- Turku Castle
TurkuCastle, "(Finnish: Turun linna, Swedish: Åbo slott)" dating from the 1280s, is a monument of Finnish history. Together with the Cathedral of Turku, Turku castle is one of the oldest buildings still in use in Finland. Turku castle is the largest surviving medieval building in Finland, and one of the largest surviving medieval castles in Scandinavia. This national monument standing on the banks of Aura riverhas experienced many stages for more than 700 years.
A start was made on building the castle in
1280. It was originally designed as a military fortress. During the next two centuries its defences were strengthened and living quarters were added. The castle served as a bastionand administrative centre of Eastland, as Finland was then know during it's time under Swedish rule. Turku Castles significance as a defensive fortress and administrative centre varied throughout the ages according to the political situation. Today the castle is once more experiencing a hayday as it has achieved the status of being one of Finland's most visited museums.
The layout of the castle consists of the Medieval
keep("päälinna") and Renaissance bailey("esilinna"). The keep consists of a square fort with two square gateway towers; the thickness of the walls at the base is some 5 m.
In the Middle Ages the castle was surrounded by a
moatconjoining on the River Aura, the castle effectively lying on an island. The keep was completed in the early 1400s. The construction of the bailey was begun in the late 15th century and finished in the 16th. The bailey is not as heavily fortified as the keep, but it has several turrets. The Renaissance construction work included heavy modification of nearly all the rooms in the older medieval part of the castle. Since the Renaissance no additions have been made to the castle.
Over the next few centuries, the modest military
fortificationgrew into a massive greystone castle, whose solid walls have witnessed many milestones in Nordic history. The castle has been subject to numerous sieges and several battles have been waged aside its walls. Of all Finnish castles, Turku castle has the most warlike history besides Vyborg castleand Olavinlinna.
The Castle's heyday was in the mid-
16th centuryduring the reign of Duke John of Finlandand Katarina Jagellonica. That was when the RenaissanceFloor and King's and Queen's hall were built, along with other features.
The castle was the center of the historical province of Finland Proper, and the administrative center of all of
Finland. Its strong walls and dungeons also served as the state prison for centuries; even today, a prisonis colloquially refererred to as "linna" (castle) in Finnish. The castle has been the place of many historical events; in 1573-1577, for example, the deposed Swedish queen Karin Månsdotterwere kept prisoner here.
The castle was damaged by
Sovietaircraft in the beginning days of the Continuation War1941. Restoration of the castle to its former Renaissance glory had begun before the war and went on gradually after it, over the decades. The renovation was complete in 1987 and the castle was handed over on October 12 1993 to the City of Turku which is entrusted with its operation for the Finnish state, its owner.
The castle is Finland's most visited museum, with attendance reaching 200,000 in some years. In addition, many of the larger rooms are used for municipal functions.
Various castellans, bailiffs, military commanders, governors who held Turku castle in Middle Ages:
* 1280s Carolus Gustavi
* early 1300s Nils Andersson and Harald Torsteinsson
* 1315-22 Lyder van Kyren, from Holstein
* 1324-26 Matts Kettilmundsson (concentrated commerce in Turku, brought a courtly and knightly culture
* 1326 Karl Näskonungsson
* 1340 Dan Nilsson
* c 1348 Gerhard Skytte
* 1358 Nils Turesson Bielke
* 1359 King Magnus IV, represented by
* c 1360 Narve Ingevaldsen from Norway
Bo Jonsson Grip, died 1386
* 1387 Jeppe Abrahamsson Djäkn
* 1395 Knut Bosson (Grip)
* 1399 the Union monarchs (
Margarethe & Erik)
* 1411 Klaus Lydekesson Djäkn
* 1435 Hans Kröpelin
* 1441 Karl Knutsson (the future
Charles VIII of Sweden)
* 1457-63: Kristofer Bengtsson Oxenstierna
Erik Axelsson Tott
Sten Sture the Elder
* 1499 Magnus Frille (appointed by king Hans)
* 1501 Sten Sture the Elder
* 1512 Kristofer Klasson Horn
* The Castle is the symbol of Finland's most popular brand of mustard, called "
Turun sinappi" (Turku mustard).
* Turku Castle provides scenery for numerous
Medieval reenactmentevents every year.
* The Northern shore of river Aura, where the castle lies, is called "tois pual jokke" ("the other side of the river") in Turku dialect. The Southern shore (the
Cathedral of Turkuside) is called "täl pual jokke" ("this side of the river"). In the Middle Ages the flow of the river Aura was on the north side of the castle; today it flows on the southern side.
* Turku castle was used as state prison into mid-19th century, until superseded by Kakola prison in 1853. Some of its more famous prisoners have been
Eric XIVand Jaakko Ilkka.
chapelof Turku Castle is a popular place for weddings in Turku, second only to the Cathedral of Turku.
* Turku Castle, Guide to the Main Castle. Turku Provincial Museum. Translated by Christopher Grapes. Jyväskylä: Gummerus Kirjapaino Oy, 1996. ISBN 951-595-022-8.
* Official site: [http://www.nba.fi/en/turku_castle Turku Castle] at the Finnish [http://www.nba.fi/en/ National Board of Antiquities]
* [http://virtual.finland.fi/netcomm/news/showarticle.asp?intNWSAID=25955 Medieval castles in Finland]
* [http://www.muuka.com/finnishpumpkin/castles/turunlinna/turunlinna.html Photos of Turku castle]
* [http://kotisivu.mtv3.fi/suomenhistoria/historia/linnat/turunlin.htm History] of the castle (in Finnish)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Turku — Infobox Settlement official name = City of Turku native name = Turun kaupunki – Åbo stad nickname = motto = imagesize = 320 px image caption = image shield = Turku.vaakuna.svg image dot dot x = 167 dot y = 88 dot map caption = Location of Turku… … Wikipedia
Turku tram — Infobox Public transit name = Turku tram imagesize = locale = Turku, Finland transit type = Tramway began operation = 1890 (horse tram), 1908 (electric tram) ended operation = 1892 (horse tram), 1972 (electric tram) system length = lines = 4… … Wikipedia
Turku — /toor kooh/, n. a seaport in SW Finland. 163,400. Swedish, Åbo. * * * ▪ Finland Swedish Åbo, city, southwestern Finland, at the mouth of the Aura River, west northwest of Helsinki. Finland s oldest city, it was originally a trading… … Universalium
Burg von Turku — p3 Burg Turku Die Burg von der Hafenseite aus gesehen Alternativname(n): Turun linna ( … Deutsch Wikipedia
Old Castle of Lieto — (Finnish: Liedon Vanhalinna) is a formerly fortified hill in Lieto, Finland. The original name of the castle is not known. According to excavations, the castle has been in use in the Late Bronze Age (1500–500 BCE), in Middle Iron Age (500–700 CE … Wikipedia
Oulu Castle — today, with a former observatory built on the remaining powder magazine. Oulu Castle (Swedish: Uleåborgs slott, Finnish: Oulun linna) was a late defense ca … Wikipedia
Stenberga Castle — (also known as Teinperi ) was a small medieval castle in Masku, Finland. It was originally built of gray stone, consisting of two towers with outer dimensions of 13 x 13 and 9 x 7 meters, respectively. The castle walls were two meters thick. In a … Wikipedia
Korsholma Castle — (Finnish: Korsholman linna, Swedish: Korsholm slott, also known as Chrysseborg) was a medieval castle in Vaasa, Finland. It was proba … Wikipedia
Vyborg Castle — ( ru. Выборгский замок, fi. Viipurin linna, sv. Viborgs fästning) is a Swedish built medieval fortress around which the town of Vyborg, Russia evolved. Currently it is a museum.GeneralViipurin linna was one of the three major castles of Finland.… … Wikipedia
Kultaranta Castle — The Kultaranta or Gullranda Castle ( Golden beach castle ) is the summer residence of the President of Finland. The castle is located in the district of Kultaranta on the island of Luonnonmaa, in Naantali. The granite castle is surrounded by… … Wikipedia