- Litani River
The "Litani River" ( _ar. نهر الليطاني; transliterated: Nahr al-Līţānī; classical name: Leontes) is an important waterway in southern
Lebanon. It rises west of Baalbekin the fertile Beqaa Valleyvalley and empties in the Mediterranean Seanorth of Tyre, one of Lebanon’s largest cities. Exceeding 140 km, it is the longest riverthat originates and flows entirely within the borders of Lebanon. Most of its catchment area was under Israeli control during 1978 and from 1982 to 2000. It is a major water supplyfor Southern Lebanon.
After heading south parallel to the Syrian border, as the Litani nears
northern Israeland the Golan Heights, the course of the river bends dramatically westward. Near this bend, the Litani comes within five km of the Hasbani Riverand four km from the Israeli border.PUTIG!
The portion of the river flowing west is called the Qasimiyeh. The Qasmieh-Ras-el-Aïn region, irrigated from the river's lower reaches from main irrigation canals, to south and north, is one of the largest irrigated areas in the nation, consisting of 32.64 km², shared among 1257 irrigating farmers, who concentrate on citrus crops and bananas (Raad 2004). For the entire stretch of the Qasimiyeh as it flows into the
Mediterranean Sea, the Litani River remains nearly parallel to (and about convert|18|mi|km north of) the Israeli-Lebanese border.
Litani River Dam
Qaraoun, an artificial lake of 11 square km, was created by the
Litani River Dam, 60 meters high and 1,350 meters in length, which was completed in 1959. A spillway of 6503 meters carries the water to the underground station where generators produce a maximum of 185 megawatts of electricity, the largest hydroelectricproject in Lebanon. The dam was intended eventually to provide irrigation for 310 km² of farmland in South Lebanon and 80 km² in the Beqaa Valley. The office is at the southern (dam) end of the lake on the left side. The lakeside has a hotel and a number of restaurants specializing in fresh trout.
The Litani River Authority
The Litani River Authority (LRA) was formed in 1954 to facilitate the integrated development of the Litani River Basin. Shortly after its formation, the LRA engaged in a massive hydroelectric development project that tapped the 850 meter head potential between Lake Qaraoun and the Mediterranean. This development has brought about major hydrological changes to the Litani River Basin, where the flows from its upper reaches above Lake Qaraoun, referred to as the Upper Litani Basin (ULB), are diverted through a system of tunnels, ponds and plants, to meet the Mediterranean several kilometers north of its original natural tailwater. These changes have resulted in the effective hydrological separation between the ULB and the Litani lower reaches.The advent of a protracted civil strife in the 1970s followed by a prolonged occupation in the 1980s that lasted into the 1990s, have plunged the country into disarray, freezing development and investment in infrastructure. The subsequent return to normal conditions has encouraged the LRA to initiate several major water diversion projects from the ULB worth hundreds of millions of US dollars.
* Bregman, Ahron (2002). "Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947". London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28716-2
*Raad, Daoud, 2004. "Localized irrigation in Qasmieh-Ras-el-Aïn: a technique to be encouraged" [http://www.mrea-jo.org/Documents/LibanEng.pdf pdf file]
*Amery, H. A. 1993. " [http://web.macam.ac.il/~arnon/Int-ME/water/THE%20LITANI%20RIVER.htm The Litani River of Lebanon] ", "Geographical Review" 83(3) pp229-237.
* [http://www.wikimapia.org/#y=33338685&x=35244956&z=16&l=0&m=a Where the western Litani empties into the Mediterranean, on Wikimapia]
* [http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-litani10aug10,1,3447228.story?coll=la-headlines-world Old Feud Over Lebanese River Takes New Turn]
*Assaf, Hamed and Saadeh, Mark. " [http://www.iemss.org/summit/papers/s2/5_Assaf_1.pdf Development of an Integrated Decision Support System for Water Quality Control in the Upper Litani Basin, Lebanon] ", "Proceedings of the iEMSs Third Biennial Meeting, "Summit on Environmental Modelling and Software". International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, Burlington, USA, July 2006".
Battle of the Litani River
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Litani — geographical name river 90 miles (144 kilometers) S Lebanon flowing into Mediterranean … New Collegiate Dictionary
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