- Economics of Corruption
Economics of Corruption applies economic tools to the analysis of corruption. Rigorous study of corruption by economists commenced in 1980s. In
1968, Nobellaureate economist Gunner Myrdalfound corruption 'almost a taboo (among economists) as research topic'. Indeed it has mostly been a matter of political scienceand sociology. However, the scenario changed since 1970s. Since Rose-Ackerman's article "The Economics of Corruption", published in the "Journal of Political Economy" in 1975 [Rose-Ackerman S. : "The Economics of Corruption", "Journal ofPolitical Economy", Vol. IV, 1975, pp. 187-203.] , more than 3,000 articles have been written with 'corruption' in the title, at least 500 of which directly focus on different aspects relating to corruption using an economic framework. [JSTOR search on 8 March 2008] some books have also been published on the subject. ["The Economics of Corruption", edited by Ajit Mishra, 2005 : Oxford University Press] Organizations have emerged to deal with the economics of corruption. [ [http://www.icgg.org/ Internet Centre for Corruption Research] ] Some universities offer courses under the title "Economics of Corruption". [ [http://www.icgg.org Economics of Corruption 2008] ] Nobellaureate economist Gary Beckerand an American Judge Richrad Posnerhave opened a blogfor open public discussion discussing economics of corruption [ [http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/archives/2005/08/economics_of_co.html The Becker-Posner Blog] ]
Books on economics of corruption
Some books have been produced with the specific title of "economics of corruption". One of these is "The Economics of Corruption" edited by
Ajit Mishrapublished by the Oxford University Pressin 2005. This book is an anthology of 11 essays under 4 categories, written by 16 economists. The titles of the essays give an idea of the various approaches taken by different economists. They are quoted below :
* Corruption : an Overview
* Corruption : Its causes and Effects
* Hierarchies and Bureaucracies: On the role of Collusion in Organizations
* A Theory of Misgovernance
* Pervasive Shortages under Socialism
* Corruption and Growth
* Corruptible Law Enforcers : How should they be compensated?
* Notes on bribery and control of corruption
* The Choice between Market failures and corruption
* Rents, Competition and corruption
* Electoral competition and Special Interest Politics
One can observe that the essays do not capture corruption in all its economic essence. Hundreds of essays have been published during the last two decades that deal with many more aspects of corruption from an economic perspective. Some other books are :
* Rose-Ackerman, S. : "Corruption - A study in Political Economy", 1978, Academic Press, New York.
* Ekpo, M. U. (ed.) : "Bureaucratic corruption in sub-Saharan Africa", 1979, University Press of America, Washington.
* Noonan, J. T. "Bribes", 1984, Macmillan, New York.
* Chowdhury, F. L. "Corrupt Bureaucracy and Privatization of Tax Enforcement", 2006, Pathak Samabesh, Dhaka.
Courses on economics of corruption
Some universities and institutions have started to offer courses on economics of corruption. [ [http://www.wiwi.uni-passau.de/1121.html University of Passau, Germany] ] One of the course outline is given below. The course is offered by
New Economic School, an institution in Russia. [ [http://www.nes.ru/Acad-year-2003/2nd-module/corruprion-engl.htm Economics of Corruption] ] The course includes 14 lectures, the themes of which are as follows.
1. Corruption as an economic, social and political problem. Corruption's specific features in economies in transition. 2. Corruption and rent-seeking behavior. Basic model of rent-seeking and its research. Problem of rent's dissipation. 3. Static and dynamic models of
rent seeking. Cases of pure and mixed public goods. 4. Rent-seeking behavior and free-riding. Rent-seeking in teams.5. Rent-seeking in hierarchical systems.6. "Artificial" rents and seeking for them.7. Examples when rent-seeking arises in economies. Criminal rent-seeking.8. Basil model of corruption and its analysis. Corruption models' classification.9. Game-theoretical approaches towards corruption.10. Corruption in hierarchical structures.11. Dynamic corruption models.12. Economic systems with corruption efficiency. 13. Statistical and econometrical approaches towards research of corruption. 14. Macroeconomics aspects of corruption. Problems in estimation of corruption influence on economic development.
Evidently, the course has limited focus and in many ways do not directly address relevant areas of corruption which have already been analyzed from an economic perspective.
Approaches to economic analyses of corruption
As indicated above, a systematic pattern in research on corruption from economic perspective is yet to emerge. However, Faizul Latif Chowdhury has classified the the foci of economic analyses of corruption into fourteen broad categories ["Economic Approaches in Corruption Studies", "Fiscal Frontiers", 2008, Dhaka.] . These are :
a. Economic causes of corruption
b. Rent-seeking in the public offices, including Judiciary
c. Corruption as an economic behavior, e.g. game theoretic explanation
d. Demand for and Supply of corruption, optimal level of corruption, optimal level of bribery, efficiency of the market in corruption
e. Impact of corruption on the competitiveness in the market for goods and services
f. Measurement of the level of corruption, comparative county-studies
g. Corruption in different economic activities, e.g. public procurement, defense procurement
h. Sources of corruption: Revenue collection, Foreign aid, Foreign Direct Investment
i. Corruption in the private sector, Economies in transition
j. Impact of corruption on
economic growth, national developmentand the level of poverty
k. Welfare impact of corruption, Income redistribution resulting from corruption
l. Factors affecting corruption, e.g.
Shadow economy, Smuggling, weak state, corruption by politicians
m. Relation between corruption on the one hand and other economic-social-cultural aspects like technological progress, environment and ecology,
n. Economic factors relating to
anti-corruption programs, e.g. optimal level of punishment for corruption etc.
This is a short list of economists who have are engaged in research on corruption for a long time.
* Ades, A.
* Andvig, J. C.
* Bardhan, P.
* Basu, K. S.
* Bhagwati, J.
* Bliss, C.
* Cadot, O.
* Chand, S.
* Chowdhury, F. L.
* Fjeldstad, O. H.
* Gupta, S.
* Hindriks, J.
* Jain, A. K.
* Katz, E.
* Krueger, A. O.
* Laffont, J. J.
* Leff, N.
* Levin, M.I.
* Liew, L.H.
* Lui, D.
* Lui, F.T.
* Mauro, P.
* Mishra, A.
* Moene, K.
* Mohtadi, H.
* Mookherjee, D.
* Paldam, M.
* Rose-Ackerman, S.
* Seligson, M. A.
* Smith, J.B.
* Tanzi, V.
* Tella, R. D
* Triesman, D
* Van Rijckeghem, C.
* Waquet, J. C.
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