- Menominee Restoration Act
The Menominee Restoration Act, signed by President of the United States Richard Nixon on December 22, 1973, returned federally recognized sovereignty to the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin. It also restored tribal supervision over property and members, as well as federal services granted to American Indian tribes. The Act officially repealed the Termination Act of 1954. It also called for the creation of the Menominee Restoration Committee, which would be responsible for drafting new tribal constitutions and serve as an interim authority until an officially elected tribal government was put into place. In addition, all Menominee Indians born after the termination of the action would be added to the tribal roll.
Restoration came about as a result of years of poor social and economic conditions that followed the Menominee Termination Act of 1954. Following termination, all Menominee tribal property was transferred to a new corporation, Menominee Enterprises, Inc. (MEI) and the reservation became a new county for Wisconsin: Menominee County. The least populated and poorest county in Wisconsin, Menominee County was unable to fund the taxes needed to support social services such as schools, utilities and the area hospital. A lumber mill was the area’s main source of employment and it was not able to employ all Menominee. Standards of living and services for Menominee had been significantly lowered and ultimately led to conditions that inspired activism within the community.
Activism began when the Determination of Rights and Unity for Menominee Stockholders (DRUMS) was formed with Jim White and Ada Deer as leaders in the fight against a proposed land development of Legend Lake, a non-Indian owned artificial lake and housing property plan. The selling of land as economic stimulus to non-Indians was a direct result of poor economic conditions that the Menominee had been living in since termination. After successfully stopping the land development, DRUMS later began the fight to reverse termination and regain status as a federally recognized and sovereign Indian tribe. Originally in opposition to MEI, members of DRUMS eventually gained positions in MEI offices where they began lobbying the United States Congress for Menominee restoration.
The Menominee Restoration Committee headed by Ada Deer, was given the responsibility of administering the affairs of the Menominee Tribe on April 23, 1975. In the following year, the tribal roll was reopened, a tribal police force was instituted, law and order codes were written, a public school district was established, control of hunting and fishing rights was restored, and a grant was given by the federal government to build a health clinic. Finally, in 1979, the first nine-member Tribal Legislature was elected under the new Menominee Indian Tribal Constitution.
- Menominee Termination Act of 1954
- Menominee Enterprises, Inc. (MEI)
- Legend Lake
- Determination of Rights and Unity for Menominee Stockholders (DRUMS)
- ^ Francis Paul Prucha, ed., Documents of United States Indian Policy (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000) 2650267
- ^ Indian Country. "Menominee Termination and Restoration." <http://www.mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-97.html
- ^ Indian Country. "Menominee Termination and Restoration." <http://www,mpm.edu/wirp/ICW-97.html
- ^ Francis Paul Prucha, The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians.(Lincoln:University of Nebraska Press, 1986) 371-373
Francis Paul Prucha, The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians
David R.M. Beck, Siege and Survival: History of the Menominee Indians 1634-1856
David R.M. Beck, Struggle for Self Determination: History of the Menominee Indians Since 1854
Nicholas Peroff, Menominee Drums: Tribal Termination and Restoration, 1954-1974
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Menominee Tribe v. United States — Supreme Court of the United States Argued January 22, 1968 Reargued … Wikipedia
American Indian Religious Freedom Act — of 1978 Enacted by Congress of the United States Date enacted … Wikipedia
Native American self-determination — See also: Tribal sovereignty in the United States Native American self determination refers to the social movements, legislation, and beliefs by which the tribes in the United States (US) exercise self governance and decision making on issues… … Wikipedia
Native American Self-Determination — refers to the series of social movements, legislation, and beliefs that support the ability of the tribes of Native Americans in the United States to have a greater level of self governance and decision making in affairs that affect their own… … Wikipedia
Indian termination policy — was a policy that the United States Congress implemented in 1950s and 1960s to assimilate the Native Americans (Indians) with mainstream American society, by terminating the government s trusteeship of Indian reservations and making Indians… … Wikipedia
Ada Deer — (born 1935) is a Native American advocate and scholar who served as head of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs from 1993 ndash;1997. BackgroundA member of the Menominee tribe, Deer was born in Keshena, Wisconsin. She obtained her bachelor … Wikipedia
Outline of United States federal Indian law and policy — This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. Law and U.S. public policy related to Native Americans has evolved continuously since the founding of the United States. This outline lists notable people, organizations, events, legislation … Wikipedia
United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs — The Senate Committee on Indian Affairs is a committee of the United States Senate charged with oversight in matters related to the American Indian, Native Hawaiian, and Alaska Native peoples. A Committee on Indian Affairs existed from 1820 to… … Wikipedia
Indianerpolitik der Vereinigten Staaten — Indianerreservate (reservations) in den USA … Deutsch Wikipedia
Native American religion — Traditional Native American religions exhibit a great deal of diversity, largely due to the relative isolation of the different tribes that were spread out across the entire breadth of the North American continent for thousands of years, allowing … Wikipedia