Mesoporous material

Mesoporous material

A mesoporous material is a material containing pores with diameters between 2 and 50 nm.

Porous materials are classified into several kinds by their size. According to IUPAC notation[1], microporous materials have pore diameters of less than 2 nm and macroporous materials have pore diameters of greater than 50 nm; the mesoporous category thus lies in the middle.

Typical mesoporous materials include some kinds of silica and alumina that have similarly-sized fine mesopores. Mesoporous oxides of niobium, tantalum, titanium, zirconium, cerium and tin have also been reported. According to the IUPAC, a mesoporous material can be disordered or ordered in a mesostructure.

A procedure for producing mesoporous materials (silica) was patented around 1970.[2][3][4] It went almost unnoticed[5] and was reproduced in 1997.[6] Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were independently synthesized in 1990 by researchers in Japan.[7] They were later produced also at Mobil Corporation laboratories [8] and named Mobil Crystalline Materials, or MCM-41.[9]

Since then, research in this field has steadily grown. Notable examples of prospective applications are catalysis, sorption, gas sensing, ion exchange, optics, and photovoltaics.

Tentative layout of this article

  • Introduction to porous materials
  • Mesoporous materials
  • Synthetic pathways
    • Self-assembly
    • Templated self-assembly
    • Sol-gel processing
    • Dealumination of Al-rich aluminosilicates
    • Spray Drying Method
  • Historical overview of mesoporous materials
    • MCM 41
    • SBA
  • Synthesis of mesoporous materials
    • Model of mesostructure formation by ionic surfactants
    • Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations
    • Hybrid interfaces
    • Nonionic templating agents
    • Other structure-directing agents
    • Amphiphilic block copolymers
    • Mesostructured films
    • Technological importance
    • Fundamentals of EISA
    • Precursor solution
    • Film deposition
    • Post-processing
    • Selected examples
    • Applications
    • catalysis


  1. ^ J. Rouquerol et al. (1994). "Recommendations for the characterization of porous solids (Technical Report)" (free download pdf). Pure & Appl. Chem 66 (8): 1739–1758. doi:10.1351/pac199466081739. 
  2. ^ Chiola, V.; Ritsko, J. E. and Vanderpool, C. D. "Process for producing low-bulk density silica." Application No. US 3556725D A filed on 26-Feb-1969; Publication No. US 3556725 A published on 19-Jan-1971
  3. ^ "Porous silica particles containing a crystallized phase and method" Application No. US 3493341D A filed on 23-Jan-1967; Publication No. US 3493341 A published on 03-Feb-1970
  4. ^ "Process for producing silica in the form of hollow spheres"; Application No. US 342525 A filed on 04-Feb-1964; Publication No. US 3383172 A published on 14-May-1968
  5. ^ Ruren Xu, Wenqin Pang, Jihong Yu (2007). Chemistry of zeolites and related porous materials: synthesis and structure. Wiley-Interscience. p. 472. ISBN 0470822333. 
  6. ^ Direnzo, F; Cambon, H; Dutartre, R (1997). "A 28-year-old synthesis of micelle-templated mesoporous silica". Microporous Materials 10: 283. doi:10.1016/S0927-6513(97)00028-X. 
  7. ^ Yanagisawa, Tsuneo; Shimizu, Toshio; Kuroda, Kazuyuki; Kato, Chuzo (1990). "The preparation of alkyltrimethylammonium-kanemite complexes and their conversion to microporous materials." (free download). Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan 63: 988. doi:10.1246/bcsj.63.988. 
  8. ^ J. S. Beck; J. C. Vartuli; W. J. Roth; M. E. Leonowicz; C. T. Kresge; K. D. Schmitt; C. T-W. Chu; D. H. Olson; E. W. Sheppard; S. B. McCullen; J. B. Higgins; and J. L. Schlenkert (1992). "A New Family of Mesoporous Molecular Sieves Prepared with Liquid Crystal Templates". American Chemical Society 114 (114): 10834–10843. doi:10.1021/ja00053a020. 
  9. ^ Brian Trewyn, et al. (2007). "Synthesis and Functionalization of a Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle Based on the Sol–Gel Process and Applications in Controlled Release". Accounts of Chemical Research 40 (40): 846–853. doi:10.1021/ar600032u. PMID 17645305. 

See also

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