- Sima Shi
Sima Shi (208-255), courtesy name Ziyuan (子元), was an official of
Cao Weiduring the Three Kingdomsera of China. He ultimately became the actual wielder of imperial power. In 249, he assisted his father Sima Yiin overthrowing the emperor Cao Fang's regent Cao Shuang, allowing the Sima family to become paramount authority in the empire, and he inherited his father's authority after his father's death in 251. He maintained a tight grip on the political scene and, when the emperor Cao Fang considered action against him in 254, he had Cao Fang deposed and replaced with his cousin Cao Mao. This tight grip eventually allowed him to, at the time of his death in 255, transition his power to his younger brother Sima Zhao, whose son Sima Yaneventually usurped the throne and established the Jin Dynasty.
After Sima Yan became emperor, he, recognizing Sima Shi's role in his own imperial status, posthumously honored his uncle as the Emperor Jing of Jin (晉景帝), with the temple name Shizong (世宗).
Career up to 251
It is not known when Sima Shi was born, but it is known that he was Sima Yi's oldest son, born of Sima Yi's wife,
Lady Zhang Chunhua(張春華). When he was young, he was known for the elegance in his conduct and his intelligence. As his father was an important Cao Wei official, Sima Shi himself climbed up the ranks of officials fairly rapidly.
When Sima Yi planned a coup d'etat against Cao Shuang in late 248; according to "
Jin Shu", Sima Yi confided only in Sima Shi, with even his younger brother Sima Zhao excluded from the discussion (although Sima Guangfound this unlikely and, in his " Zizhi Tongjian", opined that Sima Yi planned the coup with both Sima Shi and Sima Zhao). Sima Shi put together a group of 3,000 loyal men without knowledge by Cao Shuang or his associates, and when Sima Yi set to carry out his plans in 249, Sima Shi was able to quickly summon the men to carry out the coup.
Once Sima Yi overthrew Cao Shuang and replaced Cao as regent for the emperor
Cao Fang, he rewarded his son with the title the Marquess of Changpingxiang. Sima Shi became his father's assistant, although there was no particular record of his accomplishments during these years. After Sima Yi died in 251, he took over his father's positions without significant opposition -- after his father had, earlier that year, suppressed a failed rebellion by Wang Ling(王淩) and massacred the clans of Wang and his associates.
As paramount authority
During Cao Fang's reign
Sima Shi was a capable politician and administrator, but he also quickly wanted to prove his military reputation. In 252, he made a major attack against
Eastern Wu, whose founding emperor Sun Quanhad recently died and whose current emperor, Sun Liang, was under the regency of Zhuge Ke. Zhuge Ke was able to deal Sima Shi's forces a major blow, but Sima Shi maintained himself well by making humble admissions of faults to the public and promoting the generals who tried to stop his campaign. In 253, after Sima Shi defeated Zhuge Ke in a major battle, his reputation was established, while Zhuge Ke's own was undermined (due to Zhuge Ke's failure to admit fault), and Zhuge soon fell while Sima's power was affirmed.
In 254, Sima Shi made a violent move to consolidate his power, at Cao Fang's expense. Cao Fang had endeared himself to the minister
Li Feng(李豐), and there had been suspicious by Sima Shi that they were plotting against him. He summoned and interrogated Li Feng, and when Li refused to disclose his conversations with the emperor, Sima Shi beat him to death with a sword handle and then accused Li Feng and his friends Xiahou Xuan(夏侯玄) and Zhang Ji (張緝) of treason, and had them and their families executed. Cao Fang was further forced to depose of his wife Empress Zhang, who was Zhang Ji's daughter. These moves further terrorized the officials into submission.
Cao Fang was very angry about the deaths of Li Feng and Zhang Ji, and later in 254, his associates submitted a plan to him -- that when Sima Shi's brother Sima Zhao would arrive at the palace for an official visit before heading to his defense post at
Chang'an, to kill Sima Zhao and seize his troops, and then use those troops to attack Sima Shi. Cao Fang was apprehensive and paralyzed, and did not implement the plan, but news was still leaked to Sima Shi. Sima Shi then forced Cao Fang to step down, although Sima spared his life and gave him his old title of the Prince of Qi. When Sima Shi notified Cao Fang's stepmother Empress Dowager Guo that he intended to make Cao Pi's brother Cao Ju(曹據), the Prince of Pengcheng, emperor, however, she managed to persuade him that such a succession would be improper -- that since Cao Ju was the uncle of her husband Cao Rui, such a succession would leave Cao Rui effectively sonless with no heir. Sima Shi was forced to agree with her, and he made, as she suggested, Cao Mao emperor instead. (Cao Mao, although 13 years old at the time, was known for his intelligence, and Empress Dowager Guo might have believed that he, alone of the princes and dukes, might have had a chance of counteracting the Simas.)
During Cao Mao's reign
Despite Empress Dowager Guo's intentions and Cao Mao's own intelligence, they made very little impact in trying to stem the tide of the Simas' growing power. In reaction to the removal of Cao Fang, in 255, the general
Wuqiu Jian, the commander in the important eastern city of Shouchun (壽春, in modern Lu'an, Anhui), along with another general Wen Qin(文欽), raised a rebellion against the Simas, but were quickly crushed by Sima Shi's army. Wuqiu Jian was killed, and his clan was slaughtered. Wen Qin and his sons fled to Eastern Wu.
The campaign had its tolls on Sima Shi, however. He was ill with an eye disorder at the time that Wuqiu Jian and Wen Qin's rebellion started, and had just had an eye surgery. He was initially therefore reluctant to lead the forces himself and wanted his uncle
Sima Futo lead the forces against Wuqiu Jian and Wen Qin. At the urging of Zhong Huiand Fu Gu(傅嘏), he led the troops himself, which was important in the victory against Wuqiu Jian, but during one of the raids made by Wen Qin's son Wen Yang(文鴦), Sima Shi, in his anxiety, aggravated the eye that he had just had the operation in -- causing his eye to pop out -- and his conditions soon deteriorated greatly. Less than a month after he put down the rebellion, he died while at Xuchang (許昌, in modern Xuchang, Henan), with his brother Sima Zhao in attendance to succeed him.
** Lady Zhang Chunhua (張春華)
Lady Xiahou Hui(夏侯徽) (poisoned 234), daughter of Xiahou Shangand a Wei imperial lady, mother of five daughters, posthumously honored as Empress Jinghuai (景懷皇后)
** Lady Wu (吳, personal name unknown), daughter of Wu Zhi (吳質), divorced (year unknown)
** Lady Yang Huiyu (羊徽瑜) (d. 278)
** Five daughters
* Adopted Child
Sima You(司馬攸), Prince Xian of Qi, son of Sima Zhao(therefore, biological nephew) (248-283)
Personages of the Three Kingdoms
Records of Three Kingdoms"
Romance of the Three Kingdoms"
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Sima Shi — Naissance 208 (approximatif) décès 255 Xuchang(許昌) Noms Chinois simplifié 司马师 Chinois traditionnel 司馬師 … Wikipédia en Français
Sima Shi — (chinesisch 司馬師), Großjährigkeitsname Ziyuan (chinesisch 子元; * um 208; † 255), war ein Beamter der Wei Dynastie zur Zeit der Drei Reiche im alten China. Im Jahre 249 stürzte er mit seinem Vater Sima Yi den Regenten des Wei Kaisers Cao… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sima Zhao — (sitzend). Illustration einer Qing Ausgabe der Geschichte der Drei Reiche. Sima Zhao (chinesisch 司馬昭; * 211; † 265), Großjährigkeitsname Zishang (chinesisch 子上), war der Sohn von Sima Yi, dem Oberbefehlsh … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sima Yan — Empereur Wǔ de Jìn Naissance 234 236 décès 290 Successeur Sima Zhong … Wikipédia en Français
Sima (surname) — Sima (zh stpw|t=司馬|s=司马|p=Sīmǎ|w=Ssu ma) is a Chinese family name. Unlike most single character Chinese family names, it is one of the rare two character family names. It is an occupation name, literally meaning control (sī) horses (mǎ), and… … Wikipedia
Sima Liang — (司馬亮) (d. 291), courtesy name Ziyi (子翼), formally Prince Wencheng of Ru nan (汝南文成王), was briefly a regent during the reign of Emperor Hui during Jin Dynasty (265 420). He was the first of the eight princes commonly associated with the War of the… … Wikipedia
Sima Lun — (sim. ch. 司马伦, trad. ch. 司馬倫, py. sī mǎ lún, wg. Ssu ma Lun) (before 249 exclusive poisoned June 5,301), courtesy name Ziyi (子彛), was titled the Prince of Zhao (pinyin: zhào wáng, simplified Chinese: 赵王, traditional Chinese: 趙王) and the usurper… … Wikipedia
Sima Fu — (chinesisch 司馬孚 / 司马孚 Sīmǎ Fū, * 180; † 272) war ein Politiker der späten Han Dynastie, der Wei Dynastie und der Jin Dynastie. Sima Fu war der jüngere Bruder von Sima Yi und diente mit diesem dem Reich Wei. Es heißt, dass er… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sima Zhao — Ilustración de la dinastía Qing Nacimiento 211 … Wikipedia Español
Sima Zhao — Three Kingdoms infobox Name=Sima Zhao imagesize=200px Caption=Sima Zhao at right, Qing Dynasty illustration. Title=Regent Kingdom=Cao Wei Born=211 Died=265 Predecessor= Successor= Simp=司马昭 Trad=司馬昭 Pinyin=Sīmǎ Zhāo WG=Szŭma Chao Zi=Zishang (子尚)… … Wikipedia