- Cook Islands Maori
name=Cook Islands Maori
nativename=Māori Kūki 'Āirani
region=throughout Cook Islands ...,
speakers=42,669 (16,800 in Cook Islands (1979 government report))
fam13=Central E. Polynesian
iso3=rarThe Cook Islands Maori language, also called Māori Kūki 'Āirani or Rarotongan, is the
official languageof the Cook Islands. Most Cook Islanders also call it "Te reo Ipukarea", literally "the language of the Ancestral Homeland".
Cook Islands Maori became an official language of the Cook Islands in 2003 [Since 1915, English had been the only official language of the Cook Islands] . According to Te Reo Maori Act, Maori:
* "(a) means the Maori language (including its various dialects) as spoken or written in any island of the Cook Islands; and"
* "(b) Is deemed to include Pukapukan as spoken or written in Pukapuka; and"
* "(c) Includes Maori that conforms to the national standard for Maori approved by Kopapa Reo;" (see external link).
dialects[In a sense of mutual intelligibility] of the Cook Islands Maori are :
Tongarevadialect (Penrhyn) [Tongarevan is sometimes also considered as a distinct language.] ;
* the Ngaputoru dialects of
Atiu, Mitiaroand Mauke;
Mangaiadialect. It is closely related to Tahitian and New ZealandMāori, and there is a degree of mutual intelligibility with these two languages.
The language is regulated by the "kopapa reo" created in 2003.
Pukapukan languageis considered by scholars as a distinct language closely related with Samoan and the language spoken on the three atolls of Tokelau.
Writing system and pronunciation
There is a debate about the standardization of the
writing system. Although the usage of the macron (־) "te makaroni", and the glottal (') (/ʔ/) is recommended, most speakers do not use these two diacritics in everyday writing.
*Koe : you
* Māua : we two, us two (he/she and I)
* Tātou : We, us (you -2 or more- and I)
* Rātou : they, them (more than two)
* Tē… nei : present continuous
Tē manako nei au i te 'oki ki te 'are : I am thinking of going back to the house;Tē kata nei rātou : They are laughing;Kāre au e tanu nei i te pia : I'm not planting any arrowroot;
* Kia : Mildly imperative or exhortatory, expressing a desire, a wish rather than a strong command.
Kia vave mai !: be quick ! (don't be long!);Kia viviki mai! : be quick (don't dawdle!);Kia manuia ! : good luck! ;Kia rave ana koe i tēnā 'anga'anga : would you do that job;Kia tae mai ki te anga'anga ā te pōpongi Mōnitē : come to work on Monday morning;Teia te tātāpaka, kia kai koe : Here's the breadfruit pudding, eat up.
* 'ē : Imperative, order
'ē 'eke koe ki raro : you get down;'ē tū ki kō : stand over there
* 'Auraka : interdiction, don't
'Auraka rava koe e 'āmiri i teia niuniu ora, ka 'uti'uti 'ia koe : Don't on any account touch this live wire, you'll get a shock
* kāre : indicate the negation, not, nothing, nowhere
Kāre nō te ua : It 'll not rain; Kāre a Tī tuatua : Tī doesn't have anything to say
* e… ana : habitual action or stateE 'aere ana koe ki te 'ura : Do you go to the dance?:E no'o ana 'aia ki Nikao i tē reira tuātau : he used to live in Nikao at that time
* Ka : Refers prospectively to the commencement of an action or state. Often translatable by and English future tense or "going to" construction
Ka 'īmene 'a Mere ākonei ite pō : Mary is going to sing later on tonight;Kua kite au ē ka riri a Tere : I know (or knew) that Tere will (or would) be angry
* Kua : translatable by an English simple past or a present tense (with adjectives)
Kua kite mai koe ia mātou : You saw us;Kua meitaki koe ? : Are you better now?Kua oti te tārekareka : the match is over now
Polynesian languages(Tahitian, New Zealand Māori, Hawaiian, Samoan, …), Cook Islands Maori has two categories of possessives, the ā and ō.
Generally the ā category is used when the possessor has, or had, control of the relationship, is superior or dominant to what is owned or when the possession is considered as alienable. The ō category is used when the possessor has, or had, no control over the relationship, is subordinate or inferior to what is owned or when the possession is considered as inalienable.
The following list indicates the types of things in the different categories
* ā is used in speaking of- Movable property, instruments,
- Food and drink,
- Husband, wife, children, girlfriend, boyfriend,
- Animals and pets,
- People in an inferior position
Te puaka ā tērā vaine : the pig belonging to that woman;ā Tere tamariki : Tere's children;Kāre ā Tupe mā ika i napō : Tupe and the rest didn't get any fish last night
Tāku ; Tā'au ; Tāna ; Tā tāua ; Tā māua…. : my, mine ; your, yours ; his, her, hers, our ours…
Ko tāku vaine teia : This is my wife;Ko tāna tāne tera : That's her husband;Tā kotou 'apinga : your possession(s);Tā Tare 'apinga : Tera possession(s);
* ō is used in speaking of
- Parts of anything
- Buildings and transport
- Parents or other relatives (not husband, wife, children…)
Te 'are ō Tere : The house belonging to Tere;ō Tere pare : Tere's hat;Kāre ō Tina no'o anga e no'o ei : Tina hasn't got anywhere to sit;
Tōku ; Tō'ou ; Tōna ; Tō tāua ; Tō māua…: my, mine ; your, yours ; his, her, hers ; our, ours …
Ko tōku 'are teia : This is my house;I tōku manako, kā tika tāna : In my opinion, he'll be right;Teia tōku, tērā tō'ou : This is mine here, that's yours over there
Pia : Polynesian arrowroot
Kata : laugh at; laughter; kata 'āviri : ridicule, jeer, mock
Tanu : to plant, cultivate land
'anga'anga : work, job
Pōpongi : morning
Tātāpaka : a kind of breadfruit pudding
'ura : dance, to dance
Tuātau : time, period, season ; ē tuātau 'ua atu : forever
'īmene : to sing, song
Riri : be angry with (ki)
Tārekareka : entertain, amuse, match, game, play game
Although most words of the various dialects of Cook Islands Maori are identical, there are some variations ["to be completed"]
* [http://www.tuatuamai.co.nz/ "Tuatua mai!" Learn Cook Islands Maori]
* [http://www.paclii.org/ck/legis/num_act/trma2003130/ Te Reo Maori Act 2003]
* [http://www9.sbs.com.au/radio/language.php?language=Cook%20Islands/Maori SBS Cook Islands Maori Radio Program.] Updated each week
* http://www.cookislandsmaori.com/ Online version of Jasper Buse and Raututi Taringa Dictionary
* [http://www.culture.gov.ck/ Cook Islands Ministry of Cultural Development]
* [http://www.minedu.govt.nz/web/downloadable/dl3550_v1/cookis.pdf Te Reo Māori Kūki 'Āirani i roto i te Kurakarāma o Aotearoa (Cook Islands Maori in the New Zealand Curriculum)]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=CK Ethnologue on the languages of the Cook Islands]
* [http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-HutColl.html Collected songs and legends from the southern Cook Islands (c. 1883-1912)] at the New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
Dictionaries, learning methods and books in Cook Islands Maori
* "Cook Islands Maori Dictionary", by Jasper Buse with Raututi Taringa, edited by
Bruce Biggsand Rangi Moeka'a, Auckland, 1995.
* "A dictionary of the Maori Language of Rarotonga", Manuscript by Stephen Savage, Suva : IPS, USP in association with the [http://www.education.gov.ckMinistry of Education] of the Cook Islands, 1983.
* "Kai Korero : Cook Islands Maori Language Coursebook", Tai Carpentier and Clive Beaumont, Pasifika Press, 1995. (A useful learning Method with oral skills cassette)
* "Cook Islands Cook Book" by Taiora Matenga-Smith. Published by the Institute of Pacific Studies.
* "Maori Lessons for the Cook Islands", by
Taira Rere. Wellington, Islands Educational Division, Department of Education, 1960.
* "Conversational Maori, Rarotongan Language", by Taira Rere. Rarotonga, Government Printer. 1961.
* "Some Maori Lessons", by Taira Rere. Rarotonga. Curriculum Production Unit, Department of Education. 1976.
* "More Maori Lessons", by Taira Rere. Suva,
University of the South Pacific.1976
* "Maori Spelling: Notes for Teachers", by Taira Rere. Rarotonga: Curriculum Production Unit, Education Department.1977.
* "Traditions and Some Words of the Language of Danger or Pukapuka Island". Journal of the Polynesian Society 13:173-176.1904.
* "Collection of Articles on Rarotonga Language", by Jasper Buse. London:
University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies. 1963.
* "Manihikian Traditional Narratives: In English and Manihikian: Stories of the Cook Islands (Na fakahiti o Manihiki)". Papatoetoe, New Zealand: Te Ropu Kahurangi.1988
* "Te korero o Aitutaki, na te Are Korero o Aitutaki", Ministry of Culutral Development, Rarotonga, Cook Islands. 1992
* "Atiu nui Maruarua : E au tua ta'ito", Vainerere Tangatapoto et al. University of South Pacific, Suva 1984. (in Maori and English)
* "Learning Rarotonga Maori", by Tongi Maki'uti, Ministry of Cultural Development, Rarotonga 1999.
* "Te uri Reo Maori (translating in Maori)", by Tongi Maki'uti Punanga o te reo. 1996.
* "Atiu, e enua e tona iti tangata", te au tata tuatua Ngatupuna Kautai...(et al.), Suva, University of the South Pacific.1993. (Maori translation of "Atiu : an island Community")
* "A vocabulary of the Mangaian language" by Christian, F. W. 1924. Bernice P. Bishop Bulletin 2. Honolulu, Bernice P.
* E au tuatua ta'ito no Manihiki,
Kauraka Kauraka, IPS, USP, Suva. 1987.
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