High-density polyethylene


High-density polyethylene
HDPE has SPI resin ID code 2

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. It takes 1.75 kilograms of petroleum (in terms of energy and raw materials) to make one kilogram of HDPE. HDPE is commonly recycled, and has the number "2" as its recycling symbol. In 2007, the global HDPE market reached a volume of more than 30 million tons.[1]

Contents

Properties

The mass density of High-density Polyethylene can range from 0.93 to 0.97 g/cm³.[2] Although the density of HDPE is only marginally higher than that of Low-density_polyethylene, HDPE has little branching, giving it stronger intermolecular forces and tensile strength than LDPE. The difference in strength exceeds the difference in density, giving HDPE a higher specific strength.[3] It is also harder and more opaque and can withstand somewhat higher temperatures (120 °C/ 248 °F for short periods, 110 °C /230 °F continuously). High-density polyethylene, unlike polypropylene, cannot withstand normally-required autoclaving conditions. The lack of branching is ensured by an appropriate choice of catalyst (e.g., Ziegler-Natta catalysts) and reaction conditions. HDPE contains the chemical elements carbon and hydrogen.

Applications

HDPE is resistant to many different solvents and has a wide variety of applications, including:

HDPE is also used for cell liners in subtitle D sanitary landfills, wherein large sheets of HDPE are either extrusion or wedge welded to form a homogeneous chemical-resistant barrier, with the intention of preventing the pollution of soil and groundwater by the liquid constituents of solid waste.

One of the largest uses for HDPE is wood plastic composites and composite wood, with recycled polymers leading the way.

HDPE is also widely used in the pyrotechnics trade. HDPE mortars are preferred to steel or PVC tubes because they are more durable and more importantly they are much safer compared to steel or PVC. If a shell or salute were to malfunction (flowerpot) in the mortar, HDPE tends to rip or tear instead of shattering and becoming shrapnel like PVC, which can kill or maim onlookers. PVC and steel are particularly prone to this and their use is avoided where possible.

Milk bottles and other hollow goods manufactured through blow molding are the most important application area for HDPE - More than 8 million tons, or nearly one third of worldwide production, was applied here. Above all, China, where beverage bottles made from HDPE were first imported in 2005, is a growing market for rigid HDPE packaging, as a result of its improving standard of living. In India and other highly populated, emerging nations, infrastructure expansion includes the deployment of pipes and cable insulation made from HDPE.[1] The material has benefited from discussions about possible health and environmental problems caused by PVC and Polycarbonate associated Bisphenol A, as well as its advantages over glass, metal and cardboard.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Market Study: Polyethylene HDPE". Ceresana Research. http://www.ceresana.com/en/market-studies/plastics/polyethylene-hdpe/. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Compare Materials: HDPE and LDPE
  4. ^ Dermnet.org.nz

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • high-density polyethylene — didelio tankio polietilenas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Mažame ir vidutiniame slėgyje gaminamas polietilenas, kurio tankis 940–973 kg/m³. atitikmenys: angl. HDPE; high density polyethylene rus. полиэтилен высокой плотности …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • high-density polyethylene — Chem. polyethylene consisting mainly of linear, or unbranched, chains with high crystallinity and melting point, and density of 0.96 or more, produced at low pressure and used chiefly for containers and articles made by injection molding. Abbr.:… …   Universalium

  • high-density polyethylene — Chem. polyethylene consisting mainly of linear, or unbranched, chains with high crystallinity and melting point, and density of 0.96 or more, produced at low pressure and used chiefly for containers and articles made by injection molding. Abbr.:… …   Useful english dictionary

  • High density polyethylene — Полиэтилен высокой плотности …   Краткий толковый словарь по полиграфии

  • high-density polyethylene — (HDPE) A very tough, chemically resistant thermoplastic, with a soapy touch; e.g., used for blow molded parts such as fuel tanks or other moldings, such as bumpers …   Dictionary of automotive terms

  • Low-density polyethylene — LDPE has SPI resin ID code 4 Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is a thermoplastic made from petroleum. It was the first grade of polyethylene, produced in 1933 by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) using a high pressure process via free radical… …   Wikipedia

  • Medium-density polyethylene — MDPE Density 0.926 0.940 g/cm3 Young modulus/ E modulus/ Tensile modulus 172–379 MPa Tensile strength(σt) 12.4–19.3 MPa Elongation @ break 100–150% …   Wikipedia

  • low-density polyethylene — Chem. highly branched polyethylene with low crystallinity and melting point, and a density of 0.91 to 0.94, prepared at very high pressures, and used mainly for sheeting, films, and packaging materials. Abbr.: LDPE Also called branched… …   Universalium

  • low-density polyethylene — Chem. highly branched polyethylene with low crystallinity and melting point, and a density of 0.91 to 0.94, prepared at very high pressures, and used mainly for sheeting, films, and packaging materials. Abbr.: LDPE Also called branched… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Linear low-density polyethylene — (LLDPE) is a substantially linear polymer (polyethylene), with significant numbers of short branches, commonly made by copolymerization of ethylene with longer chain olefins. Linear low density polyethylene differs structurally from conventional… …   Wikipedia


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