Gastric lavage


Gastric lavage

Gastric lavage, also commonly called Stomach pump or Gastric irrigation, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach. It has been used for over 200 years as a means of eliminating poisons from the stomach. Such devices are normally used on a person who has ingested a poison or overdosed on a drug. They may also be used before surgery, to clear the contents of the digestive tract before it is opened.

Technique

Gastric lavage involves the passage of a tube via the mouth or nose down into the stomach, followed by sequential administration and removal of small volumes of liquid. The placement of the tube in the stomach must be confirmed either by air insufflation while listening to the stomach, by pH testing a small amount of aspirated stomach contents, or x-ray. This is to ensure the tube is not in the lungs. In adults, small amounts of warm water or saline are administered and via a siphoning action removed again. In children, normal saline is used, as children are more at risk of developing hyponatremia if lavaged with water. Because of the possibility of vomiting, a suction device is always on hand in case of pulmonary aspiration of stomach contents. Lavage is repeated until the returning fluid shows no further gastric contents. If the patient is unconscious or cannot protect their airway then the patient should be intubated before performing lavage.

Indications

Gastric lavage is used infrequently in modern poisonings and some authorities have suggested that it not be used routinely, if ever, in poisoning situations.), hydrocarbons (), or for poisons that have an effective antidote.

Alternatives

An alternative for gastric lavage is usually the consumption of charcoal which will mix and block poison or drugs from going further into the stomach.

Complications

Many complications have been reported although it appears serious complications are uncommon. The most dangerous risk is aspiration pneumonia, which is more likely to occur if hydrocarbons are ingested or in patients without a protected airway. Other complications include laryngospasm, hypoxia, bradycardia, epistaxis, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, water intoxication, or mechanical injury to the stomach.

ee also

* Poisoning

References

External links

* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003882.htm NIH/Medline]
* [http://www.fpnotebook.com/ER70.htm FP Notebook]
* [http://www.npis.org/Position_Statements/Gastric%20Lavage.htm NPIS]


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • gastric lavage — Med. the washing out of the stomach; lavage. * * * …   Universalium

  • gastric lavage — stomach flush, medical procedure of emptying the contents of the stomach …   English contemporary dictionary

  • gastric lavage — The withdrawal of the contents of the stomach to prevent disastrous effects of poison therein or for the purpose of making an analysis of the contents …   Ballentine's law dictionary

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  • Lavage — Washing out. Gastric lavage is washing out the stomach, for example, to remove drugs or poisons. * * * The washing out of a hollow cavity or organ by copious injections and rejections of fluid. [Fr. from L. lavo, to wash] antral l. irrigation of… …   Medical dictionary

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  • Lavage — In medicine, lavage (PronEng|ləˈvɑːʒ or IPA|/ˈlævˌɪdʒ/) (lə VAHZH or LĂV ĭj) is a general term referring to cleaning or rinsing. Specific types include: * Antiseptic lavage * Bronchoalveolar lavage * Gastric lavage * Peritoneal lavage *… …   Wikipedia

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