- Submarine aircraft carrier
Submarine aircraft carriers are submarines equipped with
fixed wing aircraftfor observation or attack missions. These submarines saw their most extensive use during World War II, although their operational significance remained rather small. The most famous of them were the Japanese I-400 class submarineand the French submarine "Surcouf", although a few similar craft were built by other nations' navies as well.
It should be noted that those submarine aircraft carriers which were actually built used their aircraft in a supporting role (usually for scouting), unlike the typical surface
aircraft carrier, which describes a ship whose "main" function is serving as a base for combat aircraft. However, both real concepts and many fictional submarine aircraft carriers were created with the same role.
Early history (WWI)
Germanywas the first nation to experiment with submarine aircraft carriers, inspired by the Imperial German Naval Air Service commander Oberleutnant zur See Friedrich von Arnauld de la Perriére. He commanded a unit of two reconnaissance seaplanes ( Friedrichshafen FF.29s) in Zeebruggewhich had been recently occupied by the Imperial German Armyin the early months of World War I. One of the first U-Boats to arrive at the Zeebrugge base was Kapitanleutnant Walther Forstmann's U-12, which was to play the role of submarine aircraft carrier.
Forstmann ordered the modification of the unarmed
FF-29seaplanes so they could carry 26 1/2 pound bombs. This unit made history when on Christmas Day, 1914, one of its newly modified aircraft flew across the English Channeland up the River Thames, dropping its bombs on the outskirts of Londonwhere they did little damage. Although chased for a time by three British interceptors, it returned to base safely. On this first ever bombing mission it became apparent that the aircraft suffered more from fuel problems and lack of range than from British defences.
Later encouraged by this success, Arnauld and Forstmann theorized that they could effectively increase the range of their seaplanes by taking the aircraft to the sea on the deck of submarine and placing it in a takeoff position, then launching the planes after the sub partially submerged, allowing the plane to float off. On
January 15, 1915the U-12 left their Zeebrugge base transporting one bomb-armed FF-29 on its deck. The submarine left the harbor, seemingly dwarfed by the 53-foot-2-inch wingspan of the fixed wing aircraft, which stretched almost one-third of the 188-foot length of the small coastal patrol submarine. After U-12 had left the safety of the breakwater, however, the captain realized that the heavy swells they were encountering might swamp the aircraft and endanger the operation, he ordered the immediate launch of the seaplane.
Forstmann flooded the sub's forward tanks and despite the pitching of the boat, Arnauld in command, floated the seaplane off the deck's surface without much difficulty and took off. He had originally intended to rendezvous with the sub, but later decided against it. After gaining sufficient altitude, Arnauld's plane left for the British coast. The German officer apparently flew along the English coastline undetected and then made his way back to occupied Zeebrugge. The experiment had been successful, inasmuch as the aircraft had been carried out to sea and safety floated off the submarine's deck. However, it was obvious that some improvements were needed in the procedure and setup.
Arnauld and Forstmann proposed further development experiments to the German Naval Command, but were vetoed as their project was considered technically impracticable. The plans were kept on ice until 1917, when they were reinvestigated in the hope that they would increase the striking power of new German subs such as the long-range cruise type Unterseeboots, which were to be equipped with aircraft for scouting purposes - little seaplanes that could be quickly assembled and dismantled on board and kept in special compartments on deck - but the idea was eventually abandonded as the war came to an end.
Two of the aircraft designs created for that purpose were the biplane
Hansa Brandenburg W.20and low-wing monoplane Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft L.F.G. Stralsund V.19. The first type was designed in 1917 for use aboard the Cruiser submarines that never went into service. The second model was an experimental plane of the flimsiest construction for use in the calmest of seas.
The British, too, experimented with the aircraft carrier submarine concept when HM Submarine E22 was fitted out in a manner similar to the German U-Boat. It was to be capable of launching its two
Sopwith Schneider/ Sopwith Babyfloatplanes in 1916. However, just as in the German experiment, the aircraft were carried outside and the submarine could not submerge without losing them.
World War I / Post WWI examples
"Surcouf" was a French
submarineordered to be built in December 1927, launched 18 October 1929, and commissioned May 1934. At 4,000 tons displacement submerged the "Surcouf" was the largest submarine in the world at the start of World War II. Her short wartime career is laced with controversy and conspiracy theories.
"Surcouf" was designed as an "underwater
cruiser," intended to seek and engage in surface combat. For the first part of that mission, it carried an observation float plane in a hangar built into the after part of the conning tower; for the second part, it was armed with not only twelve torpedo tubes but also a twin eight-inch (203 mm) gun turret forward of the conning tower. The guns were fed from a magazine holding 60 rounds and controlled by a director with a 16.5-foot (5 m) rangefinder, mounted high enough to view a seven-mile horizon. In theory, the observation plane could direct fire out to the guns' 15 mile (24 km) maximum range. Anti-aircraft cannon and machine guns were mounted on the top of the hangar.
The Regia Marina "(Italian Navy)" developed, in the late 1920s, the "Ettore Fieramosca", a submarine with a waterproof hangar for a small reconnaissance plane. They gave commissions to the Italian aircraft manufacturers
Macchiand Piaggiofor two prototypes. The Macchi M.53and the Piaggio P.8were developed by 1928, but the program for an Italian aircraft-carrying submarine was cancelled, and the hangar was removed from the submarine in December 1931, before the "Ettore Fieramosca" was delivered to the Italian navy.
After the loss of the heavy gun carrying HMS "M1" and the limitations imposed on submarine armament by the
Washington Naval Treatyin 1922 the remaining M-class submarines were converted to other uses. By 1928 the "M2" had been fitted with a waterproof hangar and steam catapultand could launch and recover a small seaplane. The submarine and her plane could then act as a reconnaissance unit ahead of the fleet. The M2 herself was lost in 1932 and plane launching submarines were abandoned by the Royal Navy.
The concept was studied in the
United Statessince 1922. The American government purchased two Caspar-Heinkel U-1disarmable seaplanes for detachment to Anacostia Naval Stationfor evaluation and testing. Later one aircraft was lost during an exhibition flight in 1923, but this provided useful technical information.
U.S. Navyaccepted the construction of 12 submarine-based aircraft at different private enterprises like Cox-Klemm Aircraft(from New York) with their Cox-Klemm XS-1design (1 prototype and 5 pre-production aircraft) and another six were ordered from Glenn L. Martin Company(from Baltimore) with their design Glenn Martin MS-1, both small disarmable seaplanes.
Both models were tested in submarine S-1 during October and November 1923. Later the Cox-Klemm company attempted to develop its design with an
XS-2model, but the Navy lost interest in the concept. In 1931 another similar concept was born when Loening Aircraft Engineering Corporationpresented its design Loening XSL-1Amphibian flying boat for submarine trials aboard the S-1, but this concept was never accepted by the submarine service.
News that the British submarine HMS "M2" had sunk during aircraft launching trials during 1933, and damage to the XSL-2 during aquatic testings in the
Anacostiariver area, caused the whole idea of submarine-borne aircraft to be abandoned by the U.S. Navy.
World War II / Post WWII examples
Kriegsmarinealso started development of submarines capable of launching aircraft and ordered 4 very large "cruiser" U-boats in early 1939. These boats were to be twice as large as any existing U-boat and have a crew of 110. They were intended to carry a single Arado Ar 231aircraft, but were canceled at the outbreak of war later that year.
Type IX D 2-"Monsun"
Other German long range U-boat was the Type IX D2 "Monsun", used in the Indian Ocean and Far East Area based in Penang (Occupied Malaya) during wartime. To aid such submarines the "Autogyro-Glider" Observation vehicle
Focke-Achgelis Fa 330"Bachstelze" (Water Wagtail) was developed. This vehicle was used in the Indian Ocean and sporadically in the Southern Atlantic, since May-June 1942.
Another plan was the use of
Flettner Fl 282A "Kolibri" Disarmable recon-helicopter version from long range submarines.
Such project implied the special disarmable one-place helicopter design were its fuselage was manufactured of welded steel tubing that was sized so that it could be stowed with rotor blades and landing gear removed in a compact area (5.9 ft. in diameter by 18 ft. long) and its pressured hangar for carriage in the U-boat plan.
There is no evidence that any Fl 282 "Kolibri" was deployed on a German submarine in wartime.
The Japanese applied the concept of the submarine aircraft carrier extensively. Altogether 47 submarines were built with the capability to carry seaplanes. Most IJN submarine aircraft carriers could carry only one aircraft, though a few types could carry two, and the giant I-400 class submarines could carry 3.
B1 Type (20 units)
The B1 Type ("I-15" Series) submarines ("I-15", "I-17", "I-19", "I-21", "I-23", "I-25", "I-26", "I-27", "I-28", "I-29", "I-30", "I-31", "I-32", "I-33", I-34, "I-35", "I-36", "I-37", "I-38", "I-39") were the most numerous type of submarines of the
Imperial Japanese Navyduring World War II. In total, 20 were made, starting with number "I-15", which became the name of the series. These submarines were fast, had a very long range, and carried a single Yokosuka E14Yseaplane, located in a hangar in front of the conning tower, which was launched by a catapult.
The series was rather successful, especially at the beginning of the war. In 1942, "I-26" crippled the aircraft carrier USS "Saratoga". "I-19", on
15 September 1942, fired six torpedoes at the aircraft carrier USS "Wasp", two of which hit the carrier and crippled it, with the remaining torpedoes damaging the battleship USS "North Carolina" and the destroyer USS "O'Brian" which sank later. "I-25" conducted the only aerial bombings ever on the continental United States in September 1942, when an aircraft launched from it attacked the town of Brookings, Oregon.
AM Type (I-13,I-14)
The AM (A Modified) type submarine was a large seaplane-carrying submarine, with a hangar space for 2 aircraft. These giant submarines were originally of the A2 type, but their design was revised after construction started so that they could carry a second aircraft. The seaplanes were to be the
Aichi M6A1 bomber carrying 800 kg bombs.
The range and speed of these submarines was remarkable (21,000 nmi at 16 knots), but their underwater performance was compromised, making them easy targets. "I-13" was sunk on
16 July 1945by the destroyer escort USS|Lawrence C. Taylor|DE-415 and aircraft action from the escort carrier USS "Anzio" about 550 miles east of Yokosuka. "I-14" surrendered at sea at the end of the war, and was later scrapped.
entoku Type (I-400, I-401, I-402)
The I-400 class submarine displaced 6,500 tons and was over 400 feet (120 m) long, three times the size of ordinary submarines. It had a figure-eight hull shape for additional strength to handle the on-deck hangar for housing the three "Seiran" aircraft. In addition, it had four anti-aircraft guns and a large deck cannon as well as eight torpedo tubes from which they could fire the
Long Lance- the largest, longest ranged and most deadly torpedo in use at the time.
Three of the Sen Toku were built, the I-400, I-401, and I-402. Each had four 3,000
horsepower(2.2 MW) engines and enough fuel to go around the world one-and-a-half times, more than enough to reach the United States from either direction.
The submarines were also able to carry three "Sei ran"
aircraft(the Aichi M6A), each carrying an 800 kilogram (1,760 lb) bomb 650 miles (1000 km) at 360 miles per hour (580 km/h). Its name was combination of "sei" (clear sky) and "ran" (storm), literally “storm out of a clear sky,” because the Americans would not know they were coming. It had a wing span of 40 feet (12 m) and a length of 38 feet (11.6 m). To fit the aircraft into the hangar the wings of the aircraft were folded back, the horizontal stabilizers folded down, and the top of the vertical stabilizer folded over so the overall profile of the aircraft was within the diameter of its propeller. A crew of four could prepare and get all three airborne in 45 minutes, launching them with a 120-foot (37 m) catapulton the fore deck of the giant submarine.
There are no submarine carriers in use today, but several concepts exist that could provide a design in the future, allowing an attack force to move entirely underwater, attack without warning, and vanish again. There is/has been a research project for the US Navy, in its changes to the
Ohio class submarinefrom SSBNs to SSGNs, to develop a UAV that resides in and launches from one of the tubes; this UAV is supposed to also be recoverable and presumably reusable.Fact|date=June 2007
Fictional submarine aircraft carriers
List of undersea-carried planes during World War II
* Terry C. Treadwell, Strike from beneath the Sea: A History of Aircraft Carrying Submarine, Tempus Publishing, Limited, 1999
* [http://www.combinedfleet.com/type_am.htm Type AM submarine]
* [http://www.hazegray.org/navhist/carriers/odd/index2.htm Aviation Oddities]
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