Antineoplastic


Antineoplastic

Antineoplastics (or "antitumor antibiotics", or "noncovalent DNA-binding drugs", or "cytotoxic antibiotics", see also neoplastics) are drugs that inhibit and combat the development of tumors.

In the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, they are classified under L01D.

Health Effects/Occupational Exposure

The adverse health effects associated with antineoplastic agents (cancer chemotherapy drugs, cytotoxic drugs) in cancer patients and some non-cancer patients treated with these drugs are well-documented. The very nature of antineoplastic agents makes them harmful to healthy constantly dividing cells and tissues, as well as the cancerous cells. For cancer patients with a life-threatening disease, there is a great benefit to treatment with these agents. However, for the healthcare workers that are exposed to antineoplastic agents as part of their work practice, precautions should be taken to eliminate or reduce exposure as much as possible.There already is a limitation in cytotoxics dissolution in Australia and the United States to 20 dissolutions per pharmacist/nurse, since pharmacists that prepare these drugs or nurses that may prepare and/or administer them are the two occupational groups with the highest potential exposure to antineoplastic agents. In addition, physicians and operating room personnel may also be exposed through the treatment of patients. Hospital staff, such as shipping and receiving personnel, custodial workers, laundry workers, and waste handlers, all have potential exposure to these drugs during the course of their work. The increased use of antineoplastic agents in veterinary oncology also puts these workers at risk for exposure to these drugs. [cite web|url=http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/antineoplastic/|title=NIOSH Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Agents |accessdate=2007-10-10|publisher=United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health]

Modes of action

There are many classes of antineoplastics:
* Alkylating agents
* Antimetabolites
*Antimitotics: bind to tubulin and inhibit spindle dynamics and thus block cell division
*Inhibition of topoisomerase II, thereby stopping DNA from being unwound, which is required for both DNA replication and RNA/protein synthesis.
* Generating free radicals.

They are products of various strains of the soil bacteria "Streptomyces".

Examples

* actinomycin (ATC|L01|DA01).
** The most important immunosuppressant from this group is dactinomycin, which is used to in kidney transplantations.
* anthracyclines
** doxorubicin (ATC|L01|DB01)
** daunorubicin (ATC|L01|DB02)
** Valrubicine
** Idarubicine
** epirubicin (ATC|L01|DB03), which also inhibit topoisomerase II)
* other cytotoxic antibiotics
** bleomycin (ATC|L01|DC01). Bleomycin acts in unique way through oxidation of a DNA-bleomycin-Fe(II) complex and forming free radicals, which induce damage and chromosomal aberrations.
** plicamycin (ATC|L01|DC02)
** mitomycin (ATC|L01|DC03)

References

External links

* [http://pharmacology.unmc.edu/cancer/antibio.htm University of Nebraska]
* [http://coventry.formularies.com/subcategory_list.asp?category=Antineoplastics&condition=&drugname=&drugtype= Formulary by category]
*
*
* [http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/antineoplastic/ National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Agents]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • antineoplastic — Preventing the development, maturation, or spread of neoplastic cells. * * * an·ti·neo·plas·tic .nē ə plas tik adj inhibiting or preventing the growth and spread of neoplasms or malignant cells <treated with a regimen of antineoplastic… …   Medical dictionary

  • antineoplastic — I noun any of several drugs that control or kill neoplastic cells; used in chemotherapy to kill cancer cells; all have unpleasant side effects that may include nausea and vomiting and hair loss and suppression of bone marrow function • Syn:… …   Useful english dictionary

  • antineoplastic — /an tee nee oh plas tik, an tuy /, Med., Pharm. adj. 1. destroying, inhibiting, or preventing the growth or spread of neoplasms. n. 2. an antineoplastic substance. [1965 70; ANTI + NEOPLASTIC] * * * …   Universalium

  • antineoplastic — an•ti•ne•o•plas•tic [[t]ˌæn tiˌni oʊˈplæs tɪk, ˌæn taɪ [/t]] adj. 1) med pha destroying, inhibiting, or preventing the growth or spread of tumors 2) med pha an antineoplastic substance • Etymology: 1965–70 …   From formal English to slang

  • antineoplastic — adjective Date: 1954 inhibiting or preventing the growth and spread of neoplasms or malignant cells …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • antineoplastic — 1. adjective /æntaɪniəplæstɪk,æntiniəplæstɪk/ Inhibiting the development of tumours. 2. noun /æntaɪniəplæstɪk,æntiniəplæstɪk/ Any such agent, used in chemotherapy …   Wiktionary

  • antineoplastic — an·ti·neoplastic …   English syllables

  • antineoplastic — A substance that blocks the formation of neoplasms (growths that may become cancerous) …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • antineoplastic drug — noun any of several drugs that control or kill neoplastic cells; used in chemotherapy to kill cancer cells; all have unpleasant side effects that may include nausea and vomiting and hair loss and suppression of bone marrow function • Syn:… …   Useful english dictionary

  • antineoplastic antibiotic — noun an antibiotic drug used as an antineoplastic in chemotherapy • Hypernyms: ↑antibiotic, ↑antibiotic drug, ↑antineoplastic, ↑antineoplastic drug, ↑cancer drug • Hyponyms: ↑mithramycin, ↑Mithracin …   Useful english dictionary


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