Air Quality Index


Air Quality Index

The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. It measures mainly ground-level ozone and particulates (except the pollen count), but may also include sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. Various agencies around the world measure such indices, though definitions may change between places.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) differ on what AQI structure and health classification is used:

Health classifications used by the EPA:

* 0-50 Good is usually green
* 51-100 Moderate is usually yellow
* 101-150 Unhealthy for sensitive groups is usually orange
* 151-200 Unhealthy is usually red
* 201-300 Very unhealthy is usually purple
* 301-500 Hazardous is usually maroon

The EPA's AQI 100 corresponds to 0.08 ppm ozone, and to other levels for other pollutants. Source: [http://airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=aqibroch.aqi#aqioz EPA]

The AQI standards in Canada are relatively more stringent. The current health classifications used by the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) are as follows:

* 0-25*: Good (green)
* 26*-50: Fair (yellow)
* 51-100: Poor (orange)
* 101+: Very poor (red)

In Ontario, 31 is the upper limit for good and 32 the lower limit for moderate. Zero to 15 is classified as very good, and is given the color blue.

In June 2007, the EPA proposed a slight possible tightening of the pollution standards associated with smog after an independent EPA scientific board said that the standard “needs to be substantially reduced” and that there is “no scientific justification” for retaining the current, weaker standard. [ [http://www.lungusa.org/site/apps/nl/content3.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=40404&ct=3983577 Air Quality - American Lung Association site ] ]

In light of the new scientific findings, one should expect adjustments in the AQI such that pollution currently denoted as "moderate" will in the future be recognized as "unhealthy."

The AQI can worsen (go up) due to lack of dilution with fresh air. Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone or temperature inversion, or other lack of winds lets air pollution remain in a local area. On these days, the news media may ask the public to carpool or use public transport, or take other air pollution prevention measures such as teleworking.

Other Indices

Hong Kong

The Air Pollution Index (API) levels for Hong Kong are related to the measured concentrations of ambient respirable suspended particulate (RSP), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over a 24-hour period based on the potential health effects of air pollutants.

An API level at or below 100 means that the pollutant levels are in the satisfactory range over 24 hour period and pose no acute or immediate health effects. However, air pollution consistently at "High" levels (API of 51 to 100) in a year may mean that the annual Hong Kong "Air Quality Objectives" for protecting long-term health effects could be violated. Therefore, chronic health effects may be observed if one is persistently exposed to an API of 51 to 100 for a long time.

"Very High" levels (API in excess of 100) means that levels of one or more pollutant(s) is/are in the unhealthy range. The Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department provides advice to the public regarding precautionary actions to take for such levels.

United States

The United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) developed the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) to provide accurate, timely and easily understandable information about daily levels of air pollution.

It is no longer in use, having been replaced by the AQI, which is more sensitive. For example, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) is a sub index, replacing the less sensitive PM10 component of the PSI.

Notes

In the context of this article about air quality:
*ppmv = parts per million by volume = volume of pollutant gas per million volumes of ambient air
*PM10 = particulate matter smaller than 10 μm in diameter
*μg/m³ = micrograms per cubic metre of ambient air
*μm = micrometre

The air quality in the United States has improved dramatically over 23 years.

Air quality by country or region

* British Columbia
* Hong Kong

ee also

* Air pollution
* Air Pollution Index
* Atmospheric dispersion modeling
* Barbecue
* Grilling
* Emission standard
* European emission standards
* Haze
* Indoor air quality
* National Ambient Air Quality Standards - U.S. standards for EPA intervention
* Pollutant Standards Index
* Smog

References

External links

* [http://airnow.gov AQI at airnow.gov] - cross-agency U.S. Government site
* [http://air.state.nm.us New Mexico Air Quality and API data] - Example of how New Mexico Environment Department publishes their Air Quality and API data.
* [http://www.msc-smc.ec.gc.ca/aq_smog/index_e.cfm AQI at Meteorological Service of Canada]
*The pollution index of the [http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/environment/aq/index.html UK Met Office]
* [http://www.doe.gov.my/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=188&Itemid=370&lang=en API at JAS (Malaysian Department of Environment)]
* [http://www.epd-asg.gov.hk API at Hong Kong] - Environmental Protection Department of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
* [http://www.sparetheair.org/data/air_quality.htm San Francisco Bay Area Spare-the-Air] - AQI explanation
* [http://haze.net.my Malaysia Air Pollution Index]
* [http://www.pcd.go.th/AirQuality/Regional/Default.cfm AQI in Thailand provinces] and [http://www.pcd.go.th/AirQuality/Bangkok/Default.cfm in Bangkok]
* [http://ownyourair.org/Quality/index.php The American Lung Association declares EPA standards fall short] .


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