- Parliamentary group
Legislature This series is part of the Politics series
- Legislatures by country
- Chambers of parliament
- Parliamentary system
- City council
Politics Portal · edit
A parliamentary group, parliamentary party, or parliamentary caucus is a group consisting of members of the same political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or a city council. Parliamentary groups correspond to party caucuses and conferences in the United States Congress. A parliamentary group is sometimes called the parliamentary wing of a party, as distinct from its organisational wing.
Generally, parliamentary groups have some independence from the wider party organisations. It is often thought improper for elected MPs to take instructions solely from non-elected party officials or from the small subset of the electorate represented by party members. In any case, the exigencies of government, the need to cooperate with other members of the legislature and the desire to retain the support of the electorate as a whole often preclude strict adherence to the wider party's wishes. The exact relationship between the parliamentary party and the party varies between countries, and also from party to party. For example, in some parties, the parliamentary and organisational leadership will be held by the same person or people, whether ex officio or not; other parties maintain a sharp distinction between the two offices. Nevertheless, in almost all cases, the parliamentary leader is the public face of the party, and wields considerable influence within the organisational wing, whether or not he or she has any official position there.
The term especially applies to Australia and many European countries including, but not restricted to, Germany (where the term Fraktion is used), Switzerland (fraction/Fraktion/frazione), to Austria (Club), Belgium (fractie/fraction/fraktion), Italy (gruppo), Finland (eduskuntaryhmä/riksdagsgrupp), the Netherlands (fractie), and Romania (grup parlamentar), which all have recognized multiparty systems and strong party discipline. In these and many other countries, the only way that parties and MPs can receive financial and personal support and can join parliamentary committees is by organizing themselves in parliamentary groups. Parliamentary group leaders are often important political players. Parties that are not in government often choose the party's political leader as the chairperson. Parliamentary groups often use party discipline to control the votes of their members. MPs can also choose to leave their own party and (sometimes) set up their own parliamentary group.
The political groups of the European Parliament are similar to parliamentary groups. They are more regulated than other kinds of parliamentary groups: to gain financial support or to join committees, each parliamentary group must consist of no less than 19 MEPs from five different EU member states.
A parliamentary group is typically led by a parliamentary group leader or chairperson, though some parliamentary groups have two or more co-leaders. If the parliamentary group is represented in the legislature, the leader is almost always chosen from among the sitting members; if the leader does not yet have a seat in the legislature, a sitting member of the group may be expected to resign to make way for him or her. If the party is not represented in the legislature for the time being, the leader will often be put forward at a general election as the party's candidate for their most winnable seat. In some parties, the leader is elected solely by the members of the parliamentary group; in others, some or all members of the wider party participate in the election. Parliamentary groups often have one or more whips, whose role is to support the leadership by enforcing party discipline.
In the United Kingdom Parliament there exist associations of MPs called all-party parliamentary groups, which bring together members of different parliamentary groups who wish to involve themselves with a particular subject. This term is in a sense the opposite of the term 'parliamentary group', which designates a group that includes only members of the same party or electoral fusion.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Parliamentary group leader — The leader or chairperson of a parliamentary group holds an influential political post in a parliamentary system with strong party discipline. When the party is in opposition or a minor partner in a governing coalition, he or she is often the… … Wikipedia
All-Party Parliamentary Group — An All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) is a grouping in the Parliament of the United Kingdom composed of politicians from all political parties. All Party Parliamentary GroupAPPGs include members of the House of Commons and the House of Lords.… … Wikipedia
Indian Parliamentary Group — The Indian Parliamentary Group is an autonomous body, membership of which is open to all current or former members of the Indian Parliament. It was founded in 1949, following a Motion adopted by the Constituent Assembly on August 16, 1948. Its… … Wikipedia
Palestine All Party Parliamentary Group — is a bipartisan All Party Parliamentary Group of Members of Parliament in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The group s Chairman is Richard Burden, Vice Chair is Crispin Blunt, and secretary is Brian Iddon.… … Wikipedia
All Party Parliamentary Group for Learning & Skills in the Criminal Justice System — The All Party Parliamentary Group for Learning Skills in the Criminal Justice system was a committee of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was founded by Baroness Veronica Linklater and Lord David Ramsbotham in September 2005. It was… … Wikipedia
Independent Parliamentary Group — The Independent Parliamentary Group was a right wing political organisation in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1920 by Horatio Bottomley, elected in the 1918 UK general election as an independent Member of Parliament.In 1919, Bottomley… … Wikipedia
America All Party Parliamentary Group — The America All Party Parliamentary Group is a cross party group consisting of members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, whose purpose is to prompt friendly relations and mutual understanding between members of [United States Congress|… … Wikipedia
All-Party Parliamentary Group on Roma Affairs — United Kingdom. Est. 2003. Spokesperson: Paul Stinchcombe, MP. The group was set up in 2003 to alert the British government to the Third World living conditions of Roma Gypsies in the European Union accession countries of central and eastern… … Historical dictionary of the Gypsies
All-Party Parliamentary Group on Traveller Law Reform — United Kingdom. Est. 2001. Chairperson: Kevin McNamara, MP. The group, in accordance with House of Commons rules, is composed of MPs from the Labour, Conservative, and Liberal parties. Its stated purpose is to effect the social inclusion of… … Historical dictionary of the Gypsies
Parliamentary groups of the Parliament of Catalonia — The parliamentary groups of the Parliament of Catalonia(Catalan: grups parlamentaris ) are groups of deputies in the Parliament of Catalonia organized by political party or by coalition of parties. Their function is both political and… … Wikipedia