- Bombing of Chongqing
The bombing of Chongqing (
Traditional Chinese: 重慶大轟炸, Simplified Chinese: 重庆大轰炸, Japanese: 重慶爆撃, from 18 February 1938 to 23 August 1943) was part of an Imperial Japanese Army Air Serviceand Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service terror bombingoperation on the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqingauthorized by the Imperial General Headquarters.
A conservative estimate places the number of bombing runs at more than 5,000, with more than 11,500 bombs dropped, mainly
incendiary bombs. The targets were usually residential areas, business areas, schools, hospitals(non-military targets). These terror bombings were probably aimed at cowing the Chinese government, or as part of the planned Sichuan invasion.
In character with the Japanese approach to air warfare, the bombing of Chongqing was focused almost entirely on the civilian population, thus it can be seen as an early example of
terror bombing. In the first two days of the campaign, the raids of May 1939 killed more than five thousand Chinese civilians.cite book|title=Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan|author=Herbert Bix|year=2001, p.364]
Two months later, after tens of thousands of deaths, in retaliation for
firebombing, the United Statesembargoed the export of airplane parts to Japan, thus imposing its first economic sanctionagainst Japan. cite book|title=Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan|author=Herbert Bix|year=2001, p.364]
On 5 June 1941, the Japanese flew more than 20 sorties, bombing the city for 3 hours. About four thousand residents, who hid in a tunnel, were asphyxiated. cite book|author=Don Mosner|title=Burma campaign"|publisher=Time-Life|year=1978, pp.11, 8]
The majority of the air raids conducted against Chongqing were made with squadrons of
Mitsubishi G3Ms, known as "Nells", Mitsubishi Ki-1-Is, Fiat BR.20s Cicogna ("Ruths"), Mitsubishi Ki-21s "Sallys" and Kawasaki Ki-48s "Lilys" although towards the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Mitsubishi G4Ms ("Bettys"), Nakajima Ki-49s Donryu ("Helens"), Yokosuka P1Ys Ginga ("Frances") and Mitsubishi Ki-67s Hiryu ("Peggys") were also employed. Due to the unpreparedness of the Chinese Air Forceat the beginning of the war, much of the air raids were totally unopposed. Thus the campaign was one made against a defenceless target, and remains, like other Japanese atrocities during the war such as the Nanjing Massacre, highly contentious to the present day.
Total bomb tonnage and raids
A total of 268 air raids were conducted against Chongqing.
* [http://cqdhz.online.cq.cn Memorial site]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,764009,00.htm] l
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