- Dunlop Rubber
Dunlop Rubber Industry Rubber Fate Acquired Successor BTR plc Founded 1889 Defunct 1985 Headquarters Birmingham, UK Products Tyres
Dunlop Rubber was a company based in the United Kingdom which manufactured tyres and other rubber products for most of the 20th century. It was acquired by BTR plc in 1985. Since then, ownership of the Dunlop trade-names has been fragmented.
The company originated in 1889, when Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co. Ltd was formed in Oriel House in Dublin in Westland Row, to acquire and commercialise John Boyd Dunlop's patent for pneumatic tyres for bicycles. This was the period of great demand for bicycles, and Willie Hume had created a publicity storm by winning seven out of the first eight races in which the pneumatic tyre was ever used, both in Ireland and England.  Commercial production began in late 1890 in Belfast, and quickly expanded to fulfill consumer demand. After losing a patent battle to the assignees of an earlier pneumatic tyre patent filed by inventor Robert William Thomson, Dunlop assigned his patent to William Harvey Du Cros in return for 1,500 shares in the resultant company, and in the end did not make any great fortune by his invention.
In the early 1890s Dunlop Tyre established divisions in Europe and North America. In 1893 a branch office and factory was established in Australia, in Melbourne. In 1896 the company registered a trademark and incorporated a subsidiary in England.
Although the pneumatic tyre was successful, Dunlop had financial difficulties, and had to sell its overseas operations. A significant disposal was the sale of the Australian division in 1899 to a Canadian consortium, which incorporated it as the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company of Australasia Ltd. Since then, Dunlop Australia has not been associated with the parent company, except for a 25% share of Dunlop Australia owned by the British company from 1927 to 1984. As a result, the right to the Dunlop brands in Australia and New Zealand have had different ownership from those in the remainder of the world.
Initially the company subcontracted manufacture, but by 1902 it had its own manufacturing subsidiary, Dunlop Rubber Co. Ltd, in Birmingham, England.
In 1900 the company started production of tyres for motorcars. The company continued its expansion, and in 1918 production started at a new plant in Birmingham, known commonly as "Fort Dunlop" because of the fortress-like appearance of the main building. By 1920 the company had selling subsidiaries or divisions in South Africa, South America, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Denmark, Sweden, Spain and India, manufacturing operations in France, Japan and the USA, and rubber plantations in Malaya and Ceylon.
In the 1920s, competition from foreign companies in the UK tyre market intensified, and Dunlop diversified. In 1925 Dunlop acquired the Charles Mackintosh group, and the Dunlop name was applied to footwear and clothing.
In 1925 a separate Aerospace Division was formed to cater to the growing aircraft industry's demand for tyres and rubber products.
In 1929 the company discovered the use of latex foam for mattresses, which was then marketed with the trade-name Dunlopillo. During the 1930s other products involving the use of latex were added to the company's range, including golf balls and tennis racquets.
In 1943, the Admiralty Experimental Diving Unit was tasked to develop a suit for divers. Dunlop Rubber produced the Admiralty Underwater Swim Suit Mark I and swim fins. They also designed an oxygen rebreather.
After the war, the UK tyre market was a sellers' market. By 1955 Dunlop had almost half of the market. A report by the Monopolies and Restrictive Practices Commission in that year found that Dunlop and the four other main sellers in the UK market (Goodyear, Avon, Firestone and Michelin) companies had arrangements which resulted in fixed prices. These arrangements had to change, and Dunlop's market share decreased.
A further factor in Dunlop's decline was the decision during the early 1960s to develop textile radial tyres rather than the more durable steel-belted radial tyres. Dunlop lost market share to the Michelin company and other manufacturers marketing steel-belted tyres.
In 1968 Dunlop acquired George Angus Ltd, a manufacturer of a wide range of products based on rubber, from rubber boots to O-rings and fire hoses.
Dunlop continued to be active in motorsport, and from 1950 to 1977 was one of the suppliers of Formula One tyres.
In 1971 Dunlop merged with Pirelli company of Italy to form the world's third largest tyre company. The merger was not a takeover by either company, but a joint venture arrangement where each company took minority interests in the other's subsidiaries. The merger was not successful, and the joint venture was dissolved in 1981.
In the 1970s, Dunlop Rubber pioneered the world's first 'fail safe' tyres, permitting a vehicle to continue moving safely even after a blowout.
Takeover and breakup
By the early 1980s Dunlop was much indebted and had severe financial difficulties. In 1984 it sold the US tyre subsidiary, Dunlop Tire Corporation, to its management, and sold its interest in Dunlop India to the Jumbo Group of Dubai. Then in 1985 the company was acquired by BTR plc. The road tyre assets, including the right to use the Dunlop name for road tyres, were sold immediately to Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd of Japan (which had grown out of Dunlop's original Japanese factory).
During the 1990s BTR sold the various Dunlop companies:
- In 1996 the Dunlop Sports group, Dunlop Slazenger, was sold to its management, backed by CINVen. Since 2004 it has been owned by Sports Direct.
- In 1996 the Dunlop Footwear business was sold to the Dutch company Hevea.
- In 1996 Dunlop Adhesives was sold to Norcros plc, who in 2001 sold it to Ardex GmbH.
- In 1996 Dunlop Kenya was sold to local Kenyan interests. Dunlop Industries Ltd, a manufacturer of PVC floor tiles, is now a subsidiary of the Kenyan company Olympic Capital Holdings.
- In 1996 Dunlop Aircraft Tyres Ltd was sold to form a separate independent company.
- In 1997 the Dunlopillo company was sold to its management as Dunlop Latex Foam Ltd. In 2002 the Dunlopillo brand was itself divided, when the UK rights to the brand were sold to Hilding Anders.
- In 1998 BTR sold its Aerospace Group, including Dunlop Equipment and Dunlop Precision Rubber, to Doughty Hanson & Co to form Dunlop Standard Aerospace Group. The new group was itself dissolved in 2004, and the Dunlop Aerospace companies were acquired by Meggitt plc. Meggitt has inherited the original English company, now named Dunlop Holdings Ltd, incorporated in 1896.
- In 1998 BTR sold its share of the South African subsidiary, Dunlop Africa Ltd, which was itself divided in 2001. The industrial products division was sold to become Dunlop Industrial Products and Dunlop Rubber Mouldings. The tyre business, Dunlop Tyres International, was bought by Apollo Tyres of India in 2006. Dunlop Tyres International owned rights to various Dunlop brands in a number of countries outside South Africa, and these rights were sold to Sports Direct in 2006.
Dunlop Tyres since 1985
Sumitomo Rubber Industries sold tyres for road vehicles with the Dunlop brand from 1985 to 1999. In 1999 Sumitomo RI and Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company of the US formed a joint venture. Goodyear obtained the Dunlop tyre assets in Europe and the US, and Sumitomo RI continued to sell Dunlop tyres in other countries.
The Dunlop Tyres company in South Africa is now owned by the Indian company, Apollo Tyres. In India, ownership of the Dunlop brand is split with a number of different organisations owning registrations for their own particular products.
- ^ "Patent number: 523270". Google Patents. pp. 3. http://www.google.com/patents/about?id=MG0_AAAAEBAJ. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- ^ The Golden Book of Cycling - William Hume, 1938. Archive maintained by 'The Pedal Club'.
- ^ Dunlop, What sets Dunlop apart, History, 1889
- ^ Drain, Robert S. (December 24, 1896). "Patents for inventions". Victoria Government Gazette (Government Printer, Melbourne) (123): 5255 (p7). http://gazette.slv.vic.gov.au/images/1896/V/general/123.pdf.
- ^ a b Companies House webcheck Company number 50091
- ^ History of Pacific Dunlop
- ^ Dunlop Aerospace Braking Systems website.
- ^ Dunlopillo company website
- ^ Davis, RH (1955). Deep Diving and Submarine Operations (6th ed.). Tolworth, Surbiton, Surrey: Siebe Gorman & Company Ltd. p. 693.
- ^ Quick, D. (1970). "A History Of Closed Circuit Oxygen Underwater Breathing Apparatus". Royal Australian Navy, School of Underwater Medicine. RANSUM-1-70. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/4960. Retrieved 2009-03-20.
- ^ Competition Report, 1955
- ^ International Directory of Company Histories (1992) St James Press Vol V, p.252
- ^ Time magazine, January 4, 1971
- ^ Jumbo Electronics website
- ^ New York Times March 9, 1985
- ^ Telegraph.co.uk March 21, 2001
- ^ Sports Direct website
- ^ Hevea website
- ^ Olympic Capital website
- ^ Dunlop Aircraft Tyres website
- ^ Dunlop Aerospace Braking Systems website
- ^ Dunlop Rubber Mouldings website
- ^ Dunlop Tyres International website
- ^ Sports Direct prospectus, 2007 p.147
- Competition Commission Report, 1955: includes a history to 1955
- The history of the pneumatic tyre Eric Tompkins, Dunlop Archive Project 1981 ISBN 9780903214148
- "Aero Tyre Testing at Fort Dunlop" Pathe newsreel, 1968
Original companies of FT 30 in the United Kingdom
As of 1 July 1935.
Associated Portland Cement · Austin Motor · Bass · Bolsover Colliery · Callenders Cables & Construction · Coats · Courtaulds · Distillers · Dorman Long · Dunlop Rubber · Electrical & Musical Industries · Fine Spinners and Doublers · General Electric Company · Guest Keen & Nettlefolds · Harrods · Hawker Siddeley · Imperial Chemical Industries · Imperial Tobacco · International Tea Co. Stores · London Brick · Murex · Patons and Baldwins · Pinchin Johnson & Associates · Rolls-Royce · Tate & Lyle · Turner & Newall · United Steel Companies · Vickers-Armstrongs · Watney Combe & Reid · F. W. Woolworth & Co
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Dunlop Rubber — У этого термина существуют и другие значения, см. Dunlop. Dunlop Tyres Год основания 1891 Отрасль автомобильная Продукция шины Dunlop Tyres … Википедия
Redfern v Dunlop Rubber Australia Ltd — Infobox Court Case name=Redfern v Dunlop Rubber Australia Ltd court=High Court of Australia date decided=25 February 1964 full name=Redfern v Dunlop Rubber Australia Ltd citations= [http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/high ct/110clr194.html… … Wikipedia
Dunlop — may refer to: In companies: name derived from John Boyd Dunlop (1840 1921) Dunlop Tyres, tyre manufacturer since 1985 Dunlop Rubber, manufacturer of tyre and rubber products from 1889 to 1985 Dunlop Australia, a former name for a multinational… … Wikipedia
Dunlop — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Dunlop es un fabricante de neumáticos y derivados del caucho del Reino Unido. En la actualidad, Dunlop pertenece en un 75% a Goodyear y en un 25% a Sumitomo Rubber Industries.Tambien es una marca de raquetas de tenis … Wikipedia Español
Dunlop — [dʌn lɔp], John Boyd, britischer Tierarzt und Erfinder, * Dreghorn (bei Ayr) 5. 2. 1840, ✝ Balls Bridge (heute zu Dublin) 23. 10. 1921; erfand 1888, wohl ohne R. W. Thomsons Patent (1845) zu kennen, den pneumatischen Gummireifen für das Fahrrad … Universal-Lexikon
Dunlop (brands) — This article is about brands named for John Dunlop, inventor of the pneumatic tyre. For the Dunlop brand of guitar products, see Dunlop Manufacturing. Dunlop was originally a brand of tyre produced by the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company at the end… … Wikipedia
Dunlop Tyres — This article is about the company which has made Dunlop automobile tyres since 1985. For the rubber and tyre company before 1985, see Dunlop Rubber. Dunlop Tyres Industry automotive Founded 1985 … Wikipedia
Dunlop Holdings PLC — ▪ British company subsidiary company of BTR PLC, and the major British manufacturer of tires and other rubber products. It is headquartered in London. The company has been involved in rubber tire manufacture since the late 19th… … Universalium
Dunlop (surname) — For other uses of the word, see Dunlop (disambiguation). Dunlop as a surname may refer to: Andy Dunlop (born 1972), Scottish guitarist Bill Dunlop (born 1963), Canadian boxer Brian Dunlop (born 1938), Australian artist Charles Dunlop (1870–1911) … Wikipedia
Dunlop GmbH & Co. KG — Dunlop Reifen GmbH Unternehmensform GmbH Gründung 1888 … Deutsch Wikipedia