Paul Drude


Paul Drude

Infobox_Scientist
name = Paul Drude



image_width = 250px
caption = Paul Karl Ludwig Drude
birth_date = birth date|1863|7|12|mf=y
birth_place = Braunschweig, Duchy of Brunswick
death_date = death date and age|1906|7|5|1863|7|12|mf=y
death_place = Berlin
residence = Germany
nationality = German
field = Physicist
work_institution = Humboldt University of Berlin
University of Giessen
alma_mater = University of Göttingen
doctoral_advisor = Woldemar Voigt
doctoral_students = Paul Cermak
Markus Lange
known_for = The Drude model
prizes =
religion =
footnotes =

Paul Karl Ludwig Drude (July 12, 1863 – July 5, 1906) was a German physicist specializing in optics. He wrote a fundamental textbook integrating optics with Maxwell's theories of electromagnetism. He was born in Braunschweig, the son of a physician.

Education

Born in Braunschweig, Drude began his studies in mathematics at the University of Göttingen, but later changed his major to physics. His dissertation covering the reflection and diffraction of light in crystals was completed in 1887, under Woldemar Voigt.

Career

In 1894 Drude became an extraordinarius professor at the University of Leipzig; in the same year he married Emilie Regelsberger, daughter of a Göttingen lawyer. They had four children. In 1900, he became the editor for the scientific journal "Annalen der Physik", the most respected physics journal at that time. From 1901-1905, he was ordinarius professor of physics at Giessen University. In 1905 he became the director of the physics institute of the University of Berlin. In 1906, at the height of his career, be became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. A few days after his inauguration lecture, for inexplicable reasons, he committed suicide. Drude was survived by his wife and four children.

Work

Drude graduated the year Heinrich Hertz began publishing his findings from his experiments on the electromagnetic theories of James Clerk Maxwell. Thus Drude began his professional career at the time Maxwell’s theories were being introduced into Germany. [ Jungnickel, 1990b, p. 167.] His first experiments were the determination of the optical constants of various solids, measured to unprecedented levels of accuracy. He then worked to derive relationships between the optical and electrical constants and the physical structure of substances. In 1894 he was responsible for introducing the symbol "c" for the speed of light in a perfect vacuum.

Toward the end of his tenure at Leipzig, Drude was invited to write a textbook on optics, which he accepted. The book, "Lehrbuch der Optik", [ The book was translated into English by C. R. Mann and Robert Millikan and published in 1902, under the title "The Theory of Optics". (Jungnickel, 1990b, p. 171.) Dover Publishing still (2006) offers the 1902 translation.] published in 1900, brought together the formerly distinct subjects of electricity and optics, which was cited by Drude as an “epoch-making advance in natural science.” [ Jungnickel, 1990b, p. 171.]

In 1900 he developed a powerful model to explain the thermal, electrical, and optical properties of matter. The Drude model would be further advanced in 1933 by Arnold Sommerfeld and Hans Bethe, becoming the "Drude-Sommerfeld model".

Honors

* Drude crater on the Moon is named for him.
* The [http://www.pdi-berlin.de/ Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik] , in Berlin, was named in his honor.

ee also

*Classical and quantum conductivity

Notes

Bibliography

* "Lehrbuch der Optik", Leipzig, 1906.

* Jungnickel, Christa and Russell McCormmach. "Intellectual Mastery of Nature. Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein, Volume 1: The Torch of Mathematics, 1800 to 1870." University of Chicago Press, paper cover, 1990a. ISBN 0-226-41582-1.

* Jungnickel, Christa and Russell McCormmach. "Intellectual Mastery of Nature. Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein, Volume 2: The Now Mighty Theoretical Physics, 1870 to 1925." University of Chicago Press, Paper cover, 1990b. ISBN 0-226-41585-6.

External links

* [http://www.pdi-berlin.de/drude.shtml Brief biography]

Persondata
NAME= Drude, Paul
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION= German physicist
DATE OF BIRTH= July 12, 1863
PLACE OF BIRTH= Braunschweig, Germany
DATE OF DEATH= July 5, 1906
PLACE OF DEATH= Berlin


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Paul Drude — Paul Karl Ludwig Drude (* 12. Juli 1863 in Braunschweig; † 5. Juli 1906 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Physiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Paul Drude — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Paul Drude Paul Karl Ludwig Drude (* 12 de julio de 1863 en Braunschweig, Alemania; † 5 de julio de 1906 en Berlín, Alemania) fue un físico alemán …   Wikipedia Español

  • Paul Drude — Paul Karl Ludwig Drude Naissance 12 juillet 1863 Braunschweig (Allemagne) Décès 5 juillet 1906 à …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik — Kategorie: Forschungseinrichtung Träger: Forschungsverbund Berlin Rechtsform des Trägers: Ein …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Paul Karl Ludwig Drude — Paul Drude Paul Karl Ludwig Drude (* 12. Juli 1863 in Braunschweig; † 5. Juli 1906 in Berlin) war ein deutscher Physiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben und Werk …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Drude model — electrons (shown here in blue) constantly bounce between heavier, stationary crystal ions (shown in red). The Drude model of electrical conduction was proposed in 1900[1][2] by Paul …   Wikipedia

  • Drude (Begriffsklärung) — Drude bezeichnet den Begriff Drude aus dem Germanentum Drude ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Oscar Drude (1855–1933), deutscher Botaniker Paul Drude (1863–1906), deutscher Physiker Siehe auch: Drudenfuß Drude Theorie (nach Paul Drude)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Drude (surname) — Drude is a surname, and may refer to Carl Georg Oscar Drude, German botanist Paul Drude, German physicist See also Drude, type of witch Drood This page or section lists people with the surname Drude (surname). I …   Wikipedia

  • Drude-Modell — Die Drude Theorie (auch Drude Modell) ist eine klassische Beschreibung des Ladungstransports in Metallen oder verallgemeinert durch freie Elektronen in Festkörpern. Sie wurde 1900 von Paul Drude vorgestellt [1] [2], 1905 von Hendrik Antoon… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Drude-Theorie — Die Drude Theorie (auch Drude Modell) ist eine klassische Beschreibung des Ladungstransports in Metallen oder verallgemeinert durch freie Elektronen in Festkörpern. Sie wurde 1900 von Paul Drude vorgestellt,[1][2] 1905 von Hendrik Antoon Lorentz… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.