Recurrent brief depression


Recurrent brief depression

Recurrent Brief Depression (RBD) defines a mental disorder characterized by intermittent depressive episodes, in women not related to menstrual cycles, occurring at least once a month over at least one year or more fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for major depressive episodes (DSM-IV and ICD-10) except for duration which in RBD is less than 14 days, typically 2-4 days. Despite the short duration of the depressive episodes, such episodes are severe and suicidal ideation and impaired function is rather common. The majority of patients with RBD also report symptoms of anxiety and increased irritability. Hypersomnia is also rather frequent. About 1/2 of patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria for RBD may have additional short episodes of brief hypomania which is a severity marker of RBD. RBD may be the only mental disorder present, but RBD may also occur as part of a history of recurrent major depressive episodes og bipolar disorders. RBD is also seen among some patients with personality disorders.

The lifetime prevalence of RBD has been estimated at 2.6 to 10.0%, and the one-year prevalence at 5.0-8.2%) The World Health Organization project on “Psychological problems in general health care”, which was based on primary care samples, reported a one-year prevalence of 3.7 – 9.9 %. However none of these studies differentiate between RBD with and without a history of other mood disorders (e.g. major depression). DSM-IV field trial estimated the life-time of RBD only to be about 2%.

The cause (etiology) of RBD is unknown, but recent findings may suggest a link between RBD and bipolar disorders, pointing to the importance of genetic factors. A small sub-group of patients with RBD has temporal lobe epilepsy.

Treatment. Both psychotherapy as well as different drugs (e.g. serotonin reuptake inhibitors - SSRIs or mood stabilizers, e.g. litium, antiepileptics) have been suggested as treatments.However, no randomized controlled treatment trial of RBD has been conducted.

History of the conceptDisorders characterized by periods with depressive episodes lasting hours to days have been described since 1852 and have been labelled “periodic melancholia”, “intermittent depressive disorder” or “very brief depression”. The third version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (1980), which relied heavily on findings from studies conducted in psychiatric in- and out-patient settings, required at least 14 days duration for a diagnosis of depression. No diagnostic category was allocated a depressive episode of shorter duration. Thus, intermittent depressive disorder, included in the Research Diagnostic Criteria (1975)was considered to identify minor versions of major depression (“minor depression”) and not included in the DSM-III. However, based on data from epidemiological studies, the Swiss psychiatrist and researcher, Jules Angst, coined the concept “recurrent brief depression” (RBD) and provided diagnostic criteria for this type of mood disorder in 1985. Several other European studies independently confirmed the occurrence of RBD in the general population and clinical samples. RBD was thus included in the 10th classification of mental and behavioural disorders (ICD-10 F38.1)published by the World Health Organization in 1992 (WHO, 1992; WHO, 1993). Less frequent episodes of brief depressions were labelled infrequent brief depression and not included in ICD-10. The american classification system of mental disorders, DSM-IV (1994), provided provisional diagnostic criteria for RBD, but decided to await further studies before including RBD in the classification system. The fate of RBD in DSM-V, expected to occur in 2012, is not known.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Depression: Recent Concepts —    Starting in the middle third of the twentieth century, the diagnosis of depression increased many fold.    Though some of this increase was owing to the systematic marketing of the diagnosis by pharmaceutical companies, other elements of the… …   Historical dictionary of Psychiatry

  • Depression and Mood Disorders: Recent Concepts —    Starting in the middle third of the twentieth century, the diagnosis of depression increased many fold.    Though some of this increase was owing to the systematic marketing of the diagnosis by pharmaceutical companies, other elements of the… …   Historical dictionary of Psychiatry

  • Management of depression — Depression, for the purposes of this article, refers to the mental disorder known as major depressive disorder. This kind of depression is a recognized clinical condition and is becoming a common condition in developed countries, where up to 20%… …   Wikipedia

  • Psychotic depression — Psychotic major depression (PMD) is a type of depression that can include symptoms and treatments that are different from those of non psychotic major depressive disorder (NPMD). PMD is estimated to affect about 0.4% of the population (or one in… …   Wikipedia

  • Melancholic depression — Melancholic depression, or depression with melancholic features is a subtype of major depression characterized by major depressive disorder with the following specific features: anhedonia (the inability to find pleasure in positive things),… …   Wikipedia

  • RBD — recurrent brief depression; relative biological dose; RNA binding domain; right border of dullness * * * REM sleep behavior disorder …   Medical dictionary

  • RBD — • recurrent brief depression; • relative biological dose; • RNA binding domain; • right border of dullness …   Dictionary of medical acronyms & abbreviations

  • Major depressive disorder — For other depressive disorders, see Mood disorder. Major Depressive Disorder Classification and external resources …   Wikipedia

  • Mood disorder — Classification and external resources ICD 10 F30 F39 ICD 9 …   Wikipedia

  • Аффективное расстройство — Расстройства настроения (аффективные расстройства) МКБ 10 F30 39 МКБ 9 296 Аффективное расстройство (Расстройство настроения)  общее название группы психических расстройств, связанных с нарушениями в эмоциона …   Википедия