- Farthest South
Farthest South (sometimes known as Furthest South) describes the most southerly latitude reached by explorers before the conquest of the
South Polerendered the expression obsolete. Significant early steps in the convergence towards the Pole were the discovery of lands south of Cape Hornin 1619, Captain James Cook's crossing of the Antarctic Circlein 1773, and the earliest confirmed sightings of the Antarcticmainland in 1820. In the years before reaching the Pole was a realistic objective, other motives drew adventurers southward. Initially, the driving force was the discovery of new trade routes between Europe and the Far East. After such routes had been established and the main geographical features of the earth had been broadly mapped, the lure for mercantile adventurers was the great fertile continent which, according to myth, lay hidden in the south.Huntford, p. 20] Belief in the existence of this land of plenty persisted well into the 18th century; people were reluctant to accept what polar historian Roland Huntfordlater described as "the baleful truth"—a cold, harsh environment in the south, borne out by discoveries of icy and inhospitable islands in the Southern Ocean. James Cook's voyages of 1771–74 demonstrated conclusively the likely hostile nature of any hidden lands. Thereafter the emphasis shifted away from trade and towards exploration and discovery, in expeditions such as those of James Weddelland James Clark Rossin the first half of the 19th century. After the first confirmed landing on continental Antarcticain the late 19th century, the quest for Farthest South latitudes became, in effect, the "race for the pole". The British were pre-eminent in this endeavour, which was characterised by the rivalry between Captain Scottand Ernest Shackletonduring the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. However, the first person to reach the ultimate Farthest South, the South Pole itself at 90°S, was a Norwegian, Roald Amundsen, in December 1911.
In 1494 the principal maritime powers, Portugal and Spain, signed a treaty which drew a line down the middle of the
Atlantic Oceanand allocated all trade routes to the east of the line to Portugal. That gave Portugal dominance of the only known route to the east – via the Cape of Good Hopeand Indian Ocean, which left Spain, and later other countries, to seek a western route to the Pacific. The exploration of the south began as part of the search for such a route. [Knox-Johnston, pp. 20–22]
Although Portuguese by birth, Ferdinand Magellan transferred his allegiance to King Charles I of Spain, on whose behalf he left
Sevilleon 10 August 1519, with a squadron of five ships, in search of a western route to the Spice Islandsin the East Indies.cite web|title= The European Voyages of Exploration: Ferdinand Magellan|url= http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/eurvoya/magellan.html|publisher= www.ucalgary.ca|year= 1997|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 28 July] Success depended on finding a strait or passage through the South American land masses, or finding the southern tip of the continent and sailing below it. The South American coast was sighted on 6 December, and Magellan moved cautiously southward, following the coast to reach latitude 49°S on 31 March 1520. Little if anything was known of the coast south of this point, so Magellan decided to wait out the southern winter here, and established the settlement of Puerto San Julian.
In September the journey continued down the uncharted coast, on 21 October reaching 52°S. Here Magellan found a deep inlet which, on investigation, proved to be the strait he was seeking, later to be known by his name. As his squadron navigated through it towards the
Pacific Ocean, in November 1520 they reached the strait's most southerly point, approximate latitude 54°S. They thus established a record Farthest South for a European navigator, although the impact of this achievement is lessened by the presence of the native peoples living south of this point in Tierra del Fuego, the world's most southerly known human settlement.cite web|title= The Fuegians and Patagonian People|url= http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter54/text-Fuego/text-Fuego.htm#sites|author = Weber, George|publisher= The Andama Association|year= 2007|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 28 July]
Francisco de Hoces
The first sighting of an ocean passage to the Pacific south of Tierra del Fuego is sometimes attributed to
Francisco de Hocesof the Loaisa Expedition. In January 1526 his ship "San Lesmes" was blown south from the Atlantic entrance of the Magellan Straitto a point where the crew thought they saw a headland, and water beyond it, which indicated the southern extremity of the continent. It is pure speculation as to which headland they saw, though it was conceivably Cape Horn. People in parts of the Spanish-speaking world claim on this evidence that de Hoces made the discovery of the strait later known as the Drake Passagemore than 50 years before Sir Francis Drake, the British privateer, but lack of corroboration makes such claims doubtful.
ir Francis Drake
Drake sailed from Plymouth on 15 November 1577, in command of a fleet of five ships under his flagship "Pelican", later renamed the "Golden Hinde". His principal objective was plunder, not exploration; his initial targets were the unfortified Spanish towns on the Pacific coasts of Chile and Peru. Following Magellan's route, Drake reached Puerto San Julian on 20 June. After nearly two months in harbour, Drake left the port with a reduced fleet of three ships and a small
pinnace. His ships entered the Magellan Strait on 23 August and emerged in the Pacific Ocean on 6 September.Knox-Johnston, pp. 40–45]
Drake set a course to the north-west, but on the following day a gale scattered the ships. The "Marigold" was sunk by a giant wave; the "Elizabeth" managed to return into the Magellan Strait, later sailing eastwards back to England; the pinnace was lost later. The gales persisted for more than seven weeks. The "Golden Hinde" was driven far to the west and south, before clawing its way back towards land. On 22 October the ship anchored off an island which Drake named "Elizabeth Island", where wood for the galley fires was collected and seals and penguins captured for food.
According to Drake's Portuguese pilot, Nuño Da Silva, their position at the anchorage was 57°S. However, there is no island at that latitude. The as yet undiscovered
Diego Ramirez Islands, at 56°30', are treeless and cannot have been the islands where Drake's crew collected wood. This indicates that the navigational calculation was faulty, and that Drake landed at or near Cape Horn, possibly on Horn Island itself. His final southern latitude can only be speculated as that of Cape Horn, at 55°59'S. In his report, Drake wrote: "The Uttermost Cape or headland of all these islands stands near 56 degrees, without which there is no main island to be seen to the southwards but that the Atlantic Ocean and the South Sea meet." This open sea south of Cape Horn became known as the Drake Passage.
Garcia de Nodal expedition
The first recorded navigation of the Drake Passage was achieved in February 1619, by the brothers Bartolome and Gonzalo Garcia de Nodal. During the course of its exploration their
Garcia de Nodal expeditiondiscovered a small group of islands about convert|60|mi|km|sigfig=1 SW of Cape Horn, at latitude 56°30’S. They named these the Diego Ramirez Islands after the expedition's pilot. The islands remained the most southerly known land on earth until Captain Cook's discovery of the South Sandwich Islandsin 1775. [Knox-Johnston, pp. 60–61]
Other voyages brought further discoveries in the southern oceans; in August 1592 the English seaman John Davis had taken shelter "among certain Isles never before discovered" – presumed to be the
Falkland Islands.Knox-Johnston, p. 52] [Other claims to the Falklands discovery have been made, particularly that of Netherlander Sebald de Weertin 1600, hence the early name for the group "Sebaldine Islands". Knox-Johnston, p. 58] In 1675, the English merchant voyager Anthony de la Rochésighted South Georgia; in 1739 the Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Bouvet de Lozier discovered the remote Bouvet Island, and in 1772 his compatriot, Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen de Trémarec, found the Kerguelen Islands.cite web|title= An Antarctic Timeline|url= http://www.south-pole.com/p0000052.htm|publisher= www.south-pole.com|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 29 August] However, none of these discoveries extended the southern latitude registered by the Nodal brothers.
Early Antarctic explorers
Captain James Cook
Captain Cook's second extended voyage, 1772–1775, was primarily a search for the elusive
Terra Australis Incognitathat was still believed to lie somewhere in the unexplored latitudes below 40°S. [Coleman, p. 53–54] His expedition in HMS "Resolution" and HMS "Adventure, which left England in September 1772, would also undertake important scientific work. The two ships sailed from Table Bay, South Africa, on 22 November,Coleman, pp. 56–57] and headed directly southward. Heavy gales drove the ships eastward, until pack icewas encountered on 10 December. This soon became a solid barrier that required great seamanship to circumvent. Finding a way through, Cook's expedition continued south in open water, and on 17 January 1773 reached the Antarctic Circle at 66°20’S,Coleman, p. 59] the first ships to do so. Further progress was barred by ice, and the ships turned north-eastwards and headed for New Zealand which they reached on 26 March.Coleman, p. 59]
During the ensuing months the expedition explored the southern Pacific Ocean before Cook took "Resolution" south again – "Adventure" had retired back to South Africa after a fracas with the New Zealand native population. [Coleman, p. 61] This time Cook was able to penetrate deep beyond the Antarctic Circle, and on 30 January 1774 reached 71°10’S, his Farthest South, [Preston, p. 11] but the state of the ice made further southward travel impossible. This southern record would hold for 49 years.
In the course of his voyages in Antarctic waters, Cook had encircled the world at latitudes generally above 60°S, and saw nothing but bleak inhospitable islands, without a hint of the fertile continent which some hoped still lay in the south. Cook wrote that if any such continent existed it would be "a country doomed by nature", and that "no man will venture further than I have done, and the land to the South will never be explored". He concluded: "Should the impossible be achieved and the land attained, it would be wholly useless and of no benefit to the discoverer or his nation". [Coleman, pp. 62–64]
earching for land
Despite Cook's prediction, the early 19th century saw numerous attempts to penetrate southward, and to discover new lands. In 1819 William Smith, in command of the
brigantine"Williams", discovered the South Shetland Islands,Knox-Johnston, pp. 85–86] and in the following year Edward Bransfield, in the same ship, sighted the Trinity Peninsulaat the northern extremity of Graham Land. A few days before Bransfield's discovery, on 27 January 1820, the Russian captain Fabian von Bellingshausen, in another Antarctic sector, had dimly sighted the coast of what is now known as Dronning Maud Land. He is thus credited as the first person to see the continent's mainland. In 1821 the American sealing captain John Davis led a party which landed on an uncharted stretch of land beyond the South Shetlands. "I think this Southern Land to be a Continent", he wrote in his ship's log; if he was correct, his party were the first to set foot on the Antarctic continent. [Barczewski, p. 19] For all these adventures and discoveries, Cook's southern record remained inviolate.
James Weddellwas an Anglo-Scottish seaman who saw service in both the Royal Navyand the merchant marine before undertaking his first voyages to Antarctic waters. In 1819, in command of the 160-ton brigantine"Jane" which had been adapted for whaling, he set sail for the newly discovered whaling grounds of the South Sandwich Islands. His chief interest on this voyage was in finding the "Aurora Islands", which had been reported at 53°S,48°W by the Spanish ship "Aurora" in 1762.cite web|title= James Weddell:Anglo-Scottish navigator, sealer and Antarctic explorer, 1787-1934|url =http://www.win.tue.nl/~engels/discovery/weddell.html|author = Howgego, James|publisher = www.win.tue.nl|year = 2002|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 28 July] He failed to discover this non-existent land, but his sealing activities showed a handsome profit.In 1822 Weddell, again in command of "Jane" and this time accompanied by the smaller ship "Beaufoy", set sail for the south with instructions from his employers that, should the sealing prove barren, he was to "investigate beyond the track of former navigators". This suited Weddell’s exploring instincts, and he equipped his vessel with chronometers, thermometers, compasses, barometers and charts. In January 1823 he probed the waters between the South Sandwich Islands and the South Orkney Islands, looking for new land. Finding none, he turned southward down the 40°W meridian, deep into the sea that now bears his name. [Weddell intended to call the sea "Sea of George IV", but this name was not adopted, and it became the Weddell Sea. Coleman, p. 325] The season was unusually calm, and Weddell reported that "not a particle of ice of any description was to be seen". On 20 February 1823, he reached a new Farthest South of 74°15’S, three degrees beyond Cook's former record. Unaware that he was close to land, Weddell decided to return northward from this point, convinced that the sea continued as far as the South Pole. Another two days’ sailing would have brought him within sight of Coats Land, which was not discovered until 1904, by William Speirs Bruceduring the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902–04. [Speak, p. 93] On his return to England, Weddell's claim to have exceeded Cook's record by such a margin "caused some raised eyebrows", but was soon accepted.
James Clark Ross
James Clark Ross's 1839–43 Antarctic expedition in HMS "Erebus" and HMS "Terror" was a full-scale Royal Naval enterprise, the principal function of which was to test current theories on magnetism, and to try and locate the South Magnetic Pole. The expedition had first been proposed by leading astronomer Sir John Herschel, and was supported by the Royal Societyand the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Coleman, pp. 326–28] Ross had considerable past experience in magnetic observation and Arctic exploration; in May 1831 he had been a member of a party that had reached the location of the North Magnetic Pole, [Huntford, p. 22] and he was an obvious choice as commander.The expedition left England on 30 September 1839, and after a voyage that was slowed by the many stops required to carry out work on magnetism, it reached Tasmaniain August 1840. Following a three-month break imposed by the southern winter, they sailed south-east on 12 November 1840, and crossed the Antarctic Circleon 1 January 1841. On 11 January a long mountainous coastline that stretched to the south was sighted. Ross named the land Victoria Land, and the mountains the Admiralty Range.Coleman, pp. 329–32] He followed the coast southwards and passed Weddell's Farthest South point of 74°15’S on 23 January. A few days later, as they moved further eastward to avoid shore ice, they were met by the sight of twin volcanoes, which were named Mount Erebusand Mount Terror, in honour of the expedition’s ships.
The Great Ice Barrier (later to be called the "Ross Ice Shelf") was east of these mountains and formed an impassable obstacle to further southward progress. In his search for a strait or inlet, Ross explored convert|300|mi|km|sigfig=2 along the edge of the barrier, and reached an approximate latitude of 78°S on or about 8 February 1841. He failed to find a suitable anchorage that would have allowed the ships to over-winter, so he returned to Tasmania, arriving there in April 1841.
The following season Ross returned and located an inlet in the Barrier face that enabled him, on 23 January 1842, to extend his Farthest South to 78°09'30"S, [Coleman, p. 335] a record which would remain unchallenged for 58 years. Ross had not been able to land on the Antarctic continent, nor approach the location of the South Magnetic Pole. Nevertheless, his achievements in geographical and scientific exploration were rewarded with many honours on his return to England, including that of a
knighthood. [Coleman, p. 340]
Explorers of the Heroic Age
The oceanographic research voyage known as the
Challenger Expedition, 1873–76, explored Antarctic waters, but did not approach the land itself; its researches, however, proved the existence of an Antarctic continent beyond reasonable doubt. [Jones, pp. 56–57] The impetus for what would become known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration came in 1893, when in a lecture to the Royal Geographical SocietyProfessor Sir John Murray called for a resumption of Antarctic exploration: "a steady, continuous, laborious and systematic exploration of the whole southern region". [Crane, p. 75] He followed this call with an appeal to British patriotism: "Is the last great piece of maritime exploration on the surface of our Earth to be undertaken by Britons, or is it to be left to those who may be destined to succeed or supplant us on the Ocean?" [Fisher, p. 18] During the following quarter-century, fifteen expeditions from eight different nations rose to this challenge. [Belgium, Britain, Sweden, Germany, France, Japan, Australia, Norway] In the patriotic spirit engendered by Murray's call, and under the influence of RGS president Sir Clements Markham, British endeavours in the following years gave particular weight to the achievement of new Farthest South records, [Fiennes, p. 9] and began to develop the character of a race for the South Pole. [Preston, p. 15]
Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevinkhad emigrated to Australia in 1888, where he worked on survey teams in Queensland and New South Wales before accepting a school–teaching post. [cite web|title = Borchgrevink, Carsten Egeberg (1864-1934)|url= http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A070353b.htm|publisher= Australian Dictionary of Biography - on-line edition|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 9 August] In 1894 he joined a sealing and whaling expedition to the Antarctic, led by Henryk Bull. In January 1895 Borchgrevink was one of a group from that expedition that claimed the first confirmed landing on the Antarctic continent, at Cape Adare.cite web|title= Carsten Borchgrevink 1864–1934|url= http://www.south-pole.com/p0000087.htm| publisher = www.south-pole.com|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 29 July] [This claim ignores John Davis's reported 1821 landing on the Antarctic Peninsula.] Borchgrevink determined to return with his own expedition, which would over-winter and explore inland, with the location of the South Magnetic Pole as an objective.
Borchgrevink went to England, where he was able to persuade the publishing magnate Sir George Newnes to finance him to the extent of £40,000, worth £3 million in 2008, [cite web|title= Measuringworth|url= http://www.measuringworth.com/uscompare/|publisher= The Institute for the Measurement of Worth|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 19 August] with the sole stipulation that, despite the shortage of British participants, the venture be styled the "British Antarctic Expedition". [Preston, p. 4] This was by no means the grand British expedition envisaged by Markham and the geographical establishment, who were hostile and dismissive of Borchgrevink. On 23 August 1898 the expedition ship "Southern Cross" left London for the
Ross Sea, reaching Cape Adare on 17 February 1899. Here a shore party was landed and was the first to over-winter on the Antarctic mainland, in a prefabricated hut.
In January 1900 "Southern Cross" returned, picked up the shore party and, following the route which Ross had taken 60 years previously, sailed southward to the Great Ice Barrier, which they discovered had retreated some convert|30|mi|km|sigfig=2 south since the days of Ross. A party consisting of Borchgrevink, William Colbeck and a
Samicalled Savio landed with sledges and dogs. This party ascended the Barrier and made the first sledge journey on the barrier surface; on 16 February 1900 they extended the Farthest South record to 78°50’S. [Preston, pp. 13–15] On its return to England later in 1900, Borchgrevink’s expedition was received without enthusiasm, despite its new southern record. Historian David Crane commented that if Borchgrevink had been a British naval officer, his contribution to Antarctic knowledge might have been better received, but "a Norwegian seaman/schoolmaster was never going to be taken seriously".Crane, p.74]
Robert Falcon Scott
Discovery Expeditionof 1901–04 was Captain Scott's first Antarctic command. Although according to Edward Wilson the intention was to "reach the Pole if possible, or find some new land", [Wilson diary, 12 June 1902, p. 151] there is nothing in Scott's writings, nor in the official objectives of the expedition, to indicate that the Pole was a definite goal. However, a southern journey towards the Pole was within Scott’s formal remit to "explore the ice barrier of Sir James Ross […] and to endeavour to solve the very important physical and geographical questions connected with this remarkable ice formation". [Savours, p. 16]
This journey was undertaken by Scott, Wilson and
Ernest Shackleton. The party set out on 1 November 1902 with various teams in support, and one of these, led by Michael Barne, passed Borchgrevink's Farthest South mark on 11 November, an event recorded with great high spirits in Wilson's diary. [Wilson diary, 11 November, p. 214] The march continued, initially in favourable weather conditions, [Wilson’s diary entry for 15 December, p. 225, refers to a "blazing hot day"] but encountered increasing difficulties caused by the party’s lack of ice travelling experience and the loss of all its dogs through a combination of poor diet and overwork. [Crane, p. 205, pp. 223–27] The 80°S mark was passed on 2 December, [Wilson diary, 3 December, p. 220] and on 30 December, Wilson and Scott took a short ski trip from their southern camp, to set a new Farthest South at (according to their measurements) 82°17’S. [Wilson diary, 30 December, p. 230.] This may not be exact; modern maps, correlated with Shackleton's photograph and Wilson's drawing, put their final camp at 82°6’S, and the point reached by Scott and Wilson at 82°11’S. [Crane, pp. 214–15] Whatever the precise latitude, they had extended Borchgrevink's mark by approximately 240 statute miles (400 km).
After his share in the Farthest South achievement of the Discovery Expedition, Ernest Shackleton suffered a physical collapse on the return journey, and was sent home with the expedition’s relief vessel on orders from Captain Scott. [Riffenburgh, pp. 87–89] Four years later, Shackleton organised his own polar venture, the
Nimrod Expedition, 1907–09. This was the first expedition to set the specific objective of reaching the South Pole, and to have a specific strategy for doing so.Riffenburgh, p. 108] To assist his endeavour, Shackleton adopted a novel mixed transport strategy, involving the use of Manchurian ponies as pack animals, as well as the more traditional dog-sledges. A specially-adapted motor car was also taken. Although the dogs and the car were used during the expedition for a number of purposes, the task of assisting the group that would undertake the march to the Pole fell to the ponies. [ The size of Shackleton’s four-man polar party was dictated by the number of surviving ponies; of the ten that were embarked in New Zealand, only four survived the 1908 winter. Riffenburgh, p. 177]
Ernest Shackleton and three companions (
Frank Wild, Eric Marshalland Jameson Adams) began their march on 29 October 1908. On 26 November they surpassed the furthest point reached by Scott's 1902 party. "A day to remember", wrote Shackleton in his journal, noting that they had reached this point in far less time than on the previous march with Captain Scott. [Shackleton, p. 171] [Riffenburgh, p. 204] Shackleton’s group continued southward, discovering and ascending the Beardmore Glacierto the polar plateau,Riffenburgh, pp. 227–33] and then marching on to reach their Farthest South point at 88°23’S, a mere 97 geographical miles (114 statute miles, 190 km) from the Pole, on 9 January 1909. Here they planted the Union Jack presented to them by Queen Alexandra, and took possession of the plateau in the name of King Edward VII, [Shackleton, p. 210] before shortages of food and supplies forced them to turn back north. This was, at the time, the closest convergence on either Pole. The increase of more than six degrees south from Scott's previous record was the greatest extension of Farthest South since Captain Cook's 1773 mark. Shackleton was treated as a hero on his return to England, and was knighted by King Edward. [Riffenburgh, p. 296] However, the record was to stand for a shorter time than any previous mark, except Borchgrevink's. [It stood for 2 years 333 days. Borchgrevink's record had lasted 2 years 316 days.]
In the wake of Shackleton’s near miss, Captain Scott organised the
Terra Nova Expedition, 1910–13, in which securing the South Pole for the British Empire was an explicitly stated prime objective. [Crane, p. 397] As he planned his expedition, Scott saw no reason to believe that his effort would be contested. However, the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, who had been developing plans for a North Pole expedition, changed his mind when, in September 1909, the North Pole was claimed in quick succession by the Americans Frederick Cookand Robert Peary. Amundsen resolved to go south instead. [Huntford, pp. 207–08]
Amundsen concealed his revised intentions until his ship, "Fram", was in the Atlantic and beyond communication. [Huntford, pp. 283–88] Scott was notified by telegram that a rival was in the field, but had little choice other than to continue with his own plans. [Huntford, p. 299] Meanwhile, "Fram" arrived at the Ross Ice Shelf on 11 January 1911, and by 14 January had found the inlet, or "Bay of Whales", where Borchgrevink had made his landing eleven years earlier. This was to be the location of Amundsen's base camp, "Framheim". [Huntford, pp. 297–98]
After nine months’ preparation, Amundsen's polar journey began on 20 October 1911. [Amundsen, p. 1] Avoiding the known route to the polar plateau via the Beardmore Glacier, Amundsen led his party of five due south, reaching the
Transantarctic Mountainson 16 November. [Amundsen, pp. 33–40] They ascended to the plateau via the newly discovered Axel Heiberg Glacier, and made the final march to the Pole. Shackleton's Farthest South was passed on 7 December and the Pole itself, at 90°S, was reached on 15 December 1911. [Amundsen, pp 120–30] The Norwegian party's greater skills with the techniques of ice travel, using ski and dogs, had proved decisive. Captain Scott's five-man team reached the same point 33 days later, and perished during their return journey. [Crane, p. 543] Since Cook's journeys, every expedition that had held the Farthest South record before Amundsen's conquest had been British; however, the final triumph indisputably belonged to the Norwegians. [Huntford, p.511]
After Scott's retreat from the Pole in January 1912, the location remained unvisited for nearly 18 years. On 28 November 1929, US Navy
Commander(later Rear-Admiral) Richard E. Byrdand three others completed the first aircraft flight over the South Pole. Twenty-seven years later, Rear-Admiral George J. Dufekbecame the first person to set foot on the Pole since Scott, when on 31 October 1956 he and the crew of R4D-5 Skytrain "Que Sera Sera" landed at the Pole. [cite web|title= Aviation History Facts: October|url= http://www.centennialofflight.gov/user/fact_oct.htm|publisher= US Centennial of Flight Commission|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 30 September] Between November 1956 and February 1957, the first permanent South Pole research station was erected and christened the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Stationin honour of the pioneer explorers. Since then the station had been substantially extended, housing up to 150 scientific staff and support personnel as of 2008. [cite web|title= Amundsen-Scott South Polar Station|url= http://www.nsf.gov/od/opp/support/southp.jsp|publisher= National Science Foundation|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 30 September] Dufek gave considerable assistance to the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1955–58, led by Vivian Fuchs, which on 19 January 1958 became the first party to reach the Pole overland since Scott. [Fuchs and Hillary, pp. 76, 85–86]
Farthest South records
:::::Table of Farthest South records, 1521 to 1911 (Ref. letters relate to adjoining map)
History of Antarctica
List of Antarctic expeditions
Notes and references
*cite book|authorlink=Roald Amundsen|last=Amundsen |first= Roald|title =The South Pole|publisher= C Hurst & Co. (Publishers) Ltd |location = London|year = 1976| isbn= 0 903983 47 8
*cite book|last= Barczewski|first= Stephanie|title=Antarctic Destinies|publisher= Hambledon Continuum|location= London|year= 2007|isbn= 978-1-84725-192-3
*cite book|last= Coleman|first= E. C.|title = The Royal Navy in Polar Exploration from Frobisher to Ross|publisher= Tempus Publishing |location= Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK|year= 2006|isbn= 0 7524 3660 0
*cite book|last= Crane|first= David|title =Scott of the Antarctic|publisher= Harper Collins|location= London|year= 2005 |isbn= 0 00 715068 7
*cite book|last= Fisher|first = M. and J.|title=Shackleton|publisher= James Barrie Books|location= London|year= 1957
*cite book|authorlink=Roland Huntford|last=Huntford|first= Roland|title=The Last Place on Earth|publisher= Pan Books|location= London|year= 1985|isbn= 0 330 28816 4
*cite book|authorlink= Vivian Fuchs|last= Fuchs|first= Vivian|coauthors=Edmud Hillary|title=The Crossing of Antarctica|publisher=Cassel & Company|location= London|year= 1958
*cite web|title= James Weddell:Anglo-Scottish navigator, sealer and Antarctic explorer, 1787-1934|url =http://www.win.tue.nl/~engels/discovery/weddell.html|author = Howgego, James|publisher = www.win.tue.nl|year = 2002|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 28 July
*cite book|last= Jones|first= Max|title=The Last Great Quest|publisher= OUP|location= Oxford|year= 2003|isbn= 0-19-280483-9
*cite book|authorlink= Robin Knox-Johnston|last=Knox-Johnston|first= Robin|title=Cape Horn|publisher= Hodder & Stoughton|location= London|year= 1994|isbn= 0-340-41527-4
*cite book|last= Preston|first= Diana|title=A First Rate Tragedy|publisher = Constable & Co.|location = London|year= 1999|isbn= 0 09 4795304
*cite book|authorlink=Beau Riffenburgh|last= Riffenburgh|first= Beau|title=Nimrod|publisher = Bloomsbury Publishing|location= London|year= 2005|isbn= 0 7475 7253 4
*cite book|last= Savours|first= Ann|title=The Voyages of the Discovery|publisher= Chatham Publishing|location= London|year= 2001|isbn= 1 86176 149 X
*cite book|authorlink=Ernest Shackleton|last= Shackleton|first= Ernest|title =The Heart of the Antarctic|publisher = William Heinemann|location= London|year= 1911
*cite book|last= Speak|first= Peter|title=William Speirs Bruce|publisher= NMS Publishing|location= Edinburgh|year= 2003|isbn= 1 901663 71 X
*cite web|title = The Fuegian and Patagonian People|url = http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter54/text-Fuego/text-Fuego.htm#sites|year= 2007|author= Weber, George|publisher= The Andama Association|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 28 July
*cite book|authorlink= Edward Adrian Wilson|last= Wilson|first= Edward|title=Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic, 1901–04|publisher= Blandford Press|location= London|year= 1975|isbn= 0 7137 0431 4
*cite web|title= Amundsen-Scott South Polar Station|url= http://www.nsf.gov/od/opp/support/southp.jsp|publisher= National Science Foundation|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 30 September
*cite web|title= An Antarctic Timeline|url= http://www.south-pole.com/p0000052.htm|publisher= www.south-pole.com|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 29 August
*cite web|title= Aviation History Facts: October|url= http://www.centennialofflight.gov/user/fact_oct.htm|publisher= US Centennial of Flight Commission|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 30 September
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См. также в других словарях:
Farthest South — Le pôle Sud, l ultime Farthest South, photographié en 2003. L Amundsen Scott South Pole Station se trouve en arrière plan, de l autre côté d un champ de crêtes de glace, ou « sastrugi » … Wikipédia en Français
Farthest South — El polo Sur, el máximo Farthest South, fotografiado en 2003. La Base Amundsen Scott se ubica en el plano posterior, del otro lado de un campo de hielo o «Sastruga» … Wikipedia Español
Farthest North — refers, in terms of latitude, to man’s most northerly penetration of the Arctic regions before the conquest of the North Pole. The northern polar regions are much more accessible than those of the south; continental land masses extend to high… … Wikipedia
Farthest North — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Farthest North es una expresión anglosajona que significa «el punto más al norte» (o «lo más al norte» o el «norte más lejano») y que describe la latitud más al norte alcanzada por los exploradores antes de llegar al … Wikipedia Español
south|ern|most — «SUHTH uhrn mohst», adjective. farthest south … Useful english dictionary
south|most — «SOWTH mohst», adjective. farthest south; southernmost … Useful english dictionary
South Pole — This article is about the Geographic South Pole. For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). Coordinates: 90°S 0°W / 90°S 0°W / 90; 0 … Wikipedia
South Magnetic Pole — Locations of South Magnetic Pole from direct observation and model prediction. For additional general information about the Earth s magnetic poles, see North Magnetic Pole. The Earth s South Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the Eart … Wikipedia
Farthest North — Le terme anglosaxon « Farthest North »), parfois traduit par « plus au Nord », « Nord le plus loin » ou « Nord le plus lointain », décrit la latitude la plus proche du Pôle Nord atteinte par l homme.… … Wikipédia en Français
Farthest West — Le terme anglosaxon Farthest West, parfois traduit par « Ouest le plus loin », « Ouest le plus lointain » ou « Point le plus à l Ouest », décrit la longitude la plus à l ouest atteinte par l homme sur une zone… … Wikipédia en Français