- History of American football
The history of American football, a spectator sport in the United States, can be traced to early versions of
rugby football. Both games have their origin in varieties of football played in the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century, in which a ball is kicked at a goal and/or run over a line. American footballresulted from several major divergences from rugby, most notably the rule changes instituted by Walter Camp, considered the "Father of American Football". Among these important changes were the introduction of the line of scrimmageand of down-and-distance rules. cite web | title = NFL History 1869–1910 | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1869-1910 | accessdate = 2007-05-15] In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, gameplay developments by college coaches such as Eddie Cochems, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Knute Rockne, and Glenn "Pop" Warner helped take advantage of the newly introduced forward pass. The popularity of collegiate football grew as it became the dominant version of the sport for the first half of the twentieth century. Bowl games, a college football tradition, attracted a national audience for collegiate teams. Bolstered by fierce rivalries, college football still holds widespread appeal in the US.
The origin of professional football can be traced back to 1892, with William "Pudge" Heffelfinger's $500 contract to play in a game for the Allegheny Athletic Association against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. In 1920 the American Professional Football Association was formed. This league changed its name to the
National Football League(NFL) two years later, and eventually became the major league of American football. Primarily a sport of Midwestern industrial towns in the United States, professional football eventually became a national phenomenon. Football's increasing popularity is usually traced to the 1958 NFL Championship Game, a contest that has been dubbed the "Greatest Game Ever Played". A rival league to the NFL, the American Football League(AFL), began play in 1960; the pressure it put on the senior league led to a merger between the two leagues and the creation of the Super Bowl, which has become the most watched television event in the United States on an annual basis.cite web | url = http://www.coldhardfootballfacts.com/Documents/NFL_all_about_SB_1-07.pdf | title = NFL:America's Choice | year = 2007 | publisher = National Football League | accessdate = 2007-08-15 | format = PDF]
Although there are mentions of Native Americans playing ball games, modern American football has its origins in traditional ball games played at villages and schools in Europe for many centuries before America was settled by Europeans. There are reports of early
settlers at Jamestown, Virginiaplaying games with inflated balls in the early 17th century.
Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "
mob football" played in England, especially on Shrove Tuesday. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. Dartmouth played its own version called " Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. They remained largely "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. Rules were simple and violence and injury were common.cite web | title = No Christian End! | work = The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1769 | publisher = Professional Football Researchers Association | url = http://www.footballresearch.com/articles/frpage.cfm?topic=c-to1870 | accessdate = 2007-05-16] cite web | last = Meacham | first = Scott | title = Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf) | publisher = dartmo.com | year = 2020 | url = http://www.dartmo.com/football/Football_Meacham.pdf | accessdate = 2007-05-16] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860, while Harvard followed suit in 1861.
While the game was being banned in colleges, it was growing in popularity in various
New Englandprep schools. In 1855, manufactured inflatable balls were introduced. These were much more regular in shape than the handmade balls of earlier times, making kicking and carrying easier. Two general types of football had evolved by this time: "kicking" games and "running" (or "carrying") games. A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club. The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football clubin the United States, was formed in 1862 by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common. They played mostly between themselves, though they organized a team of non-members to play a game in November 1863, which the Oneidas won easily. The game caught the attention of the press, and the "Boston game" continued to spread throughout the 1860s. [cite web | last = Allaway | first = Roger | title = Were the Oneidas playing soccer or not? | work = The USA Soccer History Archives | publisher = Dave Litterer | year = 2001 | url = http://www.sover.net/~spectrum/oneidas.html | accessdate = 2007-05-15]
The game began to return to college campuses by the late 1860s. Yale, Princeton, Rutgers, and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time. In 1867, Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. A "running game", resembling rugby, was taken up by the
Montreal Football Clubin Canada in 1868.cite web | title = The History of Football | work = The History of Sports | publisher = Saperecom | year = 2007 | url = http://www.historyoffootball.net/ | accessdate = 2007-05-15]
Rutgers v. Princeton (1869)
On November 6, 1869,
Rutgers Universityfaced Princeton Universityin a game that is often regarded as the first game of intercollegiate football. cite web | title = NFL History 1869–1910 | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1869-1910 | accessdate = 2007-05-15] [cite web | title = 1800s | work = Rutgers Through The Years | publisher = Rutgers University | url = http://ruweb.rutgers.edu/timeline/1800.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-16] The game was played at a Rutgers field under Rutgers rules. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team's goal. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. Rutgers crossed the line first and went on to win by a score of six to four. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a "free kick" to any player that caught the ball on the fly). Princeton won that game by a score of eight to zero. Columbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yaleand Stevens Institute of Technology.
Rules standardization (1873–1880)
On October 19, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in
New York Cityto codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team's own particular code. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on soccer than on rugby, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.
Harvard, which played the "Boston game", a version of football that allowed carrying, refused to attend this rules conference and continued to play under its own code. While Harvard's voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play
McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. The McGill team traveled to Cambridge to meet Harvard in a two-game series. On May 14, 1874, the first game, played under "Boston" rules, was won by Harvard with a score of 3–0. The next day, the two teams played rugby to a scoreless tie.
Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the
trywhich, until that time, was not used in American football. In late 1874, the Harvard team traveled to Montréal to play McGill in rugby, and won by three touchdowns. A year later, on June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts Universityin the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts 1–0. [Gardner (1996)] The first edition of The Game—the annual contest between Harvard and Yale—was played on November 13, 1875, under a modified set of rugby rules known as "The Concessionary Rules". Yale lost 4–0, but found that it too preferred the rugby style game. Spectators from Princeton carried the game back home, where it also became popular.
On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in
Springfield, Massachusettsto standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. The rules were based largely on the Rugby Football Union's code from England, though one important difference was the replacement of a kicked goal with a touchdown as the primary means of scoring (a change that would later occur in rugby itself, favoring the tryas the main scoring event). Three of the schools—Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton—formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. Yale did not join the group until 1879, because of an early disagreement about the number of players per team. cite web | title = Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876–1889 | work = The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889 | publisher = Professional Football Researchers Association | url = http://www.footballresearch.com/articles/frpage.cfm?topic=d-to1889 | accessdate = 2007-05-16]
Walter Camp: Father of American football
Walter Campis widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football. As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and soccer, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.
Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. He proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. Camp's most famous change, the establishment of the
line of scrimmageand the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.
Camp's new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp's original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby or soccer into the distinct sport of American football.
Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 53 1/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. In 1887, gametime was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. Also in 1887, two paid officials—a referee and an umpire—were mandated for each game. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.
After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1898 through 1924. The
Walter Camp Football Foundationcontinues to select All-American teams in his honor.cite web | title = The History of Walter Camp | publisher = The Walter Camp Foundation | url = http://waltercamp.org/index.php/info/ | accessdate = 2008-01-16]
College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the nineteenth century. In 1880, only eight universities fielded intercollegiate teams, [cite web | title = 1880 season | work = Dolphin Historical Football Ratings | publisher = Dolphin Sim | year = 2005 | url = http://www.dolphinsim.com/ratings/cf_hist/final1880.html | accessdate = 2007-05-19] but by 1900, the number had expanded to 43. [cite web | title = 1900 season | work = Dolphin Historical Football Ratings | publisher = Dolphin Sim | year = 2005 | url = http://www.dolphinsim.com/ratings/cf_hist/final1900.html |accessdate = 2007-05-19] Several major rivalries date from this time period.
In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the
University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. The nation's first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895. [cite web | title = Big Ten History | work = Big Ten Conference - Official Athletic Site - Traditions | year = 2007 | url = http://bigten.cstv.com/trads/big10-trads.html | accessdate = 2007-05-19]
Led by legendary coach
Fielding Yost, Michigan became the first "western" national power. From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football post-season game, the Rose Bowl. During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40. [ Vancil (2000), pp 16]
Another legendary coach,
Amos Alonzo Staggof the University of Chicago, spent most of his career in the Western Conference. He coached first at the Springfield International YMCA Training School, then Chicago, and later at the University of the Pacific for a record total of 57 years. As of 2007, he still ranked seventh on the list of most often winning football coaches, with 314 wins. [cite web | last = Nance | first = Roscoe | title = Legendary Grambling coach Eddie Robinson dies | work = USA TODAY | date = April 4, 2007 | url = http://www.usatoday.com/sports/college/football/2007-04-04-eddie-robinson-obit_N.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-19 — A chart near the bottom of the article lists the top 10 winningest coaches of all time.]
Violence and controversy (1905)
From its earliest days as a mob game, football was a violent sport. The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the "Hampden Park Blood Bath", resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894–1898 for similar reasons. [ Vancil (2000), pp 16–18] One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the
flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death. [ Bennett (1976), pp 20 ]
The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. President
Theodore Rooseveltthreatened to shut the game down if drastic changes were not made. [cite journal |last=Lewis |first=Guy M. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1969 |month= |title=Teddy Roosevelt's Role in the 1905 Football Controversy |journal=The Research Quarterly |volume=40 |issue= |pages=717–724 |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= ] One rule change introduced in 1905, devised to open up the game and reduce injury, was the introduction of the legal forward pass. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be the last—and one of the most important—rule changes in the establishment of the modern game. [ Vancil (2000), pp 18] On December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States, later named the National Collegiate Athletic Association(NCAA), was formed. cite web | title = The History of the NCAA | work = NCAA.org | publisher = National Collegiate Athletic Association | url = http://www.ncaa.org/about/history.html | accessdate = 2007-05-19]
Modernization and innovation (1906–1930)
As a result of the 1905–1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal.
Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochemsat St. Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906 game against Carroll College at Waukesha. Another important change, formally adopted in 1910, was the requirement that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, greatly reducing the potential for collision injuries. Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift. [ Vancil (2000), pp 17 ] Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.
Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the twentieth century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field—previously strict rules were in place only allowing passes to certain areas of the field. [ Vancil (2000) pp 22] Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909 and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912. cite web | title = NFL History 1911–1920 | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1911-1920 | accessdate = 2007-05-15]
Star players that emerged in the early twentieth century include
Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. Sportswriter Grantland Ricehelped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game's biggest players, including Grange, whom he dubbed "The Galloping Ghost," Notre Dame's "Four Horsemen" backfield, and Fordham University's linemen, known as the " Seven Blocks of Granite". [Vancil (2000) pp 24 ]
Glenn "Pop" Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia,
Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and the Temple University. Bennett (1976), pp 20–21] One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history. [ cite web | title = ESPN.com: Top N. American athletes of the century | publisher = ESPN.com | year = 2001 | url = http://espn.go.com/sportscentury/athletes.html | accessdate = 2007-05-19] [ Vancil (2000), pp 20 ] Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, "Football for Coaches and Players", published in 1927. [cite web | title = WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players | publisher = WorldCat.org | url = http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/wcpa/top3mset/1741453 | accessdate = 2007-08-23] Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner's single wingand double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play. The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.
Knute Rocknerose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown midwestern Catholic school. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. Rockne and quarterback Gus Doraismade innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35–13 and helped establish the school as a national power. Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Boxoffense, based on Warner's single wing. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.cite web|title=Knute Rockne|work=MSN Encarta|publisher="encarta.msn.com"|year=2007|url=http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576926/Knute_Rockne.html#461516062 |accessdate=2008-04-06] In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped. Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne's "Fighting Irish" became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. It was during Rockne's tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. He led his team to an impressive 105–12–5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. So famous was he at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio. [ Vancil (2000), pp 19–22]
From a regional to a national sport (1930–1958)
In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the south, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the "
Deep South's Oldest Rivalry"—a rivalry between Georgia and Auburn. Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the northeast or the midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the south achieved national success. Wallace William Wade's 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowlafter receiving its first national title and William Alexander's 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South. [ Vancil (2000), pp 24–29 ]
Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. The
Southwest Athletic Conferencehad been founded in 1915. Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939.MacCambridge (1999), pp 124] [ cite web | title = A Look Back at the Southwest Conference | work = 2006–2007 Texas Almanac | publisher = The Dallas Morning News | year = 2007 | url = http://www.texasalmanac.com/history/highlights/swc/ | accessdate = 2007-05-31] The Pacific Coast Conference(PCC), a precursor to the Pacific-10 Conference(Pac-10), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932. The Southeastern Conference(SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South. [cite web | last = Ours | first = Robert M. | title = Southeastern Conference | work = College Football Encyclopedia | publisher = Augusta Computer Services | year = 2007 | url = http://www.footballencyclopedia.com/sechome.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-31] As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933 and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles. MacCambridge (1999), pp 148]
As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. Four new
bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowlin 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. In 1936, the Associated Pressbegan its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation's college football teams. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determined who was crowned the National Champion of college football. [ Vancil (2000), pp 30]
The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. Though some coaches, such as General
Robert Neylandat Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams' ability to throw the ball. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties—a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone—and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama receiver Don Hutsonand TCU passer "Slingin" Sammy Baugh. [ Vancil (2000), pp 28–30]
In 1935, New York City's
Downtown Athletic Clubawarded the first Heisman Trophyto Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draftpick in 1936. The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscuand modeled after NYU player Ed Smith. The trophy recognizes the nation's "most outstanding" college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports. [ cite web | title = A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy | work = Heisman Trophy | publisher = heisman.com | url = http://www.heisman.com/history/heisman-trophy.html | year = 2007 | accessdate = 2007-05-31]
World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. Doc Blanchard(known as "Mr. Inside") and Glenn Davis (known as "Mr. Outside") both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. On the coaching staff of those 1944–1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Famecoach Vince Lombardi. [ Vancil (2000), pp 39]
The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. Oklahoma, under coach
Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conferencechampionships in the decade while building a record 47 game winning streak. Woody Hayesled Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles—more than any other school. Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. Nine out of ten Heisman trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did however win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so. [ Vancil (2000), pp 41–45] MacCambridge (1999) pp 172]
Modern college football (1958–present)
Following the enormous television success of the National Football League's 1958 championship game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties. [ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171] [Bennett (1976) pp 56] cite web | last = Barnidge | first = Tom | title = 1958 Colts remember the 'Greatest Game' | publisher = nfl.com | year = 2000 | url = http://www.nfl.com/insider/story/6032205 | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070624164703/http://www.nfl.com/insider/story/6032205 | archivedate=2007-06-24 | accessdate = 2007-03-21 reprinted from Official
Super Bowl XXXIIIGame Program.]
As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the
Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. ABC Sportsbegan broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time. [ Vancil (2000) pp 46–48]
New formations and play sets continued to be developed.
Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royalat the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryantat Alabama, Chuck Fairbanksat Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgersat UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes. [Vancil (2000), pp 56] The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to "spread" the field both horizontally and vertically. Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209–217] Some teams have managed to adapt with the teams to keep winning consistently. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Notre Dame, and Texas are ranked 1, 2, and 3 as judged by both total wins and winning percentage. [cite news | url=http://www.ncaa.org/library/records/football/football_records_book/2007/2007_d1_football_records_book.pdf | title=All-Time Team Won-Lost Records | work=2007 Football Division I records book | publisher=NCAA | format=PDF | date=2007 Fall | accessdate=2007-10-05]
Growth of bowl games
In 1940, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight. The number grew to eleven in 1976. At the birth of
cable televisionand cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. In the twenty years from 1960 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. From 1980 to 2006, an additional 17 bowl games were added to the schedule.cite web | title = College Bowl Games | work = Hickok Sports | year = 2006 | url = http://www.hickoksports.com/history/collbowl.shtml | accessdate = 2007-06-01] Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development. [ cite web | last = Celezic | first = Mike | title = Too many bowl games? Nonsense | publisher = MSNBC | date = December 9, 2006 | url = http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15943416/ | accessdate = 2007-06-01]
With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the
Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual #1 versus #2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. The Coalition lasted for three years, however several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. For example the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences—the Pac-10 and Big Ten—meaning that it had limited success. In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three—the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls—and the participating conferences to five—the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. It was agreed that the #1 and #2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.cite web | title = BCS Chronology | publisher = FOX Sports on MSN | year = 2006 | url = http://www.bcsfootball.org/bcsfb/history | accessdate = 2007-06-01]
Bowl Championship Series
In 1998, a new system was put into place, the Bowl Championship Series. For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and all four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). The champions of these six conferences, along with two "at-large" selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. Based on this ranking system, the #1 and #2 teams met each year in the national championship game. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.
The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. At-large teams could be chosen from any of the
Division Iconferences, though only one selection—Utah in 2005—came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game—simply called the BCS National Championship Game—was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences ( Conference USA, the Mid-American Conference, the Mountain West Conference, the Sun Belt Conferenceand the Western Athletic Conference), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings. The first two seasons following this rule change saw two additional non-BCS schools make BCS bowl games, namely Boise State in 2006 and Hawaiokinai in 2007.
Early players, teams, and leagues (1892–1919)
In the early twentieth century, football began to catch on in the general population of the United States and was the subject of intense competition and rivalry, albeit of a localized nature. Although payments to players were considered unsporting and dishonorable at the time, a Pittsburgh area club, the Allegheny Athletic Association, surreptitiously hired former Yale All-American guard William "Pudge" Heffelfinger. On November 12, 1892, Heffelfinger became the first known professional football player. He was paid $500 to play in a game against the Pittsburgh Athletic Club. Heffelfinger picked up a Pittsburgh fumble and ran 35 yards for a touchdown, winning the game 4–0 for Allegheny. Although observers held suspicions, the payment remained a secret for years. cite web | title = History: The Birth of Pro Football | publisher = Pro Football Hall of Fame | url = http://www.profootballhof.com/history/general/birth.jsp | accessdate = 2007-06-05] [ cite web | title = Heffelfinger, "Pudge" (William W.) | work = Sports Biographies | publisher = HickokSports.com | year = 2004 |url = http://www.hickoksports.com/biograph/heffelfingerpudge.shtml | accessdate = 2007-06-05]
On September 3, 1895 the first wholly professional game was played, in Latrobe,
Pennsylvania, between the Latrobe YMCAand the Jeannette Athletic Club. Latrobe won the contest 12–0. In 1897, the Latrobe Athletic Association paid all of its players for the whole season, becoming the first fully professional football team. In 1896, the Red and Black of Watertown, New Yorkwas founded and is currently the oldest semiprofessional team in the United States; three years later in 1899, the Morgan Athletic Club, on the South Side of Chicago, was founded. This team later became the Chicago Cardinals, and now is known as the Arizona Cardinals, making them the oldest continuously operating professional football team.
The first known professional football league, known as the National Football League (not the same as the modern league) began play in 1902 with teams from the Mid Atlantic region. Several
baseballclubs formed football teams to play in the league, including the Philadelphia Athletics and the Philadelphia Phillies. A five-team tournament, known as the World Series of Football was organized by the league. The league and the World Series only lasted two seasons.
The game moved west into
Ohiowhich became the center of professional football during the early decades of the twentieth century. Small towns such as Massillon, Akron, Portsmouth, and Canton all supported professional teams in a loose coalition known as the "Ohio League," the direct predecessor to today's National Football League. In 1915, the Canton Bulldogssigned former Olympian and Carlisle Indian School standout Jim Thorpe to a contract. Thorpe became the face of professional football for the next several years and was present at the founding of the National Football League five years later. [Bennett (1976), pp 22]
Early years of the NFL (1920–1945)
In 1920, the first professional league, the American Professional Football Association, was founded, in a meeting at a
Hupmobilecar dealership in Canton, Ohio. Jim Thorpe was elected the league's first president. After several more meetings, the league's membership was formalized. The original teams were: cite web | last = Hickok | first = Ralph | title = NFL Franchise Chronology | publisher = HickokSports.com | year = 2004 | url = http://www.hickoksports.com/history/nflfranchises.shtml | accessdate = 2007-06-05]
* Cleveland Indians
* Decatur Staleys
* Detroit Heralds
* Racine Cardinals
Rock Island Independents
In its early years the league was little more than a formal agreement between teams to play each other and to declare a champion at season's end. Teams were still permitted to play non-league members. The 1920 season saw several teams drop out and fail to play through their schedule. Only four teams: Akron, Buffalo, Canton, and Decatur, finished the schedule. Akron claimed the first league champion, with the only undefeated record among the remaining teams. [Bennett (1976), pp 22–23]
In 1921, several more teams joined the league, increasing the membership to 22 teams. Among the new additions were the
Green Bay Packers, which now has the record for longest use of an unchanged team name. Also in 1921, A. E. Staley, the owner of the Decatur Staleys, sold the team to player-coach George Halas, who went on to become one of the most important figures in the first half century of the NFL. In 1921, Halas moved the team to Chicago, but retained the Staleys nickname. In 1922 the team was renamed the Chicago Bears. cite web | title = NFL History 1921–1930 | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1921-1930 | accessdate = 2007-06-05] [Bennett (1976), pp 23–24]
By the mid-1920s, NFL membership had grown to 25 teams, and a rival league known as the American Football League was formed. The rival AFL folded after a single season, but it symbolized a growing interest in the professional game. Several college stars joined the NFL, most notably
Red Grangefrom the University of Illinois, who was taken on a famous barnstorming tour in 1925 by the Chicago Bears. [Bennett (1976), pp 25–26]
1932 NFL playoff game
At the end of the 1932 season, the
Chicago Bearsand the Portsmouth Spartans were tied with the best regular-season records. To determine the champion, the league voted to hold its first playoff game. Because of cold weather, the game was held indoors at Chicago Stadium, which forced some temporary rule changes. Chicago won, 9–0. The playoff proved so popular that the league reorganized into two divisions for the 1933 season, with the winners advancing to a scheduled championship game. A number of new rule changes were also instituted: the goal posts were moved forward to the goal line, every play started from between the hash marks, and forward passes could originate from anywhere behind the line of scrimmage(instead of the previous five yards behind). [cite web | title =History 1931-1940 | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.exclaim.ca/articles/timelline.aspx?csid1=46 | accessdate = 2007-10-12] cite web | last = Hickok | first = Ralph | title = The 1932 NFL Championship Game | publisher = HickokSports.com | year = 2004 | url = http://www.hickoksports.com/history/histbit1.shtml | accessdate = 2007-06-05] [Bennett (1976), pp 32–33] In 1936, the NFL instituted the first ever draft of college players. The first selection was Heisman Trophy winner Jay Berwanger, but he declined to play professionally. [Bennett (1976), pp 35] Also in that year, another AFL formed, but it also lasted only two seasons. cite web | title = NFL History 1931–1940 | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1931-1940 | accessdate = 2007-06-05]
In 1941, the NFL named its first Commissioner,
Elmer Layden. The new office replaced that of President. Layden held the job for five years, before being replaced by Pittsburgh Steelersco-owner Bert Bellin 1946. cite web | title = NFL History 1941–1950 | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1941-1950 | accessdate = 2007-06-06]
World War II, a player shortage led to a shrinking of the league as several teams folded and others merged. Among the short-lived merged teams were the Steagles(Pittsburgh and Philadelphia) in 1943, the Carpets (Chicago Cardinals and Pittsburgh) in 1944, and a team formed from the merger of the Brooklyn Dodgers and the Boston Yanksin 1945.
tability and growth of the NFL (1946–1957)
1946 was an important year in the history of professional football. Bert Bell became commissioner of the NFL, providing a stable source of leadership for the next 13 years. [cite web | title = Bert Bell 1946–1959 | work = Sports e-cyclopedia | publisher = Tank Productions | year = 2002 | url = http://www.sportsecyclopedia.com/nfl/comish/bbell.html | accessdate = 2007-06-06] Before he became commissioner, league membership was fluid; between 1920 and 1945, 53 teams had gone defunct. In 1946, the NFL had ten teams, nine of which are still in operation today. [cite web | title = 1946 NFL Standings | work = Football@JT-SW.com | publisher = John Troan | year = 2002 | url = http://www.jt-sw.com/football/pro/standings.nsf/Seasons/1946 | accessdate = 2007-06-06] The league integrated in 1946, when the Los Angeles Rams signed two
African Americanplayers, Kenny Washington and Woody Strode. Also that year, a competing league, the All-America Football Conference(AAFC), began operation.
During the 1950s, additional teams entered the league. In 1950, the AAFC folded, and three teams from that league were absorbed into the NFL: the
Cleveland Browns(who had won the AAFC Championship every year of the league's existence), the San Francisco 49ers, and the Baltimore Colts (not the same as the modern franchise, this version folded after one year). The remaining players were chosen by the now 13 NFL teams in a dispersal draft. Also in 1950, the Los Angeles Rams became the first team to televise its entire schedule, marking the beginning of an important relationship between television and professional football. In 1952, the Dallas Texans went defunct, becoming the last NFL franchise to do so. The following year a new Baltimore Colts franchise formed to take over the assets of the Texans. The players' union, known as the NFL Players Association, formed in 1956. cite web | title = NFL History 1951–1960 | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1951-1960 | accessdate = 2007-06-06]
NFL supremacy (1958–present)
The Greatest Game Ever Played
At the conclusion of the
1958 NFL season, the Baltimore Colts and the New York Giantsmet at Yankee Stadiumto determine the league champion. Tied after 60 minutes of play, it became the first NFL game to go into sudden death overtime. The final score was Baltimore Colts 23, New York Giants17. The game has since become widely known as "the Greatest Game Ever Played". It was carried live on the NBCtelevision network, and the national exposure it provided the league has been cited as a watershed moment in professional football history, helping propel the NFL to become one of the most popular sports leagues in the United States. [cite web | last = Barnidge | first = Tom | url =http://www.nfl.com/insider/story/6032205 | archiveurl =http://web.archive.org/web/20070624164703/http://www.nfl.com/insider/story/6032205 | archivedate=2007-06-24 | title = 1958 Colts remember the 'Greatest Game'| publisher = nfl.com, reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIIIGame Program | accessdate=2007-06-26] [Peretz (1999), pp 58-59] Journalist Tex Maule said of the contest, "This, for the first time, was a truly epic game which inflamed the imagination of a national audience." [MacCambridge (1999), pp 171]
American Football League and merger
In 1959, longtime NFL commissioner Bert Bell died of a heart attack while attending an Eagles/Steelers game at
Franklin Field. That same year, Dallas, Texasbusinessman Lamar Huntled the formation of the rival American Football League, the fourth such league to bear that name. Unlike the earlier rival leagues, and bolstered by television exposure, the AFL posed a significant threat to NFL dominance of the professional football world. With the exception of Los Angeles and New York, the AFL avoided placing teams in markets where they directly competed with established NFL franchises. In 1960, the AFL began play with eight teams, and new NFL commissioner Pete Rozelletook office.
The AFL became a viable alternative to the NFL as it made a concerted effort to poach established talent from the NFL and worked hard to secure top college players. Led by
Oakland Raidersowner and AFL commissioner Al Davis, the AFL established a "war chest" to entice top talent with higher pay than they got from the NFL. Former Green Bay Packers quarterback Babe Parillibecame a star for the Boston Patriots during the early years of the AFL, and University of Alabama passer Joe Namathrejected the NFL to play for the New York Jets. Namath became the face of the league as it reached its height of popularity in the mid-1960s. Davis's methods worked, and in 1966, the junior league forced a partial merger with the NFL. The two leagues agreed to have a common draft and play in a common season-ending championship game, known as the AFL-NFL World Championship. Two years later, the game's name was changed to the Super Bowl. cite web | title = NFL History 1961–1970 | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1961-1970 | accessdate = 2007-06-26] cite web | title = Remember the AFL | publisher = American Football League Hall of Fame | year = 2003 | url =http://www.remembertheafl.com/AFL.htm | accessdate = 2007-06-26] [cite web| title = History of the Super Bowl | publisher = SuperNFL.com | url = http://www.supernfl.com/SuperBowl/SuperBowlHistory.html | accessdate = 2007-06-26]
The NFL won the first two Super Bowls handily, and it looked as though the younger AFL was outclassed. Following the 1968 season,
Super Bowl IIIproved to be the turning point in the AFL's fortunes. The heavily favored Baltimore Colts lost to the New York Jets and Joe Namath, cementing the AFL's place as equal in stature to the NFL. In 1970, the two leagues merged to form a new 26-team league.
The NFL continued to grow, expanding several times to its current 32-team membership, and the Super Bowl has become more than simply a football championship. One of the most popular televised events annually in the United States, it has become a major source of advertising revenue for the television networks that have carried it and it serves as a means for advertisers to debut elaborate and expensive commercials for their products. [cite web |last = La Monica | first = Paul R. | title = Super prices for Super Bowl ads | work = CNN Money | publisher = Cable News Network LP, LLLP | year = 2007 | url = http://money.cnn.com/2007/01/03/news/funny/superbowl_ads/index.htm |accessdate = 2007-06-26] The NFL has grown to become the most popular spectator sports league in the United States. [cite web | title = NFL Sets Paid Attendance Record | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.nfl.com/news/story/9908132 | archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070111213216/http://www.nfl.com/news/story/9908132 | archivedate=2007-01-11 | accessdate = 2007-06-26]
One of the things that has marked the modern NFL as different from other major professional sports leagues is the apparent parity between its 32 teams. While from time to time, dominant teams have arisen, the league has been cited as one of the few where every team has a realistic chance of winning the championship from year to year.cite web | last=Roddenberry | first = Sam | title = The Joys of parity | work = The Harvard Independent | year = 2001 | url = http://www.harvardindependent.com/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleID=7657 | accessdate = 2007-09-06] The league's complex labor agreement with its player's union, which mandates a hard
salary capand revenue sharing between its clubs, prevents the richest teams from stockpiling the best players and gives even teams in smaller cities such as Green Bay and New Orleans the opportunity to compete for the Super Bowl. [cite web | last = Landsburg | first = Steven E. | title = The NFL's Parity Perplex | work = Slate.com | publisher = Washington Post. Newsweek Interactive Co. LLC | date = 2000-06-23 | url = http://www.slate.com/id/84859 | accessdate = 2007-09-06] One of the chief architects of this labor agreement was former NFL commissioner Paul Tagliabue, who presided over the league from 1989–2006. [cite web | title = Paul Tagliabue 1989–2006 | work = NFL Commissioners | publisher = Tank Productions | year = 2007 | url = http://www.sportsecyclopedia.com/nfl/comish/tagliabue.html | accessdate = 2007-09-06] In addition to providing parity between the clubs, the current labor contract, established in 1993 and renewed in 1998 and 2006, has kept player salaries low—the lowest among the four major league sports in the United States— [ cite web | last = Paciella | first = Joe | title = NFL Player Salaries for 2007 | work = Doc's Sports Service | date = 2007-08-22 | url = http://www.docsports.com/current/nfl-player-salaries.html | accessdate = 2007-09-06] and has helped make the NFL the only league since 1993 not to suffer any player strike or work stoppage.cite web|url=http://www.nflpa.org/CBA/CBA_Complete.aspx|title=Collective Bargaining Agreement Between The NFL Management Council And The NFL Players Association, As amended March 8, 2006|publisher = nflpa.org | accessdate=2007-04-20]
Since taking over as commissioner before the 2006 season,
Roger Goodellhas made player conduct a priority of his office. Since taking office, several high profile players have experienced trouble with the law, from Adam "Pacman" Jones to Michael Vick. In these and other cases, commissioner Goodell has mandated lengthy suspensions for players who fall outside of acceptable conduct limits. [cite web | last = Pasquarelli | first = Len | title = Expect Goodell to crack down on poor behavior | work = ESPN.com | publisher = ESPN Internet Ventures | date = 2007-03-22 | url = http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/columns/story?columnist=pasquarelli_len&id=2812799 | accessdate = 2007-09-06]
Other professional leagues
Several other professional football leagues have been formed since the AFL-NFL merger, though none have had the success of the AFL. In 1974, the
World Football Leagueformed and was able to attract such stars as Larry Csonkaaway from the NFL with lucrative contracts. However, most of the WFL franchises were insolvent and the league folded in 1975; the Memphis Southmen, the team that had signed Csonka and the most financially stable of the teams, unsuccessfully sued to join the NFL.
In 1982, the
United States Football Leagueformed as a spring league, and enjoyed moderate success during its first two seasons behind such stars as Jim Kellyand Herschel Walker. It moved its schedule to the fall in 1985, and tried to compete with the NFL directly, but it was unable to do so and folded, despite winning an anti-trust suit against the older league.
In 2001, the
XFLwas formed as a joint venture between the World Wrestling Federation and the NBC television network. It folded after one season because of a lack of fan interest. However, XFL stars such as Tommy Maddoxand Rod "He Hate Me" Smart later saw success in the NFL. cite web | title = NFL History 1971–1980 | work = NFL.com | publisher = NFL Enterprises LLC | year = 2007 | url = http://www.nfl.com/history/chronology/1971–1980 | accessdate = 2007-06-26] [cite web | title = History of the USFL | publisher = Our Sports Central | url = http://www.oursportscentral.com/usfl/history.htm | accessdate = 2007-06-26] [cite web | last = Boehlert | first = Eric | title = XFL makes history! | work = Salon Arts and Entertainment | publisher = Salon.com | year = 2001 | url = http://archive.salon.com/ent/tv/feature/2001/03/19/xfl_history/index.html | accessdate = 2007-06-26]
The NFL founded a developmental league known as the
World League of American Footballwith teams based in the United States, Canada, and Europe. The WLAF ran for two years, from 1991 to 1992. The league went on a two-year hiatus before reorganizing as NFL Europe in 1995, with teams only in European cities. The name of the league was changed to NFL Europa in 2006. After the 2007 season, the NFL announced that it was closing down the league to focus its international marketing efforts in other ways, such as playing NFL regular season games in cities outside of the U.S. [cite web | title = NFL Europe homepage | url = http://www.nfleurope.com/ | year = 2007 | publisher = World League Licensing LLC | accessdate = 2007-07-02]
Two football leagues are scheduled to begin play in the near future. The
All American Football League, a six team league scheduled to begin play in April 2009, will be based in communities with large college football followings.cite web | title = All American Football League schedule | url = http://www.allamericanfootballleague.com/schedule.php | year = 2008 | accessdate = 2008-02-04| publisher = AAFL Enterprises, LLC] [cite web | last = Klosterman | first = Chuck | title = AAFL planning spring fling in 2008 | work = ESPN Page 2 | publisher = ESPN Internet Ventures | date = 2007-05-05 | url = http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=klosterman/070605&lpos=spotlight&lid=tab3pos2 | accessdate = 2007-08-20] The United Football League, scheduled to open in August 2009, will be a fall league in direct competition with the NFL. Involved in this league are Mark Cuban, media mogul and owner of the National Basketball Association's Dallas Mavericksand William Hambrecht, a prominent Wall Streetinvestor. [ cite web | title = First and Long — Very Long | last = Nocera | first = Joe | work = Play: The New York Times Sports Magazine | publisher = The New York Times | date = June 3, 2007 | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/03/sports/playmagazine/0603play-business.html | accessdate = 2008-01-18] [cite web | title = Report: Veteran dealmaker starts pro football league | work = CNNMoney.com | publisher = Cable News Network LP, LLLP | year = 2007 | url = http://money.cnn.com/2007/06/02/news/newsmakers/hambrecht_football/index.htm | accessdate = 2007-08-20] cite web | title=About the UFL | url = http://www.ufl2008.com/about_the_ufl.html | publisher = United Football League | year = 2008 | accessdate = 2008-02-04]
Youth and high school football
American football is a popular participatory sport among youth. One of the earliest youth football organizations was founded in Philadelphia, in 1929, as the Junior Football Conference. Organizer Joe Tomlin started the league to provide activities and guidance for teenage boys who were vandalizing the factory he owned. The original four-team league expanded to sixteen teams in 1933 when Pop Warner, who had just been hired as the new coach of the Temple University football team, agreed to give a lecture to the boys in the league. In his honor, the league was renamed the Pop Warner Conference. cite web | title = Amateur Football History Timeline | work = History of the Sport | publisher = USA Football Inc. | year = 2007 | url = http://www.usafootball.com/about-us/history-of-the-sport/amateur/index.php | accessdate = 2007-09-17] cite web | title = Pop Warner History | publisher = popwarner.com | year = 2007 | url = http://www.popwarner.com/history/pop.asp | accessdate = 2007-09-17]
Today, Pop Warner Little Scholars—as the program is now known—enrolls over 300,000 young boys and girls ages 5–16 in over 5000 football and
cheerleadingsquads, and has affiliate programs in Mexicoand Japan. Other organizations, such as the Police Athletic League, [ cite web | title = National PAL's Partners | publisher = National Association of Police Athletic/Activities Leagues, Inc. | year = 2006 | url = http://www.nationalpal.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1&Itemid=26 | accessdate = 2007-09-17] Upward, [cite web | title = Upward Programs, General Information, and Resources | publisher = Upward Unlimited | date = 20076 | url = http://www.upward.org/programs.aspx?id0=2416&id=2030 | accessdate = 2007-09-17 ] and the National Football League's NFL Youth Football Program [cite web | title = NFL Youth Football | publisher = NFL Enterprises LP | year = 2004 | url = http://www.nflyouthfootball.com/ | accessdate = 2007-09-17] also manage various youth football leagues.
Football is a popular sport for
high schools in the United States. The National Federation of State High School Associations(NFHS) was founded in 1920 as an umbrella organization for state-level organizations that manage high school sports, including high school football. The NFHS publishes the rules followed by most local high school football associations. [ cite web | title = About Us | work = National Federation of State High School Associations | publisher = National Federation of State High School Associations | year = 2004 | url = http://www.nfhs.org/web/2006/08/about_us.aspx | accessdate = 2007-08-19 ] More than 13,000 high schools participate in football, and in some places high school teams play in stadiums that rival college-level facilities. In Denton, Texas, for example, a 12,000 seat, $21,000,000 stadium hosts two local high school football teams. [ cite web | last = Wieberg | first = Steve | title = Millions of dollars pour into high school football | work = USA Today | date = 2004-10-06 | publisher = Gannett Co. Inc. | url = http://www.usatoday.com/sports/preps/football/2004-10-05-spending-cover_x.htm | accessdate = 2007-09-18] The growth of high school football and its impact on small town communities has been documented by landmark non-fiction works such as the 1990 book "" and the subsequent fictionalized film and television series. [ cite web | last = Subramanian | first = Ram | title = book review of "Friday Night Lights: A Town, A Team, and a Dream" | publisher = curledup.com | year =2004 | url = http://www.curledup.com/fridaynl.htm | accessdate = 2007-09-18]
American football outside the United States
American football has been played outside the US since the 1920s and accelerated in popularity after
World War II, especially in countries with large numbers of U.S. military personnel, who often formed a substantial proportion of the players and spectators. In 1998, the International Federation of American Football, was formed to coordinate international amateur competition. At present, 45 associations from the Americas, Europe, Asia and Oceaniaare organized within the IFAF, which claims to represent 23 million amateur athletes. [ [http://www.ifaf.info/ International Federation of American Football, 2004, "IFAF"] Access date: October 12, 2007.] The IFAF, which is based in Paris, France, organizes the quadrennial American Football World Cup.
Until 2007, Japan dominated amateur football outside of the USA. [(2007). " [http://www.american-football-japan.com/index.htm American Football in Japan] ". "american-football-japan.com". Retrieved on October 12, 2007.] The Japanese national team won the first two world cups — hosted by Italy in 1999 and Germany in 2003 — defeating
Mexicoin the play-off on both occasions. Japan had never lost a game until it went down at home, 23-20, to the US Amateur Team in the final of the 2007 World Cup.
American football has been played in Mexico since the early 1920s, and is a strong minority sport at Mexican colleges and universities, mainly in
Mexico City. Over successive decades, more universities and colleges joined the championship, and four categories, called "fuerzas", were created. The First "Fuerza" became the National League in 1970. In 1978, this was reorganized under the name "Organización Nacional Estudiantil de Fútbol Americano" (ONEFA). [cite web | url=http://www.onefa.org/ |title = La Pagina Oficial de la ONEFA "(in spanish)" | publisher = Organización Nacional Estudiantil de Fútbol Americano | year = 2008 | accessdate = 2008-01-18]
Japan American Football Associationwas founded in 1934 with three collegiate teams: Rikkyo, Meiji and Waseda. [ [http://www.american-football-japan.com/footballjapan-history-eng.htm american-football-japan.com, 2006, "History". Access date: October 12, 2007.] ] By 1937, an allstar game involving teams representing eastern and western Japan, attracted over 25,000 spectators.
In Japan, high school teams also began to appear. In the 1970s, the movement of players between Japan and the U.S. increased dramatically, along with greater exposure on Japanese television.
American football in Europe first began as a four-team tournament between
NATOallies on the west coast of Italy. The game began to take hold in Italy, with the first game between two European teams occurring between teams from Piacenzaand Bergamo. The German Football Leaguewas formed in 1979. By 1981, the first international games between European nations occurred, as a two game series between German and Italian teams.cite web | title = Football History in Europe | url = http://athleticenterprises.com/footballhistory.html | publisher = Athletic Enterprises | accessdate = 2008-01-18]
The first European governing body, the American European Football Federation (AEFF) was formed in 1982 by representatives from
Finland, Italy, Germany, Austria, and France. The league expanded in 1985 to include Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Great Britainand changed its name to the European Football League. Now known as the European Federation of American Football, it now is made up of 14 member nations. Today, there are approximately 800 American football clubs throughout Europe, with Germany's American Football Verband Deutschland (AFVD) overseeing more than 230 clubs.
Similar codes of football
Other codes of football share a common history with American football.
Canadian footballis a form of the game that evolved parallel to American football. While both games share a common history, there are some important differences between the two. [cite web | title = A Brief History of Football Canada | url = http://www.footballcanada.com/history.asp | year = 2007 | publisher = Football Canada | accessdate = 2007-07-02] A more modern sport that derives from American football is Arena football, designed to be played indoors inside of hockeyor basketballarenas. The game was invented in 1981 by Jim Fosterand the Arena Football Leaguewas founded in 1987 as the first major professional league to play the sport. Several other indoor football leagues have since been founded and continue to play today. [cite web | title = History of Arena Football | publisher = HickokSports.com | year = 2006 | url = http://www.hickoksports.com/history/arenafootball.shtml | accessdate = 2007-07-02]
American football's parent sport of rugby continued to evolve. Today, two distinct codes of rugby, known as
rugby unionand rugby leagueare played. Since the two codes split in 1895, the history of rugby leagueand the history of rugby unionhave evolved separately. [cite web | last = Fagan | first = Sean | title = The Rugby Divide of 1895 | publisher = RL1895.com | url = http://www.rl1895.com/rugby-divide.htm | year = 2004 | accessdate = 2007-07-02]
American football rules
Comparison of Canadian and American football
Comparison of American football and rugby league
Comparison of American football and rugby union
History of the football helmet
*History of soccer
*cite book | last = Bennett | first = Tom | title = The Pro Style: The Complete Guide to Understanding National Football League Strategy | publisher = National Football League Properties, Inc., Creative Services Division | location = Los Angeles | year = 1976
*cite book | last = Gardner | first = Paul | title = The Simplest Game: The Intelligent Fan's Guide to the World of Soccer | publisher = Macmillan General Reference | location = | year = 1996 | isbn = 0020432259
*cite book | last = MacCambridge | first = Michael ("Ed.") | title = ESPN SportsCentury | publisher = Hyperion Books | location = New York | year = 1999 | isbn = 0-7868-6471-0
*cite book | last = Peretz | first = Howard | title = It Ain't Over 'Til The Fat Lady Sings: The 100 Greatest Sports Finishes of All Time | publisher = Barnes and Noble Books | location = New York | year = 1999 | isbn = 0-76071-7079
*cite book | last = Vancil | first = Mark ("Ed.") | title = ABC Sports College Football All-Time All-America Team | publisher = Hyperion Books | location = New York | year = 2000 | isbn = 0-7868-6710-8
* cite book | last = MacCambridge | first = Michael ("Ed.") | title = ESPN College Football Encyclopedia: The Complete History of the Game | publisher = Hyperion Books
year = 2005 | location = New York | isbn = 1401337031
*cite book | last = Whittingham | first = Richard | title = Sunday's Heroes | publisher = Triumph Books | location = Chicago | year = 2003 | isbn = 1-57243-517-8
* [http://www.football-almanac.com/ Football Almanac]
* [http://www.footballresearch.com/ Professional Football Researchers Association]
* [http://www.footballfoundation.com/ National Football Foundation]
* [http://www.collegefootball.org/ College Football Hall of Fame]
* [http://www.profootballhof.org/ Pro Football Hall of Fame]
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