Litani River


Litani River

The "Litani River" ( _ar. نهر الليطاني; transliterated: Nahr al-Līţānī; classical name: Leontes) is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. It rises west of Baalbek in the fertile Beqaa Valley valley and empties in the Mediterranean Sea north of Tyre, one of Lebanon’s largest cities. Exceeding 140 km, it is the longest river that originates and flows entirely within the borders of Lebanon. Most of its catchment area was under Israeli control during 1978 and from 1982 to 2000. It is a major water supply for Southern Lebanon.

outhern flow

After heading south parallel to the Syrian border, as the Litani nears northern Israel and the Golan Heights, the course of the river bends dramatically westward. Near this bend, the Litani comes within five km of the Hasbani River and four km from the Israeli border.PUTIG!

Qasimiyeh

The portion of the river flowing west is called the Qasimiyeh. The Qasmieh-Ras-el-Aïn region, irrigated from the river's lower reaches from main irrigation canals, to south and north, is one of the largest irrigated areas in the nation, consisting of 32.64 km², shared among 1257 irrigating farmers, who concentrate on citrus crops and bananas (Raad 2004). For the entire stretch of the Qasimiyeh as it flows into the Mediterranean Sea, the Litani River remains nearly parallel to (and about convert|18|mi|km north of) the Israeli-Lebanese border.

Litani River Dam

Qaraoun, an artificial lake of 11 square km, was created by the Litani River Dam, 60 meters high and 1,350 meters in length, which was completed in 1959. A spillway of 6503 meters carries the water to the underground station where generators produce a maximum of 185 megawatts of electricity, the largest hydroelectric project in Lebanon. The dam was intended eventually to provide irrigation for 310 km² of farmland in South Lebanon and 80 km² in the Beqaa Valley. The office is at the southern (dam) end of the lake on the left side. The lakeside has a hotel and a number of restaurants specializing in fresh trout.

The Litani River Authority

The Litani River Authority (LRA) was formed in 1954 to facilitate the integrated development of the Litani River Basin. Shortly after its formation, the LRA engaged in a massive hydroelectric development project that tapped the 850 meter head potential between Lake Qaraoun and the Mediterranean. This development has brought about major hydrological changes to the Litani River Basin, where the flows from its upper reaches above Lake Qaraoun, referred to as the Upper Litani Basin (ULB), are diverted through a system of tunnels, ponds and plants, to meet the Mediterranean several kilometers north of its original natural tailwater. These changes have resulted in the effective hydrological separation between the ULB and the Litani lower reaches.The advent of a protracted civil strife in the 1970s followed by a prolonged occupation in the 1980s that lasted into the 1990s, have plunged the country into disarray, freezing development and investment in infrastructure. The subsequent return to normal conditions has encouraged the LRA to initiate several major water diversion projects from the ULB worth hundreds of millions of US dollars.

References

* Bregman, Ahron (2002). "Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947". London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28716-2
*Raad, Daoud, 2004. "Localized irrigation in Qasmieh-Ras-el-Aïn: a technique to be encouraged" [http://www.mrea-jo.org/Documents/LibanEng.pdf pdf file]
*Amery, H. A. 1993. " [http://web.macam.ac.il/~arnon/Int-ME/water/THE%20LITANI%20RIVER.htm The Litani River of Lebanon] ", "Geographical Review" 83(3) pp229-237.
* [http://www.wikimapia.org/#y=33338685&x=35244956&z=16&l=0&m=a Where the western Litani empties into the Mediterranean, on Wikimapia]
* [http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-litani10aug10,1,3447228.story?coll=la-headlines-world Old Feud Over Lebanese River Takes New Turn]
*Assaf, Hamed and Saadeh, Mark. " [http://www.iemss.org/summit/papers/s2/5_Assaf_1.pdf Development of an Integrated Decision Support System for Water Quality Control in the Upper Litani Basin, Lebanon] ", "Proceedings of the iEMSs Third Biennial Meeting, "Summit on Environmental Modelling and Software". International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, Burlington, USA, July 2006".

ee also

*Battle of the Litani River
*Operation Litani


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Litani River — River, southern Lebanon. Rising west of Baalbek, it flows southwest between the Lebanon and Anti Lebanon mountains to enter the Mediterranean Sea south of Sidon. Its lower course is known as Qāsimiyyah. Although only 90 mi (145 km) long, the… …   Universalium

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  • Litani — Der Litani Fluss ist rot markiert Der Litani (arabisch ‏نهر الليطاني‎ Nahr al Līṭānī) ist ein Fluss im südlichen Libanon. Mit 140 km Länge ist er ein Fluss, der auf seiner ganzen Länge innerhalb des Libanon verläuft. Der Fluss war bei den Römern… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Litani — geographical name river 90 miles (144 kilometers) S Lebanon flowing into Mediterranean …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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