics from ancient times, a set of prejudices that severely impeded the progress of humanity. [Mill, J.S. (1869) [ "The Subjection of Women"] , Chapter 1]


The canonical statement of Mill's Utilitarianism can be found in "Utilitarianism." This philosophy has a long tradition, although Mill's account is primarily influenced by Jeremy Bentham, and Mill's father James Mill. However his conception of utilitarianism was so different from Bentham's that some modern thinkers have argued that he demonstrated libertarian ideals, [cite journal
last = Capaldi
first = Nicholas
title = The Libertarian Philosophy of John Stuart Mill
year = 1983
journal = Reason Papers
volume = 9
pages = 3–19
publisher = the Reason Foundation
url =
format = PDF
accessdate = 2007-12-10
] and that he was not as much a consequentialist as was Bentham, though he did not reject consequentialism as Kant did.

Bentham's famous formulation of Utilitarianism is known as the "greatest happiness principle." It holds that one must always act so as to produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people (within reason). One of Mill's major contributions to Utilitarianism is his argument for the qualitative separation of pleasures. Bentham treats all forms of happiness as equal, whereas Mill argues that intellectual and moral pleasures are superior to more physical forms of pleasure. Mill distinguishes between "happiness" and "contentment," claiming that the former is of higher value than the latter, a belief wittily encapsulated in his statement that "It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question."

Mill defines the difference between higher and lower forms of happiness on the principle that those who have experienced both tend to prefer one over the other. This is, perhaps, in direct opposition to Bentham's statement that "Pushpin is as good as an Opera," that if a simple child's game like hopscotch causes more pleasure to more people than a night at the opera house, it is more imperative upon a society to devote more resources to propagating hopscotch than running opera houses. Mill's argument is that the 'simple pleasures' tend to be preferred by people who have no experience with high art, and are therefore not in a proper position to judge. For this reason, in his life Mill supported legislation that would have granted extra voting power to university graduates, on the grounds that they were in a better position to judge what would be best for society. It should be noted that, in this example, Mill did not intend to devalue uneducated people, and he certainly would have advocated sending the poor but talented to universities; rather, he believed that education, and not the intrinsic nature of the educated, is what qualified them to have more influence in government.

Mill furthermore dealt with one of the prime problems associated with utilitarianism, that of schadenfreude. Detractors of utilitarianism argued, among other objections, that if enough people hated another person sufficiently that simply reducing the happiness of the object of their hatred would cause them pleasure, it would be incumbent upon a utilitarian society to aid them in harming the individual. Mill argued that, in order to have such an attitude of malice, a citizen would have to value his own pleasure over that of another, and so society is in no way obligated to indulge him, and, to the contrary, is fully permitted to suppress his actions.

The qualitative account of happiness Mill advocates thus sheds light on his account presented in "On Liberty". As Mill suggests in that text, utility is to be conceived in relation to mankind "as a progressive being," which includes the development and exercise of our rational capacities as we strive to achieve a “higher mode of existence". Thus the rejection of censorship and paternalism is intended to provide the necessary social conditions for the achievement of knowledge and the greatest ability for the greatest number to develop and exercise their deliberative and rational capacities.

Economic philosophy

Mill's early economic philosophy was one of free markets. However, he accepted interventions in the economy, such as a tax on alcohol, if there were sufficient utilitarian grounds. He also accepted the principle of legislative intervention for the purpose of animal welfare. [] Mill believed that "equality of taxation" meant "equality of sacrifice" and that progressive taxation penalized those who worked harder and saved more and was therefore "a mild form of robbery". []

Mill's "Principles of Political Economy", first published in 1848, was one of the most widely read of all books on economics in the period. [cite book
author=Ekelund, Robert B., Jr. and Hébert, Robert F.
title=A history of economic theory and method
Publisher=Waveland Press [Long Grove, Illinois]
id=ISBN 1-57766-381-0
] As Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations" had during an earlier period, Mill's "Principles" dominated economics teaching. (In the case of Oxford University it was the standard text until 1919. The text that replaced it was written by Cambridge's Alfred Marshall).

Mill's views on the Environment

Mill demonstrated an early insight into the value of the natural world - in particular in Book IV, chapter VI of "Principles of Political Economy": "Of the Stationary State" ' [ [ "The Principles of Political Economy," Book 4, Chapter VI] ] . [cite web |url= |title="The early history of modern ecological economics" Inge Røpke in "Ecological Economics"Volume 50, Issues 3-4, 1 October 2004|accessdate=2008-08-08] in which Mill recognises wealth beyond the material -

Mill expresses the value of "nature" itself, and that the destruction of "solitude" and the natural world does not amount to progress:

cquote|Nor is there much satisfaction in contemplating the world with nothing left to the spontaneous activity of nature; with every rood of land brought into cultivation, which is capable of growing food for human beings; every flowery waste or natural pasture ploughed up, all quadrupeds or birds which are not domesticated for man's use exterminated as his rivals for food, every hedgerow or superfluous tree rooted out, and scarcely a place left where a wild shrub or flower could grow without being eradicated as a weed in the name of improved agriculture. If the earth must lose that great portion of its pleasantness which it owes to things that the unlimited increase of wealth and population would extirpate from it, for the mere purpose of enabling it to support a larger, but not a better or a happier population, I sincerely hope, for the sake of posterity, that they will be content to be stationary, long before necessity compel them to it. [cite web |url= |title="The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy"ed. Thomas Mautner ISBN 0-14-051250-0 |accessdate=2008-08-08]

Major publications

*"Two Letters on the Measure of Value", 1822, "The Traveller"
*"Questions of Population", 1823, "Black Dwarf"
*"War Expenditure", 1824, "Westminster Review"
*"Quarterly Review -- Political Economy", 1825, "Westminster Review"
*"Review of Miss Martineau's Tales", 1830, "Examiner"
*"The Spirit of the Age", 1831, "Examiner"
*"Essay on Bentham" 1838
*"A System of Logic", 1843
*"Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy", 1844
*"Claims of Labour", 1845, "Edinburgh Review"
*"The Principles of Political Economy: with some of their applications to social philosophy, 1848
*"The Negro Question", 1850, "Fraser's Magazine"
*"Dissertations and Discussions", 1859.
*"A Few Words on Non-intervention", 1859
*"On Liberty, 1859
*"Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform", 1859.
*"Considerations on Representative Government", 1861
*"Centralisation", 1862, "Edinburgh Review"
*"The Contest in America", 1862, "Harper's Magazine"
*"Utilitarianism, 1863
*"An Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy", 1865.
*"Auguste Comte and Positivism", 1865.
*"Inaugural Address at St. Andrews" - Rectorial Inaugural Address at the University of St. Andrews, concerning the value of culture, 1867.
*"Speech In Favor of Capital Punishment", 1868
*"England and Ireland", 1868.
*"Thornton on Labor and its Claims", 1869, "Fortnightly Review"
*"The Subjection of Women, 1869
*"Chapters and Speeches on the Irish Land Question", 1870
*"On Nature", 1874
*"Autobiography of John Stuart Mill", 1873
*"Three Essays on Religion", 1874
*"Notes on N.W. Senior's Political Economy", 1945, "Economica"

ee also

*List of liberal theorists
*Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom



*Michael St. John Packe, "The Life of John Stuart Mill", MacMillan (1952).
*David O. Brink, "Mill's Deliberative Utilitarianism," in "Philosophy and Public Affairs" 21 (1992), 67-103.
*Sterling Harwood, "Eleven Objections to Utilitarianism," in Louis P. Pojman, ed., "Moral Philosophy: A Reader" (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Co., 1998), and in Sterling Harwood, ed., "Business as Ethical and Business as Usual" (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1996), Chapter 7, and in []
*Robinson, Dave & Groves, Judy (2003). "Introducing Political Philosophy". Icon Books. ISBN 1-84046-450-X.
*Frederick Rosen, "Classical Utilitarianism from Hume to Mill" (Routledge Studies in Ethics & Moral Theory), 2003. ISBN 0415220947
*Samuel Hollander, "The Economics of John Stuart Mill" (University of Toronto Press, 1985)
*Mill, John Stuart, "A System of Logic", University Press of the Pacific, Honolulu, 2002, ISBN 1-4102-0252-6
*Chin Liew Ten, "Mill on Liberty", Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1980, full-text online at [] (National University of Singapore)
* [ "Right Again, The passions of John Stuart Mill," by Adam Gopnik. The New Yorker, October 6, 2008.]

External links

Mill's works

* [ Collected Works of John Stuart Mill] - Definitive Edition in 33 volumes, plus separate titles, on the Online Library of Liberty
* [ The Online Books Page] lists works on various sites
* [ Vintage Mill] , works in HTML
* [ Works] , readable and downloadable
* [ Primary and secondary works]
* [ More easily readable versions of On Liberty, Utilitarianism, and Three Essays on Religion]

econdary works

* [ John Stuart Mill] in the "Concise Encyclopedia of Economics" on Econlib
* [ John Stuart Mill] in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
* [ A podcast interview of Richard Reeves on Mill's "On Liberty"]
* [ Mill On Liberty] , by Chin Liew Ten (C.L. Ten), Clarendon Press, 1980 (full-text online)
* [ "Utilitarianism as Secondary Ethic"] An overview of utilitarianism with summary of its critiques.
* [ "How far did JS Mill let liberalism down? Did he prefer Socialism to Liberalism?"] by David McDonagh
* [ Mill-fest: The Bicentennial Edition"] by the blog Catallarchy
* [ "Organic Conservatism, Administrative Realism, and the Imperialist Ethos in the 'Indian Career' of John Stuart Mill, by Vinay Lal] (review of "John Stuart Mill and India" by Lynn Zastoupil, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1994.)
* [ "On John Stuart Mill" in "Some Reflections on Ethics"] by Dr.Ramendra

Further information

* [ John Stuart Mill] . Extensive collection of links to writings by and about J.S. Mill.
* [ EpistemeLinks]
* [ The Victorian Web] Mill section
* [ Links to works and resources]
* [ Biography, works and quotes of John Stuart Mill]
* ['mill')AND(RefNo='taylor')) Catalogue of Mill's correspondence and papers] held at the [ Archives Division] of the London School of Economics. View the Archives Catalogue of the contents of this important holding, which also includes letters of James Mill and Helen Taylor.

NAME=Mill, John Stuart
SHORT DESCRIPTION=English philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH=birth date|df=yes|1806|5|20
PLACE OF BIRTH=Pentonville, London, England, United Kingdom
DATE OF DEATH=death date|df=yes|1873|5|8
PLACE OF DEATH=Avignon, France

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»