- Polish Military Organisation
Polish Military Organisation ( _pl. Polska Organizacja Wojskowa, POW) was a secret military organization created by
Józef Piłsudskiin August 1914, and officially named in November 1914, during World War I. Its tasks were to gather intelligence and sabotage the enemies of the Polish people. It was used by Piłsudski to create a body independent from his cautious Austro-Hungariansupporters, and it was an important, if somewhat lesser known, counterpart to the Polish Legions. Its targets included the Russian Empirein the early phase of the war, and the German Empirelater. Its membership rose from a few hundred members in 1914 to over 30,000 in 1918.
Intelligence and training
The Polish Military Organization (PMO) can be traced to formations of August 1914 or even earlier, but it was officially founded in November 1914, as a merger of two previously-existing youth para-military organisations: the
Drużyny Strzeleckieand the Związek Strzelecki. Active in the Russian-held Kingdom of Poland, the PMO served as the intelligence and sabotagearm of Piłsudski's Polish Legions. In fact, many members of the illegal and secret PMO were at the same time soldiers of the Austrian-backed Polish Legions. The PMO was commanded militarily by Piłsudski himself, while the political command was a secret "A" Convent" headed by Jędrzej Moraczewski.
Initially active only in Central Poland, with time the PMO units were formed in all parts of the former
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, including modern day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraineand Russia. It was mainly preocupied with intelligence and sabotage, as well as military training of its members and acquisition of arms from various armies fighting on Polish soil. The PMO members were seen as the core of the future Polish Army after Poland regains her independence.
After most of Poland became occupied by the
Central Powersin 1915, the PMO became semi-legal and unofficially supported by the German army, which saw it as a useful source of information on Russia and a useful reservoir of skilled officers. However, in July 1917, after the Oath Crisisin the Polish Legions and the arrest of Piłsudski, the PMO returned to the underground and started covert operations against German and Austrian garrisons and supply lines. In place of Piłsudski, who was sent to a German prison in the fortress in Magdeburg, the commander of the PMO became his friend, Edward Rydz-Śmigły, also future Marshal of Poland.
abotage and open fight
With the collapse of the
Central Powersduring the final stages of the Great War, the PMO command decided to take an active part in the war and the organisation went out in the open. In October and November 1918 the revolutions in Germany and Austria-Hungary made the Ober Ostarmy collapse. The German units were struck by mass desertions of soldiers who simply left their posts and headed for their homes. The main tasks of the PMO during this period was to disarm the withdrawing soldiers and escort them to Germany. The campaign was successful and gave the new-born Polish state a large quantity of arms and military equipment. By mid-November, most of garrisons in Galicia surrendered to PMO members and the region became controlled by Poland. The PMO members continued the disarming actions in the former Congress Kingdom as well. Finally, the PMO was the core of Polish defences of the city of Lwówin the Battle of Lwówagainst the attacking forces of the West Ukrainian People's Republic(roughly 400 members in the initial phase of the struggle). In December 1918, the members of the PMO were all conscripted into the newly-reborn Polish Army.
Contrary to the rest of units, the PMO in the Ukraine (most notably the areas controlled by both the Western Ukrainian government and the areas controlled by the
Kyiv-based Directorate and Hetmanate) remained active the Polish withdrawal from Kyiv in July 1920.
In February 1918, a similar organisation was formed in the German-held
Greater Poland. It was modelled after the original PMO and maintained contacts with her predecessor. It assumed the name of "Polish Military Organisation of the Prussian Partition" and its main aim was to liberate the region and attach it to Poland. The members of the PMO became the core of the Greater Polish Army during the Greater Poland Uprising of 1918-1919. After the uprising succeeded, the PMO members were also drafted into the Polish Army, together with other military units fighting in the Uprising.
In February 1919 the PMO was also formed in
Upper Silesia. It had similar tasks to its Greater Polish counterpart and became the core of the Silesian Uprisingsof 1919-1921. Afterwards the members of the PMO members were either demobilised or integrated into the Polish Army or the Polish Intelligence Services.
Lithuania, the PMO was organizing a secret plot to overthrow the legal government and subjugate the reborn Lithuanian state into Poland. The plot was planned to occur in August 1919, but it was uncovered by the Lithuanian State Security Department, and mass arrests followed, thus eliminating the possibility of a coup d'état[cite book|last=Juozas|first =Rainys|title=P.O.W. : (Polska Organizacja Wojskowa) Lietuvoje |publisher=Spaudos fondas|date=1936|location=Kaunas|pages=184] [cite book | last = Julius | first = Būtėnas | authorlink = | coauthors = Mečys Mackevičius | title = Mykolas Sleževičius: advokatas ir politikas | publisher = Lietuvos rašytojų sąjungos leidykla | date = 1995 | location = Vilnius | pages = 263 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=XDg1AAAAMAAJ&pgis=1|isbn =9986-413-31-1] . From the documents stolen in POW headquoters safe in Vilniusand given to Prime Minister of Lithuania Augustinas Voldemarasit is clear, that this plot was directed by Józef Piłsudski himself.cite book | last = Lesčius | first = Vytautas | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Lietuvos kariuomenė nepriklausomybės kovose 1918-1920 | publisher = Vilnius University, Generolo Jono Žemaičio Lietuvos karo akademija| date = 2004 | location = Vilnius | pages = p.269 |sbn = 9955423234 ] A PMO led uprising did occur in Sejnyregion, at the time controlled by Lithuanian forces, and led to Polish forces gaining control over that disputed territory.
*from August 1914 K. Rybasiewicz,
*from October 1914 ppor.
*from August 1915 mjr
*from October 1915 mjr
Polish Military Organization of the Upper Silesia
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