Hydrogen station


Hydrogen station

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept. Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and mixed fuels like HCNG. The hydrogen fuel dispensers dispense the fuel by the kilogram [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25413866/ LA gas station gets hydrogen fuel pump] ]

Hydrogen filling stations

In 2000, Ford and Air Products opened the first hydrogen station in North America in Dearborn, MI. [cite book
author=Motavalli, Jim
title=Breaking Gridlock: Moving Towards Transportation That Works
location=San Francisco
publisher=Sierra Club Books
year=2001
id=ISBN 1-57805-039-1
pages=p. 145
]

Since the turn of the millennium, filling stations offering hydrogen have been opening worldwide. However, this does not begin to replace the existing extensive gasoline fuel station infrastructure, which would cost a half trillion U.S. dollars in the United States alone. [cite book
last=Romm
first=Joseph
year=2004
title=The Hype about Hydrogen, Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate
location=New York
publisher=Island Press
id=ISBN 1-55963-703-X
Chapter 5
]

The hydrogen fueling stations include the following:
* Some fuel stations in Germany, within the Clean Energy Partnership, are offering hydrogen.Fact|date=September 2008
* Bus refueling stations in a small number of European cities as part of the Clean Urban Transport for Europe programme.Fact|date=September 2008
* Iceland began opening stations in 2003 as part of the country's initiative to implement a hydrogen economy. [cite news
url=http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techinnovations/2003-04-25-hydro-station_x.htm
title=Hydrogen-filling station opens ... in Iceland
publisher=USA Today
date=April 25 2003
accessdate=2007-05-21
]
*Stations in California opened by the California Fuel Cell Partnership, and under Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's California Hydrogen Highway program.Fact|date=September 2008
*A Washington, D.C., Shell gas station on 3355 Benning Road NE sells mostly gasoline but also has one hydrogen pump.Fact|date=September 2008
* Japan has a number of hydrogen filling stations run by the Japan hydrogen fuel cell project to test various technologies of hydrogen generation.Fact|date=September 2008
* British Columbia, Canada, is building a seven node hydrogen refueling station network from Victoria to Whistler timed to coincide with the 2010 Winter Olympic Games. The node in Surrey was the first in the world to deliver hydrogen at 70 MPa, and is the longest operational node in the network, having been supplying hydrogen since March 2002. [cite web
url=http://www.hydrogenhighway.ca/code/navigate.asp?Id=229
title=Powertech Station
publisher=British Columbia's Hydrogen Highway Web site
accessdate=2006-07-30
]
* Proton Energy Systems and Northern Power, both wholly owned subsidiaries of Distributed Energy Systems (Nasdaq: DESC), were contracted by EVermont to build an advanced demonstration [http://www.kepware.com/Solution_Chronicles/EVermont_Solution_Chronicle.html hydrogen fueling station] in Burlington, VT. The project was partially funded through the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hydrogen Program.Fact|date=September 2008
* A hydrogen filling station opened in 2006 on the campus of The Ohio State University at the Center for Automotive Research. This station is the only one in Ohio. [cite web
url=http://engineering.osu.edu/news/archive/2006/hydrogenfuelingstation.php
date=April 20 2006
title=Center for Automotive Research unveils first hydrogen refueling station in Ohio
publisher=Ohio State University College of Engineering
accessdate=2007-06-23
]
*A prototype hydrogen fueling station was built in compliance with all of the prevailing safety, environmental and building codes in Phoenix to demonstrate that such fueling stations could be built in urban areas. [http://avt.inl.gov/pdf/hydrogen/h2stationreport.pdf Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report] (Report INEEL / EXT-O3-00976 of the Idaho National Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy)]
* Hynor, Norway's first hydrogen fueling station was opened in February 2007.Fact|date=September 2008
* The UK has opened its first hydrogen filling station at the University of Birmingham. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7351915.stm BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Hydrogen car project begins ] ]
*June 2008 - The HyApproval project, FP6 N° 019813 developed a universal handbook to facilitate the approval process of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations (HRS) in Europe. [ [http://www.whec2008.com/abstract/77.asp HyApproval - Handbook for the approval of hydrogen refuelling stations] ]

Hydrogen home stations

Hydrogen home stations come in different types.

* A solar powered water electrolysing hydrogen home station, is made of solar cells, power converter, water purifier, electrolyzer, piping, hydrogen purifier, [cite journal
url=http://www.homepower.com/files/Hp67p42.pdf
title=Hydrogen Purification
volume=67
pages=42
journal=Home Power
] oxygen purifier, compressor [cite web
publisher=Pressure Products Industries, Inc.
url=http://www.gotoppi.com/compressors/compressors.html
title=Diaphram Compressors
accessdate=2007-06-23
] , pressure vessels [See, for example, [http://www.lincolncomposites.com/products.html Lincoln Composites Tuffshell tanks] , as recommended by Roy McAlister in the "Hydrogen Car and Multi Fuel Engine" DVD)] and a hydrogen outlet. [cite journal
url=http://www.dangerouslaboratories.org/h2homesystem.pdf
title=Solar Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis
journal=Home Power
volume=39
date=Feb./Mar. 1994
accessdate=2007-06-23
]

* A more complete home station would combine the solar home system on the inlet with natural gas and a reformer [cite web
url=http://world.honda.com/FuelCell/HomeEnergyStation/HomeEnergyStation2004/
title=Fuel cell
publisher=Honda
accessdate=2006-08-04
] and from the storage tank to a fuel cell microchp system to produce heat and electricity for the house and the excess electricity to the grid to become part as a distributed generation resource.

* Integrated systems that convert solar energy photoelectrochemically are more efficient than splitting water. [cite journal
url=http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,65936,00.html?tw=wn_tophead_1
date=December 7 2004
author=John Gartner
title=Sunlight to Fuel Hydrogen Future
publisher=Wired magazine
accessdate=2006-06-30
]

* January 2007 - Australia's CSIRO has developed a hydrogen homestation based on electricity from standard rooftop solarpanels or a home wind turbine with an electrolyzer including compression and storage ready for use, the size of a filing cabinet, the expected market price would be $500 according to Sukhvinder Badwal. Extensive testing of the system will be going on for the next 2 years at RMIT University in Melbourne [ [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/business2/business2_archive/2007/02/01/8398988/index.htm CSIRO Solar homestation] ] [ [http://www.whec2008.com/abstract/273.asp A Stand Alone 2 kW Class PEM Electrolyser Integrated with Solar PV System for Hydrogen Generation] ] .

* Home Energy Station IV is in testing phase.
* The Hopewell Project an oversized pilot homestation by Michael Strizki. [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEdQRVQtffw YouTube - Solar hydrogen home Michael Strizki ] ]
* The [http://www.chewonkih2.org Chewonki Renewable Hydrogen Project] opened on August 28, 2006 in Wiscasset, Maine.
* The Stuart Island Energy Iniative. [ [http://www.siei.org/ Stuart Island Energy Initiative ] ]
* The homefueler and HyStat-A Energy Station [ [http://www.nfcrc.uci.edu/2/ACTIVITIES/PROJECTS/hydrogen/HydrogenicsHomeFueler.aspx NFCRC: Hydrogen Program - Hydrogenics Home Fueler ] ]

Hydrogen highway

A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogen-equipped filling stations and other infrastructure along a road or highway. Italy and Germany are building in collaboration a hydrogen highway between Mantova (Italy) and Munich (Germany). Italy has already built a hydrogen filling station in Mantova and it has been completed on 21 September 2007. See Zero Regio .

See also

* Cascade storage system
* Hydrogen vehicle
* Hydrogen production
* Hydrogen storage
* Hydrogen reformer
* Hydrogen piping
* Hydrogen leak testing
* Hydrogen microsensor
* Autonomous building
* Microgeneration
* Virtual power plant
* Zero Regio

References

External links

* [http://www.hydrogensociety.net/vfs4/ Virtual hydrogen station IV]
* [http://www.euhyfis.com/ EUhyfis]
* [http://www.iso.org/iso/standards_development/technical_committees/list_of_iso_technical_committees/iso_technical_committee.htm?commid=54560 ISO-TC 197]
* [http://platial.com/system/map/1571 Hydrogen Refueling Stations] Mapped on Platial.
* [http://www.fuelcells.org/info/charts/h2fuelingstations.pdf Worldwide Hydrogen Fueling Stations (PDF)] fuelcells.org
* [http://www.h2stations.org Map of hydrogen refueling stations worldwide]
* [http://avt.inl.gov/pdf/prog_info/fns_presentation.pdf Idaho National Laboratory]


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