- Effect of the Siege of Leningrad on the city
Timeline of the Siege of Leningrad
*June 29: Evacuation of children and women from Leningrad starts.
*June–July: Over 300 thousand civilian refugees from Pskov and Novgorod manage to escape from the advancing Germans, and come to Leningrad for shelter. The armies of the North-Western Front join the front lines at Leningrad. Total military strength with reserves and volunteers reaches 2 million men involved on all sides of the emerging battle.
*July 17: Food rationing begins in Leningrad and suburbs.
*July 19–23: First attack on Leningrad by the
Army Group Northis stopped 100 km south of the city.
*August 20 – September 8: Artillery bombardments of Leningrad are massive, targeting industries, schools, hospitals, and civilian housesFact|date=February 2008 .
*August 20 – 27: Evacuation of civilians is stopped by the German attacks on railroads and other exits from Leningrad. [The World War II. Desk Reference. Eisenhower Center director Douglas Brinkley. Editor Mickael E. Haskey. Grand Central Press, 2004. Page 8.]
*August 21: Hitler's Directive No.34 ordered "Encirclement of Leningrad and junction with the Finns." [Hitler and Russia. By Trumbull Higgins. The Macmillan Company, 1966. Page 156.]
*September 2 - 9: Finns finish the capture of the salients of
Beloostrovand Kirjasalo and starts to prepare defences.National Defence College: "Jatkosodan historia 2", 1994] cite web | title = Approaching Leningrad from the North. Finland in WWII (На северных подступах к Ленинграду) | language = Russian | url = http://www.aroundspb.ru/finnish/saveljev/war1941.php]
*September 8: Encirclement of Leningrad is completed when the German forces reach the shores of
Lake Ladoga.cite book | title = Der Zweite Weltkrieg | first = Raymond | last = Cartier | year= 1977 | publhisher = R. Piper & CO. Verlag | location = München, Zürich 1141 pages.]
Dmitri Shostakovichgives radio address to citizens of Leningrad. "We shall stand up all together and defend our city".
*September 19: German troops are stopped 10 km from Leningrad. Masses of citizens, women and schoolchildren come to fight in defense lines.
*September 22: Hitler issues "Directive No. 1601" ordering "St. Petersburg must be erased from the face of the Earth" and "we have no interest in saving lives of civilian population."cite web | last = Hitler | first = Adolf | title = Directive No. 1601 | date = 1941-09-22 | language = Russian | url = http://www.hrono.ru/dokum/194_dok/19410922.html]
*October: Food shortages cause serious starvation of civilians. Civilian deaths exceed hundreds of thousands by the end of the Autumn. Shostakovich and his family are evacuated to Kuybishev.
*Tikhvin strategic offensive operation (10.11–30.12.41), Malovishersk offensive operation (10.11–30.12.41), Tikhvin-Kirish offensive operation (12.11–30.12.41).
*November 8: Hitler's speech in Munich: "Leningrad must die of starvation."
*November: In massive German air-bombings destroy all major food stores in Leningrad.Fact|date=February 2008
*December: Daily death toll is 5000–7000 civilians. Total civilian deaths in the first year of the siege are 780,000 citizens.cite book | title = Medics and the siege ("Медики и блокада") | language = Russian | first = Татьяна | last = Михайлова | coauthors = Веришкина, Лидия | year = 2005 | location = St. Petersburg Studying starvation, epidemics, stress, and other diseases during the siege of Leningrad.]
*December 25: On the Christmas day 5000 civilian deaths registered in Leningrad, and more unregistered are left buried under the snow until the next year.
Winston Churchillwrote in his diary "Leningrad is encircled" then sent a letter to Mannerheim requesting that Finnish army should stop harassing the railroads north of Leningrad used for American and British food and ammunition supplies to Leningrad by British and American Arctic convoys .
*January–December: Direct Nazi artillery bombardments of the
Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monumentsfrom a distance of 16 km from the Hermitage.
*January–December: Total civilian death toll in the second year of the siege is about 500,000 citizens.
*January–February: The deadliest months of the siege: every month 130,000 civilians are found dead in Leningrad and suburbs.cite book | title = Finland and Siege of Leningrad 1941–1944 ("Блокада Ленинграда и Финляндия 1941–44") | first = Dr. Nikolai | last = Baryshnikov | language = Russian | publisher = Институт Йохана Бекмана | year = 2003 | url = http://politika-karelia.ru/shtml/article.shtml?id=16]
*January: Energy supplies are destroyed by the Nazi bombardments in the entire city. Heating supplies are also destroyed, causing more deaths.
*February–April: Bread rations increased to 300 grams per one child per day. Adult workers are allowed a ration of 500 grams per day. Frozen food is delivered in limited amounts only to support active soldiers and key industrial workers. Some food supplies are delivered across the ice on Lake Ladoga. However, many delivery cars are destroyed by the Nazi aircraft.
*January–May: Tens of thousands of children join the "Night watch" to stop many fires from air-bombings. Many children are killed while performing this duty.
*May 16: First official decoration of schoolchildren for their courage. 15 thousand children are decorated for their courage during the siege of Leningrad.
Choleracases are registered in Leningrad, but the infection is isolated, then stopped. An epidemicsituation is contained within several weeks, and remains under control for the rest of the year. However, hospitals are suffering from severe air-bombings, shortages of energy and food. Thousands of doctors and nurses are killed at work. [cite web | first = Neurosurgeon Ivan | last = Kudrin | title = Siege of Leningrad (Статья о блокаде Ленинграда) | language = Russian | url = http://vip.lenta.ru/topic/victory/blokada.htm] Of about 30,000 medical doctors and 100,000 medical nurses in pre-war St. Petersburg, less that a half survived the siege.
*April 4: Operation Eis Stoß (Ice impact) begins under the personal control of
Goering. Hundreds of Luftwaffe bombers make a series of air raids on Leningrad with incendiary and heavy bombs. [cite web | first = AI | last = Bernstein | coauthors = Бернштейн, АИ | title = Notes of aviation engineer (Аэростаты над Ленинградом. Записки инженера - воздухоплавателя. Химия и Жизнь №5) | language = Russian | url = http://xarhive.narod.ru/Online/hist/anl.html | year = 1983 | pages = с. 8–16]
*May: Streetcars return to some streets in Leningrad, allowing some children to go to the remaining schools that are not destroyed. Boats on Lake Ladoga start food deliveries to starving survivors in Leningrad.
*June–September: Newer heavy artillery is stationed 10–28 km from the city and bombards Leningrad with 800 kg shells. The Nazis make special maps of Leningrad for artillery bombardments targeting the city infrastructure, businesses, transportation, schools, and hospitals.
*August 9: Premiere of the Leningrad Symphony by the
Leningrad Radio Orchestra(the only symphony orchestra remaining in besieged Leningrad) under Karl Eliasberg.
*Sinyavin offensive operation (Aug.–Sep. 1942)
*January–December: Only about seven hundred children were born alive in Leningrad over the year 1943, in the aftermath of previous years of the siege. Before the war, in 1939, over 175 thousand children were born in Leningrad and suburbs, and another 171 thousand babies were 1-year-olds born in 1938. Most died in the siege, or on road seeking refuge in evacuation. [ 1939 census in the USSR. Statistical records for Leningrad. Medical institute of Pediatrics and Maternity records.] [cite web | work = Demoscope Weekly | publisher = Institute of Demographics | title = 1939 census for Leningrad and province | url = http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_age_39.php?reg=35&gor=3&Submit=OK]
*January: Temporary penetration through the Nazi siege near Lake Ladoga. The population of Leningrad including suburbs has decreased from about 4 million to less than 800 thousand, civilians and military combined. Most remaining civilians are evacuated to Siberia; many die there.
* January 12–30: Breaking of the Leningrad blockade. Operation “Iskra”
*February: The railroad is temporarily restored, but soon destroyed again by enemy aircraft.
Epidemic typhusand Paratyphoid feverstart spreading among survivors, but the epidemic is localized and contained by mutual efforts of doctors and citizens.
*January: Before retreating the Germans loot and then destroy the most valuable Palaces of the Tsars, such as the
Catherine Palace, the Peterhof, the Gatchina, and the Strelna. Many other historic landmarks and homes in the suburbs of St. Petersburg are looted and then destroyed, and incalculable amounts of valuable art collections taken to the Nazi Germany.
*January 14 - March 1:
Leningrad-Novgorod strategic offensive operation, 1st of the Ten Stalin’s punches:
*January 27: Siege of Leningrad ends, after a joint effort by the Army and the
Baltic Fleet, which provided 30% of aviation power for the final blow to the Germanscite book | title = Baltic Fleet | last = Дважды | first = Краснознаменный Балтийский Флот | coauthors = Гречанюк Н. М., Дмитриев В. И., Корниенко А. И. и др., М | location Воениздат | year = 1990 | pages = 275 | language = Russian] . The Germans are forced to retreat 60–100 km away from the city.
*February: Survivors begin returning to Leningrad and suburbs, where industries, factories, schools, hospitals, transportation, airports and other infrastructure are found destroyed by the German air raids and artillery after 2½ years of the siege.
*February–December: Survivors of the siege begin repairs and re-building of the ruined industries, hospitals, housing, and schools.
* June 9 - July 15:
Fourth Strategic Offensivepushes Finns northwestwards about 30–100 km to the other side of Bay of Vyborg and River Vuoksi.
Because the Soviet records during the war were incomplete, the ultimate number of casualties during the siege is disputed.
The turning point
About 1.4 million people were rescued by military evacuation from the besieged city of Leningrad in two years between September 1941 and November 1943.
Another 1.2 million civilians perished in the city. After the war, The Soviet government kept numbers down for propaganda reasons, and reported only about 670,000 registered deaths from 1941 to January 1944, explained as resulting mostly from starvation, stress and exposure. Some independent studies suggest a much higher
death tollof between 700,000 and 1.5 million, with most estimates putting civilian losses at around 1.1 to 1.3 million. Many of these victims, estimated at being at least half a million, were buried in the Piskarevskoye Cemetery.The true numbers are at least twice greater than the Soviet war-time reports, while the 1939 census provides more reliable statistical data for comparative research.Fact|date=January 2008
Hundreds of thousands of civilians unregistered with the city authorities - who lived in the city before the war, or had become refugees there - perished in the Nazi siege without any record at all. About half a million people, both military and civilians from Latvia, Estonia, Pskov and Novgorod fled from the advancing Nazis and came to Leningrad at the beginning of the war. The flow of refugees to the city stopped with the beginning of the siege. Then during the siege part of civilians fled Leningrad with evacuation, although many died in the process. The unregistered people died under numerous air-bombing attacks, and from starvation and cold while trying to escape from besieged Leningrad. Their bodies were not buried or counted under the severe circumstances of constant air-bombings and other attacks by the Nazi forces.
The total number of human losses during the 29 months of the siege of Leningrad is estimated as 1.5 million, including both civilians and military.
Only 700,000 people were left alive of 3.5 million pre-war population. Among those left in the siege were soldiers, workers, surviving children and women. Of those 700,000 surviving people about 300,000 were soldiers who came from other parts of the country to help the besieged city of Leningrad.
By the end of the siege, Leningrad had become an empty "ghost-city" with thousands of ruined and abandoned homes.
rations were reduced: manual workers had 600 grams of bread daily; state employees, 400 grams; and children and dependants (other civilians), 300 grams per day.
After the massive German bombings during August, September, and October of 1941 all main food warehouses were destroyed and burned in massive fires. Huge amounts of stored food reserves, such as grains, flour and sugar, as well as other stored food, were completely wiped out because of bombings and fires. The fires continued all over the city, because the Germans were bombing Leningrad non-stop for many months using various kinds of fire-bombs and heavy air-bombs during 1941, 1942, and 1943.
In the first days after the siege began, people finished all leftovers in "commercial" restaurants, which used up to 12% of all fats and up to 10% of all meat the city consumed. Soon all restaurants closed, food rationing became the only way to save lives, and money became obsolete. The carnage in the city from shelling and starvation (especially in the first winter) was appalling. One of Nikolai I. Vavilov's assistants starved to death surrounded by edible seeds so that the seed bank (with more than 200,000 items) would be available to future generations.
September 12, 1941, it was calculated that the provisions both for army and civilians would last as follows:
On the same day, another food reduction took place: the workers received 500 grams of bread; employees and children, 300 grams; and dependants, 250 grams. Rations of meat and groats were also reduced, but the issue of sugar, confectionery and fats was increased instead. The army and the
Baltic Fleethad some emergency rations, but these were not sufficient, and were used up in weeks. The flotilla of Lake Ladoga was not well equipped for war, and was almost destroyed in bombings by German aviation. Several barges with grain were sunk in Lake Ladoga in September 1941 alone. A significant part of that grain, however, was later lifted out of the waters by divers. This dampened grain was delivered to Leningrad at night, and was used in bread baking. When the city ran out of reserves of malt flour, other substitutes, such as finished celluloseand cotton-cake, were used. Oats meant for horses were also used, while the horses were fed wood leaves.
When 2,000 tons of mutton guts had been found in the seaport, a food grade
galantinewas made of them. Later, when the meat became unavailable, it was replaced by that galantine and by stinking calf skins, which many survivors remembered till the end of their lives.
During the first year of the siege, the city survived five food reductions: two reductions in September of 1941, one in October 1941, and two reductions in November 1941. The latter reduced the daily food consumption to 250 grams daily for manual workers and 125 grams for other civilians. Reports of
cannibalismbegan to appear in the winter of 1941–1942, after all birds, rats and pets were eaten by survivors. Starvation-level food rationing was eased by new vegetable gardens that covered most open ground in the city by 1943.
Damage to public utilities
The Nazis cut almost all supplies to Leningrad, so almost all food and catering disappeared, garment industries and retail closed, most schools as well as most public services became obsolete, causing massive exodus of women and children.
During all three winters of the siege of Leningrad, 1941-1942, 1942-1943, and 1943-1944, water pipelines were constantly destroyed by the air-bombings and artillery bombardments.Women were searching for water under the icy ground at the time when they were struggling to survive in besieged Leningrad. Ice and snow were deadly sources of water because of cold winters and lack of heat. During the siege, three cold winters were the time of the highest mortality rates among the civilian population. Tens of thousands of civilians froze to death in Leningrad.
Due to a lack of power supplies, many factories were closed down and, in November, all public transportation services became unavailable. The construction of pre-war designed metro system was stopped, and some unfinished tunnels were used as public shelters during air-bombings and artillery bombardments. In the spring of 1942, some tramway lines were reactivated, but trolleybuses and buses were inoperable until the end of the war). Use of power was forbidden everywhere, except at the General Staff headquarters,
Smolny, district committees, air defense bases, and in some other institutions. By the end of September, oil and coal supplies had come to an end. The only energy option left was to fell trees. On October 8the executive committee of Leningrad (Ленгорисполком) and regional executive committee (облисполком) decided to start cutting timber in the Pargolovo districtand also the Vsevolozhsky districtin the north of the city. By October 24only 1% of the timber cutting plan had been executed.
Civilian population evacuation
Almost all public transportation in Leningrad was destroyed as a result of massive air and artillery bombardments in August–September of 1941. 3 million people were trapped in the city. Leningrad, as main military-industrial center of Russia, was populated by military-industrial engineers, technicians, and workers with their civilian families. The only means of evacuation was on foot, with little window of opportunity to do so left before the expected encirlcement of Leningrad by the Wehrmacht and Finnish forces.
86 major strategic industries were evacuated from the city. Most industrial capacities, engines, and power equipment, instruments and tools, were moved by the workers. Some defence industries, such as the LMZ, the
Admiralty Shipyard, and the Kirov Plant, among some other industries were left in the city, and were still producing armor and ammunition for defenders.
Evacuation was organized by
Kliment Voroshilovand Georgi Zhukovand was managed by engineers and workers of Leningrad's 86 major industries, which were themselves also evacuated from Leningrad, by using every means of transportation available.
The evacuation operation was managed in several "waves" or phases:
*First wave of evacuation from June–August, 1941: 336,000 civilians, mostly children managed to escape because they were taken in, and evacuated with the 86 industries that were dismantled and moved to Northern Russia and Siberia.
*Second wave of evacuation, from September 1941 – April 1942: 659 thousand civilians were evacuated mainly by watercraft and ice road over lake Ladoga east of Leningrad.
*Third wave of evacuation, from May 1942 – October 1942: 403 thousand civilians were evacuated mainly through the waterways of lake Ladoga east of Leningrad.
Total number of civilians evacuated was about 1.4 million, mainly children, women, and war effort essential personnel. [cite web | title = Road of Life (Russian commemoration of 65th Anniversary of the siege of Leningrad | url = http://www.rian.ru/spravka/20060908/53650404.html]
Severe destruction of homes was caused by the Nazi air-bombings, as well as by daily artillery bombardments of Leningrad. Major destruction was done during August and September of 1941, when artillery bombardments were massive for several weeks in a row. Then regular air-bombings continued through 1941, 1942, and 1943. Most heavy artillery bombardments resumed in 1943, and increased 6 times in comparison with the beginning of the war. Hitler and the Nazi leadership were angered by their failure to take Leningrad by force. Hitler's directive No. 1601 ordered that "St. Petersburg must be erased from the face of the Earth" and "we have no interest in saving lives of civilian population."
Hundreds of buildings, public schools, hospitals and industries were destroyed by the Nazi bombings and air-raids. Museums and palaces in the suburbs were destroyed, vandalized and looted by the Nazis, while the personnel of museums was trying to save some art. Only parts of art collections from the famous suburban palaces of the
Tsars were evacuated in time, while some of the saved art was stored in the basements of the Hermitage until the end of war.
Destruction of Leningrad during the siege in 1941–1944 was evaluated as a bigger event than the nuclear bombings of Hirosima and Nagasaki combined. Thousands of homes, industries, roads and transportation structures, schools, hospitals, power plants and other infrastructure of the large city were completely destroyed , or severely damaged during 29 months of constant bombings and fires.
Spirited civilian support of military operations
Resistance of surviving civilian population of Leningrad provided crucial support for military operations during the battle of Leningrad. Total number of civilian volunteers helping the military is estimated equal to the number of civilians left in the city - about 500 thousand people, all of them were taking shifts at "day watch" and "night watch" to prevent fires and destruction from air-bombings and artillery bombardment.
The Nazis had a special intelligence unit that operated in secrecy, focused on causing more death and destruction in Leningrad through sabotage to destroy the morale and spirit of its citizensFact|date=May 2008. Some of the Nazi secret agents were arsonists, arrested while setting fires at storage facilities in besieged LeningradFact|date=May 2008. Water and food supplies were often found poisoned and infected by the Nazi spies infiltrating into the cityFact|date=May 2008. Volunteer militia brigades were involved in assisting civilians, mainly women and children at the time when they were struggling to survive.
While the population of Leningrad was depressed by the long and exhausting siege, people still tried to lift their spirits in the time when they were struggling to survive.
Popular film star
Boris Babochkinmade many visits to besieged Leningrad, while risking his life. Babochkin gave numerous stage performances in Leningrad, he also delivered several copies of the classic film Chapayev, which was a highly popular movie.
Symphony performances for survivors of the siege were rare, but attendance was rather high, regardless of the risks and exhaustion of everybody. Music performances were broadcast over the
Leningrad radio24/7. Performers and radio personnel worked without compensation, they received 250–500 grams of food per day, mainly low grade bread. Olga Bergholzand Anna Akhmatovawere contributing their talents to support the morale of civilians and military fighting in the besieged Leningrad.
Many heroic women and children were risking their lives helping military operations at the front-lines.
15 thousand children were decorated for their courage in military operations during the siege of Leningrad.
Aftermath of the siege
Following Germany's capitulation in May 1945 a concerted effort was made in Germany to search for the collections removed from the museums and palaces of Leningrad's surrounding areas during the war.
In September 1945 the Leningrad Philharmonic returned to the city from Siberia where it was evacuated during the war to gave its first peacetime concert performances.
For the heroic defence of the city and tenacity of the civilian survivors of the siege, Leningrad was the first city in the former Soviet Union to be awarded the title of a
Hero Cityin 1945.
For later recovery and reconstruction events see|History of Saint Petersburg
Economic and human losses caused incalculable damage to the city's historic sites and cultural landmarks, with much of the damage still visible today. Some ruins are preserved to commemorate those who gave their lives to save the city of
St. Petersburg. As of 2007, there were still empty lots in St. Petersburg suburbs where buildings stood before the siege.
Leningrad was awarded the title of
Hero Cityin 1945.
Siege influence on cultural expression
The siege caused a major trauma for several generations after the war. Leningrad/St. Petersburg as the cultural capital suffered incomparable human losses and the destruction of famous landmarks. The conditions in the city were appalling and starvation was constantly with the besieged. However, the city did resist for nearly 3 years, and the pride of the city is unmistakable: "Troy fell, Rome fell, Leningrad did not fall."
The Siege of Leningrad was commemorated in late 1950s by the Green Belt of Glory, a circle of trees and memorials along the historic front line. Warnings to citizens of the city as to which side of the road to walk on to avoid the German shelling can still be seen (they were restored after the war). Russian tour guides at
Peterhof, the palaces near St. Petersburg, report that it is still dangerous to go for a stroll in the gardens during a thunderstorm, as German artillery shrapnel embedded in the trees attracts lightning.
The Siege in music
Dmitri Shostakovichwrote the Seventh Symphony, some of which was written under siege conditions, for the Leningrad Symphony. According to Solomon Volkov, whose testimony is disputed, Shostakovich said "it's not about Leningrad under siege, it's about the Leningrad that Stalin destroyed and that Hitler nearly finished off".
Billy Joelwrote a song called "Leningrad" that referenced the famous siege. The song is partially about a young Russian boy, Viktor, who lost his father in the siege.
The Decemberistswrote a song called "When the War Came" about the heroism of civilian scientists during warfare . The lyrics state: "We made our oath to Vavilov/We'd not betray the solanum/The acres of asteraceae/To our own pangs of starvation". Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilovwas a Russian botanist whose laboratory, a seedbankcontaining 200 000 types of plant seeds, many of them edible, was preserved throughout the siege.
death metalband Dark Lunacy's 2006 album 'The Diarist' is about the siege.
*A line in the song 'Scared', by the Canadian band 'The Tragically Hip', references Russian efforts to save paintings during the Siege of Leningrad. "You're in Russia...and more than a million works of art...are whisked out to the woods...When the Nazis find the whole place dark...they'd think God's left the museum for good.
*The Siege is mentioned in the song
Sympathy for the Devilby The Rolling Stones."
The Siege in literature
Anna Akhmatova's Poem without Hero.
*American author Debra Dean
The Madonnas of Leningradtells the story of staff of the Hermitage Museum who saved the art collection during the Siege of Leningrad.
Elise Blackwellpublished "Hunger" (2003), an acclaimed historical dramatization of events surrounding the siege.
Helen Dunmorewrote an award-winning novel, "The Siege" (2001). Although fictitious, it traces key events in this siege, and shows how it affected those who weren't directly involved in the resistance.
Daniil Graninand Ales Adamovichpublished "The Blockade Book" which was based on hundreds of interviews and diaries of people who were trapped in the besieged city. The book was heavily censored by Soviet authorities due to its portrayal of human suffering contrasting with the "official" image of heroism.
*The Arab-Israeli author
Emil Habibialso mentioned the siege in his short story"The Love in my Heart" (الحب في قلبي), part of his collection "Sextet of the Six Days" (سداسية الايام الستة). Habiby's character visits a graveyard containing the siege's victims and is struck by the power of a display he sees commemorating the children who died, and it inspires him to write some letters in the voice of a Palestinian girl detained in an Israeli prison.
*Kyra Petrovskaya Wayen, a Russian nurse, illustrates life in Leningrad in her book Shurik: A Story of the Siege of Leningrad. The book tells a story of an orphane who Kyra found and took care of during the siege of Leningrad.
Cory Doctorow's After The Siegeis a science fiction story influenced by the author's grandmother experiences during the siege.
The Siege in other art forms
Auteurfilm director Andrey Tarkovskyincluded multiple scenes and references to the siege in his semi-autobiographical film "The Mirror".
*At the time of his death in 1989,
Sergio Leonewas working on a film about the siege. It drew heavily on Harrison Salisbury's "The 900 Days", and was a week away from going into production when Leone died of heart failure.
* Playwright, Ivan Fuller, has written a play about a theatre company struggling to survive the siege. "Eating Into the Fabric" will receive its premiere production at Augustana College in Sioux Falls, South Dakota in March 2009. It will be directed by Natalia Lapina of St. Petersburg, Russia. Anyone interested in the script can contact the playwright at firstname.lastname@example.org
Notable survivors of the siege
Anna Akhmatova— poet, writer
Boris Babochkin— film star
Nikolai Baryshnikov— historian, decorated for his courage in battles of the Siege of Leningrad.
Olga Berggoltz— poet, writer, decorated for her courage in the Siege of Leningrad
Joseph Brodsky— poet, Nobel Prize laureate
Karl Eliasberg— symphony director
Bruno Freindlich— actor
Alisa Freindlich— actress, film star
Viktor Korchnoi— chess grandmaster
Grigori Kozintsev— film director, decorated for his courage in the Siege of Leningrad
Georgi Lang— Chief Doctor of the Leningrad Front. Decorated for his courage in the Siege of Leningrad
Evgeny Mravinsky— symphony director
Nikolai Cherkasov— film star
Mikhail Petrov-Maslakov— Surgeon General, Leningrad City Hospital. Decorated for his courage in the Siege of Leningrad
Vsevolod Petrov-Maslakov— artist, decorated for his courage in the Siege of Leningrad
Nikolai Punin— curator of the Russian Museumand the Hermitage Museum
Dmitry Shostakovich— composer, decorated for his courage in the Siege of Leningrad
Mark Taimanov— chess grandmaster
Kyra Petrovskaya Wayen- nurse, actress, writer
* World War II casualties
Regia Marina— Lake Ladoga
List of famines
Siege of Sarajevo
*Harvard reference|Surname1=Barber |Given1=John |Authorlink1=|Surname2=Dzeniskevich|Given2=Andrei |Year=2005 |Title=Life and Death in Besieged Leningrad, 1941–44|Place=|Publisher=Palgrave Macmillan, New York|ID=ISBN 1-4039-0142-2|URL=
*Harvard reference|Surname=Baryshnikov|Given=N.I.|Authorlink=|Year=2003 |Title=Блокада Ленинграда и Финляндия 1941–44 (Finland and the Siege of Leningrad)|Place=|Publisher=Институт Йохана Бекмана |ID=|URL=
*Harvard reference|Surname=Glantz|Given=David|Authorlink=|Year=2001|Title=The Siege of Leningrad 1941–44: 900 Days of Terror|Place=|Publisher=Zenith Press, Osceola, WI|ID=ISBN 0-7603-0941-8|URL=
*Harvard reference|Surname=Goure|Given=Leon|Authorlink=|Year=1981 |Title=The Siege of Leningrad|Place=|Publisher=Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CA |ID=ISBN 0-8047-0115-6|URL=
*Harvard reference|Surname=Kirschenbaum|Given=Lisa|Authorlink=|Year=2006 |Title=The Legacy of the Siege of Leningrad, 1941–1995: Myth, Memories, and Monuments|Place=|Publisher=Cambridge University Press, New York|ID=ISBN ISBN 0-521-86326-0|URL=
*Harvard reference|Surname1=Lubbeck|Given1=William|Authorlink1=|Surname2=Hurt|Given2=David B.|Year=2006 |Title=At Leningrad's Gates: The Story of a Soldier with Army Group North|Place=|Publisher=Casemate, Philadelphia, PA|ID=ISBN 1-932033-55-6|URL=
*Harvard reference|Surname=Salisbury|Given=Harrison Evans|Authorlink=|Year=1969|Title=The 900 Days: The Siege of Leningrad|Place=|Publisher=Da Capo Press|ID=ISBN 0-306-81298-3|URL=
*Harvard reference|Surname1=Simmons |Given1=Cynthia |Authorlink1=|Surname2=Perlina|Given2=Nina |Year=2005|Title=Writing the Siege of Leningrad. Women's diaries, Memories, and Documentary Prose|Place=|Publisher=University of Pittsburgh Press|ID=ISBN-13: 9780822958697|URL=
*Harvard reference|Surname1=Willmott|Given1=H.P.|Authorlink1=|Surname2=Cross|Given2=Robin|Surname3=Messenger|Given3=Charles |Year=2004|Title=The Siege of Leningrad in World War II|Place=|Publisher=Dorling Kindersley|ID=ISBN 978-0-7566-2968-7|URL=
*Harvard reference|Surname=Wykes |Given=Alan |Authorlink=|Year=1972 |Title=The Siege of Leningrad, Ballantines Illustrated History of WWII|Place=|Publisher=|ID=|URL=
* Backlund, L.S.: Nazi Germany and Finland. University of Pennsylvania, 1983. University Microfilms International A. Bell & Howell Information Company, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
* BARBAROSSA. By Alan Clark. Perennial, 2002. ISBN 0-688-04268-6
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* Baryshnikov, V.N.: 'Neuvostoliiton Suomen suhteiden kehitys sotaa edeltaneella kaudella', TPH 1997, pp. 7–87.
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