Finingscref|1 are substances that are usually added at or near the completion of the processing of
wine, beerand various nonalcoholic juice beverages. Their purpose is for removal of organic compounds; to either improve clarity or adjust flavor/aroma. Specifically, the removed compounds may be sulfides, proteins, polyphenols, benzenoids, or copper ions. Unless they form a stable bottom sediment in the final container, the spent finings are usually discarded from the beverage along with the target compounds that they capture.
Historically, various substances such as
egg whites, blood, milk, and Irish moss have been used as finings. These are still used by some producers, but more modern substances have also been introduced and are more widely used, including isinglass, bentonite, gelatin, casein, carrageenan, alginate, diatomaceous earth, pectinase, pectolase, PVPP(Polyclar), kieselsol ( colloidal silica), copper sulfate, dried albumen, hydrated yeast, and activated carbon.Fact|date=June 2007
Their actions may be broadly categorized as either
electrostatic, adsorbent, ionic, or enzymatic.
electrostatictypes comprise the vast majority; including all but activated carbon, fining yeast, PVPP, copper sulfate, pectinaseand pectolase. Their purpose is to selectively remove proteins, tannins(polyphenolics) and coloring particles (melanoidins). They must be used as a batch technique, as opposed to flow-through processing methods such as filters. Their particles each have an electric chargewhich is attracted to the oppositely charged particles of the colloidaldispersion that they are breaking. The result is that the two substances become bound as a stable complex; their net charge becoming neutral. Thus the agglomeration of a semi-solid follows, which may be separated from the beverage either as a floating or settled mass.
adsorbenttypes of finings in use are activated carbonand specialized fining yeasts. Although activated carbonmay be implemented as a flow-through filter, it is also commonly utilized as a batch ingredient, which later must be separated and discarded from the beverage. It can completely/partially remove benzenoid compounds and all classes of polyphenolsnon-specifically, decolorizing and deodorizing juices and wines. Traditionally, yeast fining has involved the addition of hydrated yeasts used as adsorptionagents. Consisting of approximately 30% protein, yeast cell walls have a chemical affinitywith wine compounds, such as those that may be polyphenolic or metallic. Indeed, yeast fining is a practical means of removing excess copper ions(greater than 0.5 mg/L) when copper sulfateis used to bind selected volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). [Wine/Enology Notes #85, by Bruce Zoecklein, 22 Jan 2004, Virginia Cooperative Extension Service [http://www.fst.vt.edu/extension/enology/EN/85.html] ]
The ionic finings are
copper sulfateand PVPP. When dissolved in aqueous beverages, copper sulfate's copper ions can chemically bind undesirable sulfides. The resulting complexes must be removed by other finings. The action of PVPPappears to be through the formation of hydrogen bondsbetween its carbonylgroups and the phenolic hydrogens of the polyphenols. It attracts the low molecular weightpolyphenols rather than the condensed tanninsand leucanthocyanins that are removed by gelatin. [Fining & Clarifying Agents, by Terry Rayner [http://www.makewine.com/makewine/fining.html] ]
enzymaticfinings are pectinand pectinase. They aid in destroying the large polysaccharidemolecule named pectin, which otherwise causes haze in fruit wines and juices. They are among the few finings that are added before juices are fermented.
Nutritional and vegetarian concerns
antioxidant flavonoidsare removed by some finings. Quercetinis removed from red wines via the finings gelatin, casein, and PVPPin order to reduce astringentflavors. If other fining methods are used, the quercetinremains in the wine. [Useful Facts About Quercetin [http://www.diet-and-health.net/Supplements/Quercetin.html] ] Similarly the catechinflavonoids are removed by PVPPand other finings that target polyphenolic compounds.
In the absence of "animal products used here" labels,
vegetarians may be unaware that the processing of a commercially produced beverage may have utilized animal based finings: either gelatin, casein, albumen, or isinglass.
* [http://www.fst.vt.edu/extension/enology/EN/46.html Enology Notes #46] , by Bruce Zoecklein, Virginia Cooperative Extension Service, 17 May 2002
* [http://www.fst.vt.edu/extension/enology/downloads/bentonite01.pdf Bentonite Fining of Juice and Wine] , by Bruce Zoecklein, Virginia Cooperative Extension Service, pub. 463-014, 1988
* [http://www.brewerylane.com/finings.html Common Wine and Beer Finings]
* [http://www.ibd.org.uk/igbsite/business/training/files/Timscourses/tech%20summ%20January%20.pdf Colloidal stabilisation of beer] , The Brewer International, Jan 2002
* [http://www.uark.edu/depts/ifse/grapeprog/articles/nmc14wg.pdf Fining Agents for Wine] , by J.R. Morris and G.L. Main, Proceedings of the 14th NM Conference, 1995]
* [http://www.brsquared.org/wine/Articles/fining.htm Fining] , by Ben Rotter
* [http://home.comcast.net/~jimalexander2/Fining.htm Fining Simplified] , by Jim Alexander
* [http://www.gelatin.co.za/fining.htm The Use of Gelatin In Wine Fining] , by C.G.B. Cole
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