Geographic information science


Geographic information science

Geographic information science (GISc or GISci) is the academic theory behind the development, use, and application of geographic information systems (GIS). It is concerned with GIS hardware, software, and geospatial data. GIS, on the other hand, addresses problems and issues primarily through technological methodology (e.g. digital mapping), "GISc" addresses fundamental issues raised by the use of GIS and related technologies (Goodchild 1990, 1992; Wilson and Fotheringham 2007).

Geographic Data versus Geographic Information

Geographic data refers to the data in its raw form. Geographic information is the result of an interpretation of data. As the real world is complex, choices over how the features of interest are described in the database, such as the percentage canopy closure for a given forest, results in alternative but equally valid interpretations of the same raw data. Thus, in the creation of information from data, choices about "how" and "what" to map are made. It is important to recognize, that information is socially constructed, as it depends on decisions and choices, themselves influenced by institutional and political contexts.

Because of these issues and many others, it is therefore useful to reflect on "what it is we do" with a GIS. Thus GISc is concerned with issues relating to representation, ontologies, error, and inconsistency. Uncertainty is introduced in almost every stage of the operation of a GIS, as there are subjective choices to be made. Thus, GISc must also explore the ethical implications of using GIS to represent "the truth" to whoever the audience is.

See also

* Geographic information system
* Spatial Decision Support Systems

References

Citation
last1 = Comber | first1 = Alexis J.
author1-link = Alexis Comber
last2 = Fisher | first2 = Peter F.
author2-link = Peter Fisher
last3 = Wadsworth | first3 = Richard A.
author3-link = Richard Wadsworth
contribution = What is land cover?
contribution-url = http://www.envplan.com/abstract.cgi?id=b31135
title = [http://www.envplan.com/B.html Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design]
year = 2005
volume = [http://www.envplan.com/contents.cgi?journal=B&volume=32 32]
issue = [http://www.envplan.com/contents.cgi?journal=B&volume=32&issue=2 2]
pages = 199-209

Citation
last1 = Goodchild | first1 = Michael F.
author1-link = Michael Goodchild
title = PDFlink| [http://www.informaworld.com/index/770693941.pdf Spatial information science]
journal = Proceedings, Fourth International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling
year = 1990
location = Zurich, Switzerland
pages = 3–12

Citation
last1 = Goodchild | first1 = Michael F.
author1-link = Michael Goodchild
title = [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Aa1fa3U8bsMC&oi=fnd&pg=PA181&ots=Z1loTpvllb&sig=lCla_F3iZRIlh_zdmdsNKqFuRzw Geographical information science]
journal = [http://en.giswiki.org/wiki/IJGIS International Journal of Geographical Information Systems]
volume = 6
issue = 1
year = 1992
pages = 31–45

Citation
last1 = Longley | first1 = Paul A.
author1-link = Paul Longley
last2 = Goodchild | first2 = Michael F.
author2-link = Michael Goodchild
last3 = Maguire | first3 = David J.
author3-link = David Maguire
last4 = Rhind | first3 = David W.
author4-link = David Rhind
title = Geographic Information Systems and Science
edition = 2nd
year = 2005
isbn = 047087001X

Citation
last1 = Wilson | first1 = J.P.
author1-link = J.P. Wilson
last2 = Fotheringham | first2 = A.S.
author2-link = A.S. Fotheringham
title = The Handbook of Geographic Information Science
year = 2007
publisher = Blackwell Publishing
location = Malden, MA
pages = 3–12
Elangovan,K (2006)"GIS: Fundamentals, Applications and Implementations", New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi"208 pp.

External links

* [http://books.google.com/books?id=FOj8L-iDMq0C&printsec=frontcover The ERSI Guide to GIS Analysis]
* [http://www.aag.org/bok/ The GIS&T Body of Knowledge


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • geographic information science — noun The scientific study of the nature and use of geographic information; the theoretical foundation of geographic information systems …   Wiktionary

  • Geographic Information Science and Technology Body of Knowledge — The Geographic Information Science and Technology Body of Knowledge (GISTBoK) is a reference document produced by the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS) as the first product of its Model Curricula project, started in …   Wikipedia

  • Master of Science in Geographic Information Science and Systems — A Master of Science in Geographic Information Science and Systems, or Master of Science in Geographic Information Science, or Master of Science in Geographic Information Systems (Latin: Magister Scientiæ; abbreviated M.Sc. GIS, MSc (GIS)., MSc… …   Wikipedia

  • Geographic information system — GIS redirects here. For other uses, see GIS (disambiguation). A geographic information system, geographical information science, or geospatial information studies is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present… …   Wikipedia

  • Geographic Information Systems Certification Institute — The GIS Certification Institute (GISCI) is an independent, non profit organization providing the GIS community with a complete certification program. GISCI offers a method of developing value for professionals and employers in the geographic… …   Wikipedia

  • Geographic information systems in China — Geographic information systems (GIS) are becoming an increasingly important component of business, healthcare, security, government, trade, media, transportation and tourism industries and operations in China and GIS software are playing an… …   Wikipedia

  • Historical geographic information system — A historical geographic information system (also written as historical GIS or HGIS) is a geographic information system that may display, store and analyze data of past geographies and track changes in time. It can be regarded as a subfield of… …   Wikipedia

  • National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis — The National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA) was founded in 1988 and hosted at three member campuses: The University of California, Santa Barbara; the State University of New York at Buffalo; and the University of Maine.… …   Wikipedia

  • Portal:Library and information science — Wikipedia portals: Culture Geography Health History Mathematics Natural sciences People Philosophy Religion Society Technology The Library and Information Science Portal …   Wikipedia

  • Topic outline of information science — Library science or library and information science (abbreviated LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. This includes academic studies regarding how library resources are used and how people interact with… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.